012 3456789:; ?'(@ab - 中部大学 総合情報セン … (500-2000 ngm-3): hooc-(ch2) n-cooh + 9 q...

of 28/28
!"#$%&’()*+,-./ 01"2"3456789:;<=> ?’(@AB CDE(ABF3G9HIJK LHIMN’(ABOP QRST !"#$%&’() +,,-./.0- (20 min)

Post on 29-May-2019

222 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

!"#$%&'()*+,-./01"2"3456789:;

?'(@AB

CDE(ABF3G9HIJKLHIMN'(ABOP

QRST

!"#$%&'()*+,,-./.0- (20 min)

MNUV:;

Z[MNUV\]^_`ab=MN'(WXYcdef]^!"#$%&)*+,-./g>?HIh&ijklm

no0>?!"#$%LpqgrsgG9gtuPgvw/3xvw/]^_gyz{"gG9|}_

"~#0LP!"#$%&]^JL"%jgg"%{%gCJ2%jg%{jgvw/3xvw/]^*JP&dg_3_&MN\&>?+'(@LP>?!"#$%&'()*[email protected]/L,-/3P+&ag]^!"#$%&3?h&

J0gl#mgJgJgJgijl#mg3Jg&,-./LjDMAP

(a) Oxalic acid (C2)

COOHCOOH HOOC

COOH COOH

(b) Malonic acid (C3)

(c) Succinic acid (C4) (d) Glutaric acid (C5)

HOOC

HOOCHOOC

COOH

COOH

H3C

(e) Methylmaleic acid (mM)

CJ2%j,'(g/, (CCN),*g7&g?

#j

{l %%

%ij

NOAA R/V Ron Brown, photo by B. Huebert

456789>?:;

ACE-Asia)LgNCAR C-130, B. J. Huebert&P

!"#$%&'

()#*+,*-#.#&

/#0','0*10)#&

April 29, 2001RF15

0

200

400

600

800

1000

8 11 12 13 17 18 20 23 24 25 29 30 1 2 4

C2di

C3di

C4di

C5di

Co

nce

ntr

atio

ns,

ng

/m3

March/May, 2001

RF 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Date

RF15

5

RF16

April/May, 2001 (Kawamura et al., JGR,2003)

2002/03 Winter

2003 Summer 2004 Spring

Yun-5 airplane and sampling inlets

0 100 200 300 400 500

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

C2

!"#"$%&'(")"&*+'*%,"-#"*'.$$%+"

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

C3

(k

m)

, ngm-3

!"#$%(2003 summer)

(k

m)

2%j/2

0 1 2 3 4 5

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

C3

Diacids (500-2000 ngm-3): HOOC-(CH2)n-COOH

& CCN

Mass chromatogram of normal alkanes (C16-C35)

(Carbon Preference Index: CPI):1234CPI = 1.160.12, 1.170.14CPI=1, CPI= ~10, CPI=1.5)

Higher Plant WaxC29

C31

C33

Fossil Fuel Combustion

56

78

9:

(c) PAHs

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Phe

An

tr

Flu

Pyr

BF

BaA

Chr

Bb

F

BkF

BeP

BaP

Per

IP

DB

A

BghiP

An

tt

Cor

DB

P

summer

winter

In summer BbF is the most abundant PAH, except for Hong Kong, Xiamen

and Jinchang. In winter BbF was the dominant in all the fourteen cities.

BbF is characteristic PAH produced by coal combustion in China.

IP and BghiP were generally the second highest PAHs in both seasons.

Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (IP) Benzo(ghi)perylene(BghiP)Benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF)

PAHsBbF:

! IP/BghiP ratio

: 0.22, : 0.50, : 1.3 (Grimmer et al, 1983; Yassaa et al, 2001)

! IP/BghiP in the fourteen cities

:0.75 to 2.66 (1.15 0.50) : 0.98 to 1.37 (1.15 0.12)

Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (IP)

Benzo(ghi)perylene(BghiP)

Spatial and seasonal distributions of PAHs:winter and midwest maximum

Levoglucosan%{jLi&mP

Levoglucosan is a dominant sugar in the Chinese aerosolsand at least 10 times more abundant than any other sugars.Concentrations: winter >> summer. In addition to coal,biofuels (woods etc) are still common energy source inChina. Levoglucosan is very hygroscopic and can act asCCN.

OO

CH2OH

O

OH

OH

O

n

O

HO OHHO

Pyrolysis

Cellulose Levoglucosan

;

[email protected]=>

ABCDEFG(CCN)

H2O

[email protected]=>ABCDE2HIJKLMNOPQ2RSTUV2WXKH2YZK[\2]^_`aE

H2O

`:'

H2O

(?\)

>&H2O3

!"#$%&,-./c=

Hygroscopicity-Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA)

*Fb2cdefghij

*Dp=10k400 nm ld

*=>ABCDEFG2mnopnijqrs

tuvmnwcx

100nmypzFGh{|}w

c}FG2J~}ypzij}J

~2

DMA1DMA2

%{j&,-./

Meta-stable

supersaturated condition

**Unsaturated**condition

DRH

DRH = 80 % RH

Levoglucosan Particle

- Hydration

Daytime samples

0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

0 20 40 60 80 100

RH%

LW

C

June 29, 2005

MIS/(MIS+WSOM)=0.30

June 30, 2005

MIS/(MIS+WSOM)=0.74

&

n-LP

!"#$%LP_cJ!"g#w$%&(100 nm)&n-+&a

]^_'

(^_'

!)*&+,>?-.g/]^g01g-.]^_LPAHP12gLA&1034

!5+i&`678g9:&;?

[email protected]&ABgCDV

!""g2%j0>=?-.