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1 Lecture 1 1. Phonetics vs. Phonology 2. How speech sounds are produced? 3. Consonants Definition Classification - According to place of articulation - According to manner of articulation - According to voicing Describing consonants Identifying consonants

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    Lecture 11. Phonetics vs. Phonology

    2. How speech sounds are produced?

    3. Consonants

    Definition

    Classification- According to place of articulation

    - According to manner of articulation

    - According to voicing Describing consonants

    Identifying consonants

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    Phonetics vs. Phonology

    1. Phonetics: is the linguistic science that studies speech

    sounds: the way in which they are produced (uttered,

    articulated), the way in which they are perceived, theirphysical characteristics, etc. The questions that

    Phonetics answer are:

    What sounds occur in human languages? How these speech sounds are made?

    What physical properties do they have?

    In what way can speech sound similar to, or different

    from, other speech sounds?

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    Phonetics vs. Phonology There are three main areas of Phonetics

    a. Articulatory phonetics: is the study of how speech soundsare produced using the articulators - the parts of the body

    involved in producing speech sounds.b. Acoustic phonetics, which is also considered a branch of

    physics, involves the study of the speech signals (the

    sound waves produced when a speaker speaks). In otherwords, it deals with the transmission of speech soundsthrough the air.

    c. Auditory phonetics, which is also considered a branch of

    physiology, is the study of how speech signal is sensed inthe auditory canal and interpreted by the relevant parts ofthe brain. In other words, it deals with how speech soundsare perceived by the listener.

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    Phonetics vs. Phonology

    2. Phonology is the study or description of the distinctive

    sound units (phonemes) of a language and their

    relationship to one another. It involves studying alanguage to determine its distinctive sounds and to

    establish a set of rules that describe the set of changes

    that take place in these sounds when they occur indifferent relationships with other sounds. The subject of

    phonology includes the following areas:

    a. Study of the phonemic system.b. Phoneme sequences and syllable structure.

    c. Suprasegmental phonology (stress, intonation).

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    Articulatory PhoneticsThe speech organs / articulators

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    Articulatory PhoneticsThe speech organs / articulators

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    How are speech sounds produced?

    When we are making sounds, the air from the lungs

    comes up through the wind-pipe and arrives first at

    the larynx. Then it goes through the vocal cords intothe pharynx and up the pharynx to the uvula. At this

    point, it may go in either way. It may go into the oral

    cavity (if the soft palate is raised) and go out of the

    mouth. Or it may go into the nasal tract (if the soft

    palate is lowered) and get out through the nostrils.

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    How are speech sounds produced?1. How are oral sounds produced?

    In the process of making sounds, at the uvula if the soft

    palate is raised, blocking off the nasal tract, the airstreamcan only go into the oral tract and go out of the mouth,

    then we have oral sounds.

    e.g. /g/, /s/, //

    2. How are nasal sounds produced?

    In the process of making sounds, if the air-stream is

    blocked somewhere in the oral cavity but the soft palate is

    lowered so that the air-stream can get into the nasal tractand get out through the nostrils, then we have nasal

    sounds.

    e.g. / m/, /n/, / /

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    How are speech sounds produced?

    3. How are consonant sounds produced?

    When we are making sounds, if two articulators come

    together, obstructing the air-stream and the air-stream

    cannot get out freely, we have consonant sounds

    e.g. / k/, /f/, /b/, /m/

    4. How are vowel sounds produced?

    When we are making sounds, if there is no obstruction to

    the flow of air as it passes from the larynx to the lips andthe air can get out freely, then we have vowel sounds.

    e.g. / /, //, //, //

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    How are speech sounds produced?

    5. How are voiced sounds produced?

    When we are producing sounds, the air-stream goesthrough the vocal cords. If the vocal cords come together,

    obstructing the air-stream, the air-stream cannot get outthrough them freely and it makes them vibrate, then wehave voiced sounds.

    e.g. /d/, /v/, /m/6. How are voiceless sounds produced?

    When we are making sounds, the air-stream goes throughthe vocal cords. If the vocal cords come apart, they areopen. The air-stream can go out through them freely and itdoes not make them vibrate, then we have voicelesssounds.

    e.g. /s/, /t/, //

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    Consonants

    1. Definition: Consonants are the sounds in the

    production of which one articulator moves towards

    another or two articulators come together, obstructingthe air-stream and the air-stream cant get out freely.

    2. Classification:

    In order to form consonants, the air-stream through

    the vocal cords must be obstructed in some way.

    Therefore, consonants can be classified according to

    the place where the air-stream is obstructed (the

    place of articulation) and the way in which the air-

    stream is obstructed (the manner of articulation).

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    13Vocal cordsGlottal

    Soft palate + tongueVelar

    Hard palate + tonguePalatal

    Join of hard palate & alveolar ridge + tonguePalato -alveolar

    Back of alveolar ridge + tongueRetroflex

    Alveolar ridge + tongueAlveolar

    Teeth + tongueDental

    Lower lip + upper teethLabio-dental

    Upper lip + lower lipBilabial

    ExamplesArticulatorsPlaces

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    1. Bilabials: are the sounds made with the two lips pressed

    together or coming together.e.g.

    2. Labio-dentals: are the sounds which are produced withthe lower lip touching the upper front teeth.

    e.g.

    3. Dentals: are the sounds which are produced with the tipor blade of the tongue touching the upper front teeth.

    e.g.

    4. Alveolars: are the sounds which are produced with the tipor blade of the tongue touching or approaching the

    alveolar ridge.e.g.

    5. Retroflex: is the sound which is produced with the tip ofthe tongue curling back towards the back of the alveolar

    ridge.

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    6. Palato - alveolars: are the sounds which are produced

    with the tongue tip or blade coming close to the areabetween the back of the alveolar ridge and the front of the

    hard palate.

    e.g.7. Palatal: is the sound which is produced with the front of

    the tongue coming close to the hard palate.

    e.g.8. Velars: are the sounds which are produced with the back

    of the tongue touching the soft palate.

    e.g.9. Glottals: are the sounds which are produced without the

    active use of the tongue and other parts of the mouth.

    e.g.

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    According to manner of articulation

    Manner of articulation is the way in whichthe air-stream is obstructed or altered in the

    production of speech sounds. It describesthe types of obstruction caused by thenarrowing or closure of the articulators.

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    Slight narrowing, not enough to causefriction

    Approximant

    Closure in centre of mouth, airescapes down sidesLateral

    Closure, then slow separationAffricate

    Narrowing, resulting in audible frictionFricative

    Complete closure in the mouth, airescapes through nose

    Complete closureOral

    Stop

    Nasal

    ExamplesMovement of Articulators

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    1. Stops: are the sounds in the production of which there is

    a complete closure of the articulators involved so that theair-stream cant escape through the mouth. There are two

    kinds of stops:

    a. Oral stops (Plosives): are the sounds which areproduced with the air-stream being stopped in the oral

    cavity and the soft palate is raised blocking off the nasal

    cavity. Then the two articulators come apart quickly andthe air escapes through the oral tract.

    e.g.

    b. Nasal stops (Nasals): they are produced with the air-stream being stopped in the oral cavity but the soft palate

    is down so that the air can go out through the nose.

    e.g.

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    Notes: Although both oral stops and nasal stops can be

    classified as stops, the term stop itself is almost usedby phoneticians to indicate an oral stop, and the term

    nasal to indicate a nasal stop.

    2. Fricatives: are the sounds in the production of which twoarticulators come close together but there is still a small

    opening between them so the air-stream is partially

    obstructed and an audible friction noise (a hissing sound)is produced.

    e.g.

    Notes: Fricatives are continuants consonants which

    means that you can continue making them as long as you

    have enough air in your lungs.

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    3. Affricates: are the sounds which are produced when a

    stop is immediately followed by a fricative.e.g.

    4. Lateral: is the sound which is made when the air-stream

    is obstructed at a point along the centre of the oral tract,with incomplete closure between one or both sides of the

    tongue and the roof of the mouth.

    e.g.

    5. Approximants: are the sounds in the production of which

    two articulators come close together but without the vocal

    tract being narrowed to such an extent that a friction noise

    is produced.

    e.g.

    Notes: Approximants are called frictionless continuants.

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    According to voicing.

    1. Voiced consonants: are produced when the vocal

    cords are vibrating.

    e.g.

    2. Voiceless consonants: are produced when the

    vocal cords are not vibrating.

    e.g.

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    Fortis and lenis A voiced/voiceless pair such as /s/ and /z/ are distinguished

    not only by the presence or absence of voice but also by thedegree of breath and muscular effort involved in thearticulation. It is generally said that those English

    consonants which are usually voiced tend to be articulatedwith relatively weak energy, whereas those which arealways voiceless are relatively strong. Thus, the voiceless

    consonants are sometimes called fortis meaning strong,and the voiceless consonants in opposition are then calledlenis meaning weak.

    Fortis consonants have the effect of shortening a preceding

    vowel. The effect is most noticeable in the case of longvowels and diphthong, though it does also affect shortvowels.

    E.g. See seed seat

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    Describing English consonants

    The description includes the following information:

    a. Voicing

    b. Place of articulationc. Manner of articulation

    e.g. /s/: voiceless alveolar fricative

    /n/: voiced alveolar nasal

    /f/:

    /t/:

    //:

    /j/:

    /g/:

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    Identifying English consonants

    A description is given and you have to identify which

    sound is being described.

    e.g.Voiced velar nasal: / /

    voiceless palato-alveolar fricative: //

    voiced bilabial stop:voiced labio-dental fricative:

    voiced alveolar lateral:

    voiceless palato-alveolar affricate:

    voiced dental fricative: