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  • Slide 1
  • 1 Terrorism & Political Violence Topic One Definitions & Ideologies William Eric Davis All Rights Reserved
  • Slide 2
  • 2 Lecture Outline I. Levels of Analysis II. The various definitions of terrorism and lack of consensus definition. III. The Ideologies of Terrorists. IV. [A] POLITICAL and POLICY-BASED IDEOLOGIES IV. [B] RELIGIOUS EXTREMIST IDEOLOGIES IV. [C] Continuing Criminal Enterprises (Cashism) V. Common Characteristics of Terrorist Groups VI. Terrorist Areas of Operation VII. Support Structures VIII. Terror Group Organizational Structures IX. Command and Control X. Discussion Questions
  • Slide 3
  • 3 Psychopathic A person is psychopathic when he or she has lost touch with reality. Psychopaths are living out a fantasy. An example includes a person who thinks that they are an angel doing Gods work. Not all terrorists are psychopaths. In fact, few are.
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  • 4 Sociopathic A person is sociopathic when he or she demands immediate gratification of desires. They have become intolerant toward delay of goals. Sociopaths want immediate gratification of whatever it is they want. Their objective is taken as a given (neither rational nor irrational) but they demand immediate satisfaction and will destroy anything or anyone that is a barrier to gratification. Not all terrorists are sociopaths, but most are.
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  • 5 INSANITY (Legal Definition) A person is legally insane (as opposed to clinically insane) when he or she does NOT know that the crime he or she did was morally wrong. They no longer know the difference between right and wrong.
  • Slide 6
  • 6 Maximillen Robespierre Maximillen Robespierre, a leader of the French Revolution, who coined the term terrorism. He did not invent the strategy or tactics of terror, but, he did institute the famous Reign of Terror (Regime de Terreur) as part of the French revolution and the new revolutionary government.
  • Slide 7
  • 7 The Death of Marat by Jacques-Louis David
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  • 8 What is Terror? Definition: Terror is an emotional state of intense fear caused by specific acts of violence or threats of violence. It (deliberately or otherwise) inhibits or destroys the ability of individuals to function in a society and possibly the societies ability to function as a whole. It refers to a physical or physiological reaction.
  • Slide 9
  • 9 The Components of Terrorism? Terrorism has 3 basic (but required) components: 1. An act or threat of violence. 2. An emotional reaction. 3. Social effects.
  • Slide 10
  • 10 F.B.I. Definition of Terrorism The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives. [Problems: there may be only a threat of violence or force, and there may be no political or social demands (objectives)].
  • Slide 11
  • 11 US State Department Definition Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against non- combatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience. [Problems = terror groups without political motivations are excluded. No substantive motivation(s)].
  • Slide 12
  • 12 US Department of Defense Definition The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear, intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological. [Problem = better, but too vague. Excludes physiological and psychological goals. What does calculated mean?].
  • Slide 13
  • 13 U.S. D.o.D. Directive 2000.12H The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to attain goals-political, religious, or ideological in nature-by instilling fear or using intimidation or coercion. Terrorism involves a criminal act, often symbolic in nature, intended to influence an audience beyond the immediate victims. [Problem = it leaves out physiological and psychological goals].
  • Slide 14
  • 14 United States Legal Code Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against non-combatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents. [Problem = nations and governments can be terrorists too, not just sub-national groups. We call it state terrorism].
  • Slide 15
  • 15 United Nations (UN) Description Terrorism is a unique form of crime. Terrorist acts often contain elements of warfare, politics and propaganda. For security reasons and due to a lack of popular support, terrorist organizations are usually small, making detection and infiltration difficult. Although the goals of terrorists are sometimes shared by wider constituencies, their methods are generally abhorred. [Problem = too vague and does not produce a workable typology. The methods are also often admired by those who benefit from them].
  • Slide 16
  • 16 British Government Definition Terrorism is the use of serious violence against persons or property, or the threat to use such violence, to intimidate or coerce a government, the public, or any section of the public for political, religious or ideological ends. The terms serious violence would need to be defined so that it included serious disruption, for instance resulting from attacks on computer installations or public utilities. Problem how to distinguish this from criminal acts? How do we know if their motivation was political, religious, or ideological or not?]
  • Slide 17
  • 17 Russian Federation Law 130 FZ Terrorism is violence or the threat of violence against individuals or organizations, and also the destruction (damaging) of or threat to destroy (damage) property and other material objects, such as threaten to cause loss of life, significant damage to property, or other socially dangerous consequences and are implemented with a view to violating public security, intimidating the population, or influencing the adoption of decisions advantageous to terrorists by organs of power, or satisfying their unlawful material and (or) other interests; attempts on the lives of statesmen or pubic figures perpetrated with a view to ending their state or other political activity or out of revenge for such activity; attacks on representatives of foreign states or staffers of international organization enjoying international protection, and also on the official premises or vehicles of persons enjoying international protection if these actions are committed with a view to provoking war or complicating international relations.
  • Slide 18
  • 18 The Terrorist Recognition Handbook Terrorism is the calculated use of criminal violence or threat of violence by a covert or overt individual, group, entity, special-interest organization, or government agency specifically designed to target people, commerce, and/or infrastructures. [Problem/Comments It includes government agencies, but this definition could include warfare that the Geneva Convention considers legitimate warfare].
  • Slide 19
  • 19 William Eric Davis An act or threat of physical violence to persons or property, motivated either by values, political objectives, or psychic rewards (like revenge); directed against property or persons that are not objectively culpable for grievances or not in a position to redress the perpetrators grievances directly (e.g., unarmed civilians); where the violence is expected to have far-reaching psychological repercussions (including intense fear) beyond the immediate victim or target of violence. -The Road to Evil- [Forthcoming]
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  • 20 Does the US fit Definition?
  • Slide 21
  • 21 Some People Consider this Guy to be a Terrorist IS HE?
  • Slide 22
  • 22 GENOCIDE versus MASS KILLING GENOCIDE = political violence motivated by a desire to exterminate an entire group of people based on their race, religion, or beliefs. MASS MURDER = the killing of a lot of people, but not intended to make them (and their race or religion) extinct.
  • Slide 23
  • 23 There is possibly only 1 way to enforce a definition of terrorism. It is this Those who violate the definition of terrorism forfeit their right to have rights. The Geneva Convention on Human Rights should not apply to terrorists because they do not respect the rules themselves.
  • Slide 24
  • 24 The Spock Principle The needs of the many outweigh the needs of the few, or the one. Mr. Spock Star Trek II: The Wrath of Kahn: Paramount Pictures, 1982. This collectivism principle has often been used to justify political violence and terrorism.
  • Slide 25
  • 25 Civilization In the most comprehensive sense civilization means a regime (society, system and processes) where disputes are resolved peacefully and all participants are willing to accept a loss if they feel they lost fairly. This, interestingly, implies democratic government. Democracy is not fair, but it is fairer than any alternative because it allows the many to decide the needs of the many, rather than a small elite doing it.
  • Slide 26
  • 26 Ideology Definition An ideology is a conception of the ideal social order. Ideologies are born of crisis and feed on conflict. People seeking to comprehend and cope with turbulent times and confusing circumstances turn to ideologies for explanations and for programs of a

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