1 the scientific method what is the scientific method?
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The Scientific MethodWhat is the Scientific Method?
When scientists want to learn more about the world around them or need to solve a
problem they use the scientific method.
The Scientific Method
The scientific method is a process for experimentation that is used to explore observations and answer questions.
Design an experiment so that changes to one item cause something else to change in a predictable way. (cause and effect relationships)
Using your five senses to perceive objects or events.
Step 1- Asking a QuestionIdentify the Problem
Based on observations; one or more questions are generated
What is the problem that needs to be solved?
Will a plant grow more if given fertilizer?
Step 2- What is Your Background Knowledge or Do Research What do you already know about the topic? If you know nothing about the topic then do
research to learn more.1. Internet2. Library3. Interviews4. Etc.
There are different types of plants. They grow in different places. Some plants create edible fruits and vegetables. Some are poisonous. Plants need sun and water to grow.
Step 3-Form a Hypothesis
A possible answer to our problem that we can use to develop an experiment.
Must be testable.
Many hypotheses must be revised and then retested.
The Hypothesis- Often written in the form of an “if-then”
statement The if part has the independent variable, the
part that will be changed to find an answer. The then part has the dependent variable,
the what will happen because of that change. The because is your reason why you think
this will happen. If a plant is given fertilizer then it will grow
taller then a plant that is not given fertilizer because it will have more nutrients.
If a plant is given fertilizer then it will grow taller then a plant that is not given fertilizer because it will have more nutrients. Independent variable: fertilizer
If a plant is given fertilizer then it will grow taller
Dependent variable: amount of growth (cm) then it will grow taller then a plant that is not given fertilizer
Rationale: your reason why you think this will happen because it will have more nutrients.
Will this happen or not?
Step 4- Design an Experiment
Determine how you will test the problem to determine if the hypothesis you developed is valid ( correct) or needs to be revised (changed).
We will grow two Bermuda Beach plants for one month. They will grow in the same location and be given the same amount of water, sunlight, soil, and growing temperature. One will be given 0.5 g of Miracle Grow with each watering while one will be given no Miracle Grow.
Step 5- Experimenting
conduct a controlled experimentThis means that only the independent variable is changed- everything else must remain the same or constant!
Based on a comparison of a control group with an experimental group
Control group- no change, no fertilizer
Experimental group- has the change, 0.5 g of Miracle Grow with each watering
Measuring Quantitative data that can be
measured in numbers Qualitative data information that
isn’t numbers, it is statementsDay No Fertilizer (cm) 0.5 g Miracle Grow Fertilizer (cm)
1 0.1 0.1
3 0.1 0.1
5 0.2 0.3
7 0.3 0.5
9 0.5 0.9
11 0.8 1.4
13 1.1 1.8
15 1.5 2.7
17 1.8 3.1
19 2.0 3.6
21 2.3 4.1
23 2.5 4.6
25 2.8 5.1
27 3.1 5.8
29 3.3 6.4
Organize the Data
Create charts and graphs that accurately organize and demonstrate data gathered during the experiment.
To learn the correct graph to create watch Bozeman Science
Graph created using: Create a Graph
Collected and organized data must be analyzed
Does the data we collected support the hypothesis? Is it inconclusive?
Step 6- Conclusion
Conclusions: Drawn from data gathered from a study or
experiment Support the hypothesis or do we need to start
over again Re-testable, others should be able to do your
experiment and get the same results
Hypothesis: If a plant is given fertilizer then it will grow taller then a plant that is not given fertilizer because it will have more nutrients.
Control Group with no fertilizer after 30 days grew to be 3.3 cm tall
Experimental Group with 0.5 g of Miracle Grow after 30 days grew to be 6.4 cm tall.
Conclusion based on data is that plants given fertilizer do grow taller. the plants not given fertilizer were 3.3 cm after 30 days while those given 0.5 g of Miracle Grow were 6.4 cm tall after 30 days.
Always use data from your experiment in your conclusion!!
Step 7- Communication
Scientists must share the results of their studies with other scientists (peers)
Publish in journals Present their findings at scientific
meetings Scientists must be unbiased
Should not tamper with their data Only publish & report tested & proven ideas
Sharing of information is essential to scientific process
Subject to examination and verification by other scientists
Allows scientists to build on the work of others