1.1 energy scenario - india & the world

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  • 8/13/2019 1.1 Energy Scenario - India & the World


    Chapter 2 Literature Review



    Energy is one of the major inputs for the economic development of any

    country. The major sources of energy in the world are oil, coal, natural gas, hydro

    energy, nuclear energy, renewable combustible wastes and other energy sources. The

    contribution of different energy sources to the total supply of energy in the world are:

    Oil-35.1%, Coal-23.5%, Natural gas-20.7%, Renewable combustible wastes-11.1%,

    Nuclear-6.8%, Hydro-2.3% and Other sources-0.5%. World electricity demand is

    expected to continue more strongly than any other form of Energy. The total world

    energy use rises from 505 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 2008 to 619

    quadrillion Btu in 2020 and 770 quadrillion Btu in 2035 (International Energy

    Outloook, 2011). As it is expected to grow by 2.2% per year between 2008 and 2035,

    with more than 80% of the increase occurring in non-OECD countries (World Energy

    Outlook, 2010).

    Out of total global power demand, coal based thermal power is meeting about


    of the total requirement. Increased demand is most dramatic in developing

    countries like China and India. By 2030, both the countries together will be the

    worlds largest energy consumers (B.P.2012). Coal power generation is an established

    part of the world's electricity mix providing over 44.7% of world electricity (nuclear

    20.6%, oil 1.1%, natural gas 22.3% and hydro & other 11.3%). It is especially suitable

    for large-scale, base-load electricity demand. The coal power is in increase demand in

    all over the world and over the next decade is still the largest contributor to the growth

    of power fuels accounting for 39% (B.P.2012). The share of coal energy in the global

    electricity production is given in Figure 2.1.


    Power sector in India has grown at a phenomenal rate during the last four

    decades to meet the rapidly growing demand for electricity as electricity has become

    an integral part of our day-to-day life and India is the fifth largest producer of

    electricity in the world.

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    Figure 2.1 Share of Coal Energy in Global Electricity Generation

    Indias current installed power generation capacity as on 31 March 2012 is at

    2,02,979.03 MW as against 1, 50,324 MW during 2009. The share of hydro is

    about 19.24 percent, while share of nuclear and renewable are 2.35 percent and

    12.07 percent, respectively (Central Electricity Authority, 2012) (Table 2.1). The

    share of coal is maximum i.e., 56.54 percent while for gas and oil are 9.18 and

    0.59 percent, respectively.

    Table 2.1: Share of Energy in India

    Fuel MW Percentage

    Total thermal 13,4635.18 66.32

    Coal 114,782.38 56.54

    Gas 18.653.05 9.18

    Oil 1,199.75 0.59

    Hydro (Renewable) 39,060.40 19.24

    Nuclear 4,780.00 2.35

    *Renewable Energy


    25,503.45 12.07

    Total 2,02,979.03 100%

    The Power ministry has set a target of adding 76,000MW of electricity capacity in the


    plan (2012-2017) and 93,000 MW in the 13th

    plan Five-year plan (2017-2022).

    Despite significant increases in total installed capacity during the last decade, the gap

    between electricity supply and demand continues to increase. The resulting shortfall

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    has had a negative impact on industrial output and economic growth. However, to

    meet expected future demand, indigenous coal production will have to be greatly


    Indias energy consumption has been increasing at one of the fastest rates in

    the world due to population growth and economic development, although new oil and

    gas plants are planned, but coal is expected to remain the dominant fuel for power

    generation. In India the demand of electricity is always more than the supply and the

    coal reserves in India is in better condition than other fossil fuels, thus the power

    production is totally dependent on the coal, which is responsible to a large extent.

    Hence, it can be said that increasing demand of power with a very slow pace

    of capacity addition requires that the power plants must operate with highest possible

    power availability and reliability. Environmental problems associated with thermal

    power plants start with transportation of coal from mine, feeding it to boiler, and the

    emission of flue gases and particulate matter. Now-a-days, the environmental

    problems of energy use are related with environmental cost, which have been rising,

    reinforcing the effect of increased monetary costs in creating incentives for increasing

    the efficiency with which energy is used.


    Mining of coal as well as other minerals is generally considered to be an

    environmentally unfriendly activity as all the components of environment are affected

    by various operations in mining and associated activities. In India, coal deposits are

    chiefly located in Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh,

    Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra (Provisional coal statistics, 2011-2012). While,

    major portion of coking coal is produced by Jharkhand (Figure 2.3) only 0.75 MT is

    collectively produced by West Bengal, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh. Table 2.2

    shows the coal reserves of India up to the depth of 1,200 meters have been estimatedby the Geological Survey of India at 2,93,497 Million Tonnes. Out of the total

    resources, the Gondwana coalfields account for 2,92,005 MT (99.5%), while the

    Tertiary coalfields of Himalayan region contribute 1493 MT (0.5%) of coal resources


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    Figure 2.3: Coal production by various states

    Table 2.2: Coal Reserves of India

    Depth Range

    (in Metre)











    0-300 92251.33 70830.45 10760.74 173842.52 59.23%

    300-600 10422.74 57244.92 16255.52 83923.18 28.59%


    (For Jharia


    13710.33 502.09 0.00 14212.42 4.84%

    600-1200 1760.42 13591.39 6167.22 21519.03 7.33%

    Total 118144.82 142168.85 33183.48 293497.15 100.00%

    (Source GSI, 2012)

    2.2.1 Jharia Coalfield (JCF)

    From the very beginning of Indian coal mining history the JCF was a highly

    attractive area for mining mainly because it has one of the highest concentrations of

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    thick coal seams in the world, ranging from 50 cm to 30 m in thickness, at relatively

    short depths. The JCF contains the only remaining reserves of prime coking coal in

    India, it is responsible for 50% of the coking coal produced in India, and supports

    80% coking coal requirement of the Indian Steel Industry (CIL,1976).

    The coal production was increased by 3 MT as it was estimated as 42.65 MT

    in the year 2016-2017 while it was 39.65MT in the last year (2010-11). The power

    utility increases form 15.29 MT to 28.60 MT from 2006- 07 to 2011-12. Similarly, the

    production of coal for the steel plant increases from 4.24 to 4.60 MT in the 2006-07 to

    2010-12 and estimated to increase as 7.00MT (2016-17), 8.25MT (2020-21) and

    9.00MT (2026-27) (www.bccl.gov.in).


    Sources of air pollution can be categorized according to the source type,

    emission and their spatial distribution. These are of mainly two types viz., natural and

    anthropogenic (man-made). Natural sources of air pollution are lightning generated

    forest and grassland fires, sea salt spray, desert and soil erosion, dust storm, biogenic

    emissions (pollen, spores, bacteria and debris), windblown dust and volcanic

    eruptions (Seinfield,1986). While, manmade sources include transportation vehicles,

    industrial processes, power plants, municipal incinerators and others. These sources

    lead to generation of several pollutants and they further be classified as either primary

    or secondary. Primary pollutants are substances directly emitted from a process, such

    as ash from a volcanic eruption, carbon monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust

    or sulphur dioxide released from factories. Secondary pollutants are not emitted

    directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact in

    presence of sunlight. An important example of a secondary pollutant is ground level

    ozone-one of the many secondary pollutants that make up photochemical smog.

    Emissions may be categorized mainly as stationary and mobile sources which include

    all the activities in an urban environment.

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    Source categorization according to number and spatial distribution includes single

    and point sources (stationary), area or multiple sources (stationary or mobile) and line

    sources as briefed below.

    2.3.1 Point, Area, Line and Fugitive Sources:

    a) Point SourcesA point source is a single, identifiable source of air pollutant emissions

    (for example, the emissions from a combustion furnace flue gas stack). Point

    sources are also characterized as being either elevated or at ground-level. A point

    source has no geometric dimensions. Point sources of air pollution include

    stationary sources such as power plants, smelters, industrial and commercial

    boilers, wood and pulp processors, paper mills, industrial surface coating

    facilities, refinery and chemical processing operations, and petroleum storage

    tanks. Large, stationary sources of emissions that have specific locations and

    release pollutants in quantities above an emission threshold are known as point


    b) Area SourcesAn area source is a two-dimensional source of diffuse air pollutant

    emissions (for example, the emissions from a forest fire, a landfill or the

    evaporated vapours from a large spill of volatile liquid). Area sources of air

    pollution are the air pollutant emission sources which operate within a certain

    locale. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has categorized 70 different

    categories of air pollution area source (www.epa.gov).

    Locomotives operating within a rail yard are an example of an area source of

    pollution. Other area sources of air pollution are:

    Multiple flue gas stacks within a single industrial plant Open burning and forest fires Evaporation losses from large spills of volatile liquids

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    c) Mobile SourcesA line source is one-dimensional source of air pollutant emissions (for

    example, the emissions from the vehicular traffic on a roadway). They can be

    divided into on-road sources and non-road sources. On-road sources include

    vehicles such as cars, motorcycles, trucks, and buses. Non-road mobile sources

    include trains, aircraft, boats and ships, lawn and garden equipment, snow blowers,

    industrial equipment, and construction vehicles and equipment. Mobile sources

    pollute the air as a result of burning fuel and through evaporation of fuel during

    fill-ups and on-board fuel storage and handling. Pollutants released from mobile

    sources include carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides,

    particulate matters (especially from diesel engines-black smoke), and hazardous air

    pollutants/air toxics such as benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Mobile

    sources contribute greatly to air pollution nationwide and are the primary cause of

    air pollution in many urban areas.

    d)Fugitive SourcesFugitive emissions mean the emissions of any air contaminant into the open air

    other than from a stack or air pollution control equipment exhaust. Simply put,

    fugitive dust is a type of nonpoint source air pollution - small airborne particles that

    do not originate from a specific point such as a gravel quarry or grain mill. Fugitive

    dust originates in small quantities over large areas. Significant sources include

    unpaved roads, agricultural cropland and construction sites.


    The impact of air pollution are diverse and numerous. Air pollution can have

    serious consequences for the health of human beings, climate change, agriculture and

    also severely affects natural ecosystems (Molina and Molina, 2004; Decker et al.,

    2000). As a result, air pollution is a global problem and has been the subject of global

    cooperation and conflict.

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    2.4.1 Impact on human health due to particle size

    The health effects of particulates are strongly linked to particle size. The

    extent to which air borne particles penetrate into the human respiratory system is

    mainly determined by the size of the penetrating particles (Balachandran et al., 2000).

    Small particles, such as those from fossil fuel combustion, are likely to be most

    dangerous, because they can be inhaled deeply into the lungs, settling in areas where

    the body's natural clearance mechanisms cannot remove them. The constituents in

    small particulates also tend to be more chemically active and may be acidic as well

    and therefore more damaging. Atmospheric particles with an aerodynamic diameter

    smaller than 10 m (PM10) have been put under scrutiny in the past, being easily

    inhaled and deposited within the respiratory system (Pope et al., 1995). Studies show

    that PM10play a role in the incidence and severity of respiratory diseases (Brunekreef

    and Holgate, 2002; Pope and Dockery, 1999) and have significant associations with

    decline in lung function and cardio-vascular pathologies. Recent studies of health

    effects of PM associated with heavy metals have mainly investigated the

    concentration of metals in total suspended particles (TSP), PM10(less than or equal to

    10m) and PM2.5 (less than or equal to 2.5m).

    There are several epidemiological studies present in the literature (Harrison

    and Yin, 2000; Samet et al., 2000; Dockery, 1993; Hoek et al., 1997), which have

    demonstrated a direct association between atmospheric inhalable particulate matter

    and respiratory diseases, pulmonary damage, and mortality especially in the urban

    areas. Exposure to elevated levels of PM increases the rate of respiratory problems,

    hospitalizations due to lung or heart disease, and premature death (Asgharian et al.,

    2001 a, b; Holberg et al., 1987). Fuel combustion, industries, and power plants are the

    main sources of particles in urban and industrialized areas (Zhang et al., 2007).

    Depending upon the atmospheric conditions, the health risks can be aggravated

    (Cheng et al., 2009).In several studies it was found that the existence of fine particles in the air is

    associated with cardio vascular diseases and mortality (Sunyer et al., 1996; Zmirou et

    al., 1996,). In particular, fine particles (PM2.5 and PM1.0 fractions with aerodynamic

    diameter less than 2.5 m and 1.0 m, respectively) have a strong correlation with

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    morbidity and/or mortality due to pulmonary and cardiac disease (WHO, 2003; Pope

    et al., 2002; Samet et al., 2000). Fine particles can penetrate the human respiratory

    tract and lungs, and several epidemiological studies have reported a link between

    elevated particle concentration and increased mortality and morbidity (Ostro et al.,

    1999; Abbey et al., 1999; Wilson and Suh, 1997). Hospital admissions indicating the

    number of patients admitted into hospitals are a marker for an adverse health event

    (Delfino et al., 1997; Burnett et al., 1995). Moreover, these particles may have wide-

    ranging potential effects on agricultural and natural ecosystems, and they may reduce

    visibility affecting transportation safety and aesthetics (Yuan et al., 2006).

    Numerous studies associate particulate pollution with acute changes in lung

    function and respiratory illness (Dockery et al.,1996; USEPA,1996) resulting in

    increased hospital admissions for respiratory disease and heart disease, school and job

    absences from respiratory infections, or aggravation of chronic conditions such as

    asthma and bronchitis (Shprentz,1996). But the more demonstrative and sometimes

    controversial evidence comes from a number of recent epidemiological studies. Many

    of these studies have linked short-term increase in particulate levels, such as the ones

    that occur during pollution episodes, with immediate (within 24 hours) increases in

    mortality. This pollution-induced spike in the death rate ranges from 2 to 8% for

    every 50-g/m3increase in particulate levels.

    A focus on the occupational hazards and overall condition prevailing in

    Indian coalmines are felt to be important. Simple Coal Workers Pneumoconiosis

    (SCWP) and Progressive Massive Fibrosis (PMF) are the major occupational

    respiratory diseases of coal miners caused due to exposure to respirable dust

    generated during various mining operations. The concentration of respirable coal dust,

    the period of exposure and free silica content are important factors associated with

    pneumoconiosis risks. Assessment of respirable dust in coalmines and its control are

    of primary importance to undertake preventive measures.

    Several epidemiological studies conducted in different countries reported a

    reducing trend of pneumoconiosis mortality since last two decades due to gradual

    reduction in dust levels at work faces through stringent control measures (HEI, 1995;

    Ostro, 1993). There are number of scattered studies reported in Indian coalmines by

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    different agencies and the prevalence of the disease varied widely from one another to

    draw any definite conclusion on the prevalence, distribution and determinants of the

    disease (Bertollini et al., 1996). Roy, 1956 first reported pneumoconiosis cases in

    bituminous coal mines of Madhya Pradesh prior to that it were presumed occupational

    diseases like silicosis, pneumoconiosis were not properly diagnosed in India.

    During major pollution events, such as those involving a 200-g increase in

    particulate levels, an expert panel at the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated

    that daily mortality rates could increase as much as 20 percent (Shaheen, 2007). In the

    aggregate, pollution-related effects like these can have a significant impact on

    community health. WHO estimated that short-term pollution episodes accounted for 7

    to 10 percent of all lower respiratory illnesses in children, with the number rising to

    21 percent in the most polluted cities. Furthermore, 0.6 to 1.6 percent of deaths were

    attributable to short-term pollution events, climbing to 3.4 percent in the cities with

    the dirtiest air (Bertollini et al., 1996).

    Health effects are not only restricted to occasional episodes when pollutant

    levels are particularly high. Numerous studies suggest that health effects can occur at

    particulate levels that are at or below the levels permitted under national and

    international air quality standards. In fact, according to WHO and other organizations,

    no evidence so far shows that there is a threshold below which particle pollution does

    not induce some adverse health effects, especially for the more susceptible

    populations (Shaheen, 2007). Therefore, the estimation of the levels of respirable

    particulate and its major toxic constituent present in the urban atmosphere is a prime

    requirement of epidemiological investigation, air quality management, and air

    pollution abatement (Chow et al., 2002; Querol et al., 2001). This situation still has

    prompted a vigorous debate about whether current air quality standards are sufficient

    to protect public health.

    2.4.2 Impact of Airborne Trace Metals on Human Health

    With the developing industry of mining, smelting and metal treatment, heavy

    metal pollution becomes serious (Wang et al., 2001; Guo, 1994; Su et al., 1994; Wu et

    al., 1989; Liao, 1993). Most severe is that this kind of pollution is covert, long term

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    and non-reversible. They can cause acute and chronic health effects (Amdur, 1980).

    These pollutants are emitted into the atmosphere continuously through various human

    activities, especially in large cities where inhabitants and industrial activities are


    Thus, there is an increasing concern about the hazardous effects of metals and

    metalloids present in airborne particulate matter on humans and other living

    organisms in populated areas (McClellan, 2002) and thus many monitoring and

    analysis programs on PM have been conducted in several parts of the world. Heavy

    metals are potentially toxic, even at low exposure levels (Bosco et al., 2005). Air

    pollutants, especially airborne trace metals in PM, have been associated with both

    short-term and long-term adverse health effects including chronic respiratory disease,

    heart disease, lung cancer, and damage to other organs (Niu et al., 2008; Williams et

    al., 2007; Lingard et al., 2005; Rasmussen, 2004; Osonio-Vargas et al., 2003; Prieditis

    et al., 2002; Allen et al., 2001; Vincent et al., 2001; Ghio et al., 1999;Costa et al.,

    1997).There are several investigations on trace metals (Pb, Cd and Hg) in air and their

    toxic effects (Onder and Dursun, 2006) have been studied which are described below-

    Lead (Pb) is considered as critical pollutant in air. Modern

    industrialization, with the introduction of Pb in mass produced plumbing, Solder,

    paint, ceramic ware and countless other products resulted in marked rise of Pb in air

    though it is not contributed by vehicles as use of leaded gasoline is banned since 2001

    in India. The annual worldwide production of Pb is approximately 5.4 million Tones

    and it continues to rise. Sixty percent of lead is used for the manufacturing of the

    automobile batteries while the remainder is used in the production of pigments,

    glazes, solders, plastics, cable sheathing, ammunitions, weights, gasoline additives,

    and a variety of other products that continue to pose threat environment risks arising

    from anthropogenic sources (Hu, 2002).The general body of literature on lead toxicity

    indicates that, depending on the dose, lead exposure in children and adults can cause a

    wide spectrum of health problems, ranging from convulsions, coma, renal failure, and

    death at the high end to subtle effects on metabolism and intelligence at the low end

    of exposures (US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 1999).

    Children (and developing foetuses) appear to be particularly vulnerable to the

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    neurotoxic effects of lead. A plethora of well-designed prospective epidemiologic

    studies has convincingly demonstrated that low-level lead exposure in children less

    than five years of age (with blood lead levels in the 5-25 mg/dL range) results in

    deficits in intellectual development as manifested by lost intelligence quotient points

    (Banks et al.,1997). Among the most important is the risk posed to the foetus posed

    by mobilization of long lived skeletal stores of lead in pregnant women (Silbergeld,

    1991). Several studies has clearly demonstrated that maternal bone lead stores are

    mobilized at an accelerated rate during pregnancy and lactation (Gulson et al.,1997)

    and are associated with decrements in birth weight, growth rate, and mental

    development (Gonzalez-Cossio et al.,1997). Since bone lead stores persist for decades

    (Hu et al., 1998), it is possible that lead can remain a threat to foetal health many

    years after environmental exposure had actually been curtailed.

    High levels of mercury exposure that occur through, for example,

    inhalation of mercury vapours generated by thermal volatilization can lead to life-

    threatening injuries to the lungs and neurologic system. At lower but more chronic

    levels of exposure, a typical constellation of findings arises, termed erethism-with

    tremor of the hands, excitability, memory loss, insomnia, timidity, and sometimes

    delirium that was once commonly seen in workers exposed to mercury in the felt hat

    industry (mad as a hatter). Even relatively modest levels of occupational mercury

    exposure, as experienced, for example, by dentists, have been associated with

    measurable declines in performance on neurobehavioral tests of motor speed, visual

    scanning, verbal and visual memory, and visuo motor coordination (Bittner et

    al.,1998). Small amount of mercury released from dental amalgams during chewing is

    capable of causing significant illnesses, such as multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus, or

    chronic fatigue syndrome (Grandjean et al., 1997). Methyl mercury also crosses the

    placental barrier and causes damage to the foetus in pregnant women.

    Arsenicundergoes some accumulation in soft tissue organs such as the liver,

    spleen, kidneys and lungs once absorbed into the body, but the major long-term

    storage site for arsenic is keratin-rich tissues, such as skin, hair, and nails making the

    measurement of arsenic in these biological specimens useful for estimating total

    arsenic burden and long-term exposure under certain circumstances. Acute arsenic

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    poisoning is infamous for its lethality, which stems from arsenics destruction of the

    integrity of blood vessels and gastrointestinal tissue and its effect on the heart and

    brain. Chronic exposure to lower levels of arsenic results in somewhat unusual

    patterns of skin hyper pigmentation, peripheral nerve damage manifesting as

    numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hands and feet, diabetes, and blood vessel

    damage resulting in a gangrenous condition affecting the extremities (Col et al.,1999).

    Chronic arsenic exposure also causes a markedly elevated risk for developing a

    number of cancers, most notably skin cancer, cancers of the liver (angiosarcoma) (US

    Department of Health and Human Services; 1991), lung, bladder, and possibly the

    kidney and colon. Arsenic affects skin, lungs, liver, cardiovascular system, nervous

    system, haematopoietic system and reproductive system.

    Manganese has become a metal of global concern because of the introduction

    of methyl cyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) as a gasoline additive

    (Lyzincki et al., 1999). Proponents of the use of MMT have claimed that the known

    link between occupational manganese exposure and the development of a Parkinsons

    disease-like syndrome of tremor, postural instability, gait disorder, and cognitive

    disorder has no implications for the relatively low levels of manganese exposure that

    would ensure from its use in gasoline. However, this argument is starkly reminiscent

    of the rationale given for adding lead to gasoline, and what little research that exists

    from which one can infer the toxicity potential of manganese at low-levels of

    exposure is not particularly comforting.

    Acute high-dose exposures to cadmium can cause severe respiratory

    irritation. Occupational levels of cadmium exposure are a risk factor for chronic lung

    disease (through airborne exposure) and testicular degeneration (Benoff et al., 2000)

    and are still under investigation as a risk factor for prostate cancer (Ye et al., 2000).

    Lower levels of exposure are mainly of concern with respect to toxicity to the kidney.

    Cadmium damages a specific structure of the functional unit of the kidney (the

    proximal tubules of each nephron) in a way that is first manifested by leakage of low

    molecular weight proteins and essential ions, such as calcium, into urine, with

    progression over time to frank kidney failure (Satarug et al., 2000). This effects tends

    to be irreversible (Roels et al, 1997) and recent research suggests that the risk exists at

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    lower levels of exposure than previously thought (Suwazono et al., 2000; Jarup et al.,

    2000). Even without causing frank kidney failure, however, cadmiums effect on the

    kidney can have metabolic effects with pathologic consequences.

    Copper is an essential element for normal biological activities in humans.

    Copper is mainly available in the coalfield environment due to burning of coal,

    fertilizer, iron and steel production. Airborne copper is absorbed through duodenum

    and causes irritation of the respiratory tract and metal fume fever. Above 14g of

    copper intake causes gastrointestinal disorder haemolysis, heptotoxic and nephrotoxic

    effects. Disease like thalassemia, haemacromatosis, cirrhosis, tuberculosis and

    carcinoma encourage enhancement of the copper content in liver (Dara, 1993).

    Higher concentrations of Nickel produce respiratory problems like

    asthma, neoplasm of lungs. It also produces the gastrointestinal problems, problems of

    Central Nervous System and headache (Gupta, 2004; Asante-Duah, 1993). Nickel

    dust is also accounted as carcinogenic.

    Aluminiumcontributes to the brain dysfunction of patients with severe kidney

    disease who are undergoing dialysis. High levels of aluminium have been found in

    neurofibrillary tangles (characteristic brain lesions in patients with Alzheimers

    disease), as well as in the drinking water and soil of areas with an unusually high

    incidence of Alzheimers disease. Nevertheless, the experimental and epidemiologic

    evidence for a causal link between aluminium exposure and Alzheimers disease is,

    overall, relatively weak, thus more research is needed on this topic.

    Chromium, in its hexavalent form, which is the most toxic species of chromium,

    is used extensively in some industries such as leather processing. As a result,

    chromium has become a major factory run-off pollutant that is beginning to become a

    global trend. The toxicity of chromium stems from its tendency to be corrosive and to

    cause allergic reactions.

    For a clearer picture of the potential risk of the heavy metals that in-coming

    air pollution it may contribute, an extensive study is highly recommended.

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    2.4.3 Effect on Properties

    Air pollution affects material by soiling the painted surfaces, clothing

    and structures. It is also attributed to the chemical deterioration. The smoke and

    particulates are mainly responsible for such soiling phenomenon. Acidic and alkaline

    particles corrode materials such as textiles, paints, machinery etc. SO2is responsible

    for weakening of leather, textiles and metallic corrosion due to its acidic nature. Metal

    corrosion is accelerated by formation of sulphuric acid either in atmosphere or on

    metal surface, which is highly corrosive in nature. NO2 and ozone affects the

    discoloration of paints, clothing, dyes etc. due to its oxidizing nature. Smoke and

    sticky aerosols which are generated as a combined effect of particulate and gaseous

    pollutant are responsible for damage of building materials including stones and other

    building surfaces (Stern, 2006; Kali, 1996). Solar radiation, fog formation and

    precipitation (acid rain), alteration in temperature are the atmospheric phenomena that

    directly affect the material (Seinfeld and Pandis, 1998).

    2.4.4 Impact on Vegetation

    The primary effect of particulate matter on vegetation is reduced growth

    and productivity due to inference with photosynthesis process. The mechanisms of

    action are through smothering of leaves, physical blocking of stomata, and

    biochemical interactions, indirect effect through soil forest nutrient cycling due to

    atmospheric deposition of pollutants on the plant canopy has been reported (Agrawal

    and Singh, 2000; Amundson et al., 1990). Air pollution causes damage to large

    number of food, forage and ornamental crops through halogen compounds such as

    Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) and Hydrogen Chloride (HCl). Photochemical compounds,

    sulphur compounds and nitrogen compounds also contribute to agricultural damage

    (Chen et al., 2010;Chauhan and Joshi 2010;Li et al., 2007;Agrawal et al., 2006). The

    curtailed value results from various types of leaf damage, stunting of growth,decreased size and yield of fruits and vegetables, and destruction of flowers. SO 2

    results in significant decrease in photosynthetic pigments, phenolics and amino acid in

    Spinach (Irshad et al., 2011; Agrawal and Agrawal, 1991). Several field experiments

    have shown reductions in root and shoot lengths, leaf area and number of leaves, ears,

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    seeds and yield of plants due to SO2 exposure (Agrawal et al., 2006; Agrawal and

    Deepak, 2003).


    Ambient air quality standard is acceptable concentrations of pollutants in the

    atmosphere, while emission standards are allowable rates at which pollutants can be

    released from a source. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) have been

    adopted and followed by several environmental protection agencies throughout the

    world at two levels: primary and secondary. Primary standards are required to be set

    at levels that will protect public health and include an adequate margin of safety,

    regardless of whether the standards are economically or technologically achievable.

    Primary standards are projected for even the most sensitive individuals, including the

    elderly and those already suffering from respiratory disorders. Secondary air quality

    standards are more stringent than primary standards. Secondary standards are

    established to protect public welfare (e.g., buildings, crops, animals and fabrics, etc.)

    (Brimblecombe and Grossi 2010; Dockery and Pope, 1997)

    In India the protection of environment and sustainable use of natural resources

    received serious attraction from various committees of The Government and Planning

    Commission in early 1970. The 5-year plan (1968-73) gave explicit recognition for

    integrating environmental dimensions into the planning and developmental processes.

    On the basis of the recommendation of the Tiwari Committee in 1980, Govt. formed

    Dept. of environment for promoting and coordinating programs for environment and

    related issues. Later in 1985, Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) was formed

    for formulating policies and their implementation. The CPCB is a statutory authority

    under the purview of the MoEF.

    From 1970 to 1981 several comprehensive Environmental Protection Acts

    were passed and they continue to be amended from time to time to plug loopholes and

    incorporate new concerns. Although existing laws dealing directly and indirectly to

    the matters. As such, it is necessary to have a general legislation. In view of this fact

    on 23rd

    MAY 1986 the Comprehensive Environment (Protection) Act, also known as

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    Umbrella act was enacted in order to implement effective environmental protection

    and pollution control.

    The Clean Air Act (US-EPA) requires that the list of criteria pollutant be

    reviewed periodically and that standard be adjusted according to latest scientific

    information. Past review have been modified both the list of pollutants and their

    acceptable concentrations. Standard may be absolute and such these should estimate

    the probability of causing harm to receptor (plants or animal in contact with the

    pollution) by acknowledging dilution, attenuation, types and numbers of receptors,

    likely doses, and possible effects. Then the decision on an acceptable concentration

    may be calculated from the acceptable risk. The later remains a subjective or political

    decision. Sources of air quality data available for general use are extremely

    heterogeneous throughout the world. In general, measurements of air pollution are

    made by one or more agencies at all levels of government, national, provincial, city

    and town as well as by public and private laboratories, institutes and universities in

    many instances. Primary departmental responsibility at the national level usually

    resides in the Central pollution Control board (as in India), in the federal health

    service (as in Pakistan, USA, USSR) or in a science and technology ministry (as in

    Japan and the United Kingdom). Detailed air quality monitoring and survey on the

    local level are carried out by Municipal hygiene laboratories (as in Paris), by town

    planning commissions (as in Liege), and sometimes by a complex by a complex of

    agencies (as in Milan).

    In exercise of the power conferred by Sub-section (2) (h) of section 16 of the

    Air (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act, 1981 and in suppression of the

    NAAQS, 1994, the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) of India has stipulated

    and notified the ambient air quality standards in the year 2009 (Table 2.3) by

    classifying the different areas into two categories: -

    (i) Industrial, Residential, rural and other areas(ii) Ecologically Sensitive area (notified by Central Government)

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    Table 2.3: National Ambient Air Quality Standards, CPCB 18th

    November, 2009

    Source: CPCBunder section 16(2) of the Air Act:2009

    *Annual arithmetic mean of minimum 104 measurements in a year at a particular site taken twice aweek 24 hourly at uniform intervals.

    **24 hourly or 08 hourly or 01 hourly monitored values, as applicable, shall be complied with 98% of the time in a

    year. 2% of the time, they may exceed the limits but not on two consecutive days of monitoring.

    Pollutant Time



    Concentration in ambient


    Methods of Measurement


    , Rural &

    Other Area



    (notified by



    Sulphur Dioxide,

    (SO2), g/m3 Annual *

    24 hours**

    50 20 - Improved West and Gaeke

    -Ultraviolet fluorescence

    80 80

    Nitrogen Dioxide

    (NOx), g/m3

    Annual *

    24 hours**

    40 30 - Jacob & Hochheiser


    - Chemiluminescence.80 80

    Particulate Matter

    (size less than 10 um)or PM10g/m3

    Annual *

    24 hours**

    60 60 - Gravimetric

    - TOEM- Beta attenuation100 100

    Particulate Matter(Size less than 2.5 um)

    or PM2.5 g/m3

    Annual *

    24 hours**

    40 40 -Gravimetric- TOEM

    - Beta attenuation60 60

    Ozone(O3), g/m3

    Annual *

    24 hours**

    100 100 -UV photometric

    - Chemiluminescence.

    - Chemical Method180 180

    Lead (Pb)Annual *

    24 hours**

    0.50 0.50 AAS method after sampling

    Using EPM 2000 or equivalent

    filter paper1.0 1.0

    Carbon Monoxide

    (CO) mg/m3

    8 hours*

    1 hour**

    02 02 -Non Dispersive Infra Red

    (NDIR) spectroscopy

    04 04Ammonia (NH3)


    Annual *24 hours**

    100 100 -Chemiluminescence

    400 400

    Benzene (C6H6)


    Annual * 05 05

    -Gas chromatography based

    continuous analyzer

    -Adsorption and Desorption

    followed by GC analysis



    phase only, ng/m3

    Annual * 01 01

    -Solvent extraction followed by

    HPLC/GC analysis

    Arsenic (As), ng/m3

    Annual * 06 06

    -AAS/ICP method after

    sampling on EPM 2000 or

    equivalent filter paper

    Nickel (Ni), ng/m


    Annual * 20 20 -AAS/ICP method aftersampling on EPM 2000 or

    equivalent filter paper

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    Internationally, the maximum permissible limits (in g /m3) of pollutants in the air set

    by WHO are given in the Table 2.4

    Table 2.4 : WHO Maximum Permissible Limits of Air Pollutants

    Pollutant Time Weighted Average (g/m3) Exposure Time

    SO2(WHO: 1979, 1987) 500350



    10 minutes1 hour

    24 hours

    1 year

    CO 3010

    1 hour8 hours

    NO2(WHO : 1977, 1987) 400


    1 hour

    24 hours

    Ozone (WHO : 1978, 1987) 159-200100-120

    1 hour8 hours

    Total suspended particulates 150-230*60-9* 24 hours1 year

    (Source: WHO, UNEP 1996, Urban Air Pollution in Megacities of the World, Washington, DC: WHO & UNEP)

    Note. * Guidelines values for combined exposure to SO2and SPM (they may not apply to situations where only one of the

    components present).

    Dust particles are the main concerning issues in mining sector. Table 2.5 displays

    standards provided by the different countries and India for respirable fraction of mines


    Table 2.5 :Respirable Dust Standards for Coal Mines in Different Countries

    (Source: Coal Mines Regulations 123 of 1957)

    The Ambient Air Quality Standards in India for existing as well as new Coal Mines

    lay down and notified by MOEF, GOI in September 2000 are given in Tables 2.6, 2.7

    and 2.8 respectively.

    Name of the


    Stipulated maximum dust concentration at different points Recommended instrument

    for MonitoringUSA At working place :

    - 2 mg/m3where dust contains less than 5% free silica.- 10mg/m3(% free silica) where dust contains more than 5%

    free silica





    - At coal face 7 mg/m3- At heading 5mg/m3

    - At face intake 5 mg/m3Gravimetric Dust


    Former USSR - 10 mg/m3when free silica content is more than 10%- 2 mg/m3when free silica content is more than 10% Not specified

    Germany - At coal face 7 mg/m3- At heading 5mg/m3

    - At face intake 5 mg/m3Gravimetric Dust


    India (DGMS) - 3 mg/m3where face silica content is less than 5%- 15 mg/m3(% free silica) where free silica content is more

    than 5%)

    Gravimetric DustSampler

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    The Ambient Air Quality Standards in India for existing as well as new Coal Mines

    lay down and notified by MOEF, GOI in September 2000 are given in Tables 2.6, 2.7

    and 2.8 respectively.

    Table 2.6 :Ambient Air Quality Standards for Existing Coal Mines

    (Source:MoEF, Govt.of India Notification,Sep 2000)

    Table 2.7 : Ambient Air Quality Standards for New Coal Mines

    (Source:MoEF, Govt.of India Notification,Sep 2000


    Pollutant Time weighted average Concentration in

    Ambient Air

    Method of


    Existing coalfields/mines given



    Gandih Rajhara,


    Nagpur, Silewara,

    Pench Kanhan,


    Umrer, Korba,

    Chirimiri, Central India

    Coalfields, (including



    Singrauli, Ib Vally,

    Talcher, Godavary-

    Valley and any other.





    24 hours**

    430 g/m3


    High Volume Sampling

    (Average flow rate not

    less than 1.1m3/minute)



    Matter (size less

    than 10 (RPM)

    Annual Average*

    24 hours**



    Respirable Particulate

    Matter sampling and


    Sulphur Dioxide




    24 hours**



    1 Improved West andGaeke method

    2. Ultraviolet


    Oxide of

    Nitrogen as NO2



    24 hours**



    1 Jacob &Hochheiser

    Modified (Na-

    Arsenic) Method

    2 Gas phaseChemilumines-


    Category Pollutant Time weightedaverage

    Concentration inAmbient Air

    Method of Measurement

    New Coal

    Mines (Coal Mines

    commenced operation

    after the date of

    publication of this


    Suspended Particulates

    Matter (SPM)


    Average*24 hours**

    360 g/m3


    High Volume Sampling

    (Average flow rate not lessthan 1.1m3/minute)

    Respirable Particulate

    Matter (size less than10 (RPM)



    24 hours**



    Respirable Particulate Matter

    sampling and analysis

    Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)Annual

    Average*24 hours**



    1. Improved West andGaeke method.

    2. Ultraviolet fluorescenceOxide of Nitrogen as



    24 hours**



    3 Jacob & HochheiserModified (Na-Arsenic)


    4 Gas phaseChemilumines-cence.

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    Table 2.8: Ambient Air Quality Standards for Jharia, Raniganj and Bokaro

    Category Pollutant Time weighted


    Concentration in

    Ambient Air

    Method of Measurement

    Coal mines

    located in the

    coal- fields of




    Suspended Particulates

    Matter (SPM)


    24 hours**

    500 g/m3

    700 g/m3

    High Volume Sampling(Average flow rate not less

    than 1.1 m3/minute)

    Respirable Particulate

    Matter (size less than 10m) (RPM)


    Average*24 hours**

    250 g/m3

    300 g/m3

    Respirable Particulate

    Matter sampling andanalysis

    Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)Annual


    24 hours**

    80 g/m3 1.Improved West and Gaeke


    2.Ultraviolet fluorescence

    Oxide of Nitrogen as NO2AnnualAverage*

    24 hours**

    80 g/m3

    120 g/m3

    1.Jacob & HochheiserModified (Na-Arsenic)


    2.Gas phase Chemilumine-


    Note: * Annual Arithmetic mean for the measurements taken in a year, following the guidelines for frequency of sampling laid

    down in clause 2.

    ** 24 hourly/8 hourly values shall be met 92% of the time in a year. However, 8% of the time it may exceed but not on two

    consecutive days.

    Unauthorised construction shall not be taken as a reference of nearest residential

    or commercial place for monitoring.


    Mining is one of the core sector industries, which plays a major and crucial

    role of the process of countrys economic development but the environmental impact

    of coal mining cannot be ignored (Singh et al., 1996; Chaulya and Chakraborty, 1995;

    Wahid et al., 1995; Huchabee et al., 1983) and coal based industries may be

    conveniently listed as the major polluters (Krishnamurthy, 2004). Coal mining, its

    processing and utilization gives rise to air pollutants, particularly suspended and

    respirable particulate matter. Operation of excavators, transporters, loaders, conveyer

    belts, etc., result in massive discharges of fine particulates, which depends on

    individual sites due to difference in geology, mineral, terrain and many other factors.

    The extraction stage primarily produces larger particles with limited dispersion, which

    have major effects on mineworkers and occasionally on local residents. Similarly,

    operation of primary and secondary crushers in sizing the coal, handling and storing

    of crushed coal, operation of screens, dispatching of washed coals, etc. all are

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    expected to create degraded air quality in the surrounding area. Further, activities of

    captive power plants including the discharge through stack within the mining complex

    also create lots of air pollution problems in the locality.

    Besides, PM, it also give rise to gaseous pollutants, such as, SO2, NOxand CO

    and HC etc. The main sources of SO2are the burning of sulphur containing fuel and

    operation of diesel powered vehicles (Michal, 1990). NOx are formed in power

    stations, automobile exhausts, burning of coal and refuse and in the use of explosives.

    CO is produced from burning of fuel, automobile exhaust, furnaces and power

    stations. These large scale mechanized opencast coal mining is associated with safety

    and health hazards and associated negative effects on working efficiency through poor

    visibility, failure of equipment, increased maintenance cost and lowering of labour

    productivity (Prabha and Singh, 2006). The coal mining environment has been

    deteriorated at a faster rate due to the enhancement of coal production in recent past.

    Determination of the exposure to respirable dust among coal miners will help to

    investigate relationships between such exposure and respiratory diseases (Naidoo et

    al., 2006; Mukherjee et al., 2005; Donoghue, 2004).

    Out of the various components of air pollution, dust problem seems to be

    alarming. Mining process generates dust in every stage of its operation, i.e., drilling,

    blasting, loading, transportation, washing, etc. The operational study carried out at

    Korba Coalfield (Singh and Puri, 2004) reveals that drill operators are exposed to the

    highest levels of dust followed by coal handling operators, pay loaders and feeder

    breeder operators. SPM, the major threatening component in mining areas, is capable

    of causing harm through a number of adverse impacts (Agarwal & Agarwal, 1994;

    Sengupta, 1988). Jha and Kumar (2003) conclude that most importance needs to be

    given on finer dust particles, i.e., respirable particulate matter as these can cause

    significant health impact also emphasizes the need of accurate measurement of the

    finer parts of dust as it behaves like gas molecules. Haul road seems to be the major

    sources of dust emission in mine areas (Pathak, 2004; Chaulya et al., 2002). A study

    conducted by Tan (1984) and Chadwick et al., (1987) reveals 5% and 25% of coal

    dust generation during the dumper movement on unpaved haul roads and

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    loading/unloading of dumpers respectively. It has been estimated that 10-100 gm of

    dust having 5m size is being produced per ton of coal production. These particles

    can be suspended for a few seconds to several months.

    Study conducted by Sharma and Singh (1992) in Tilaboni, Nakrakonda and

    Jhanjhra block of Raniganj coalfield reported that open storage of coal in large

    quantities responsible for higher dust fall rate in Nakrakonda colliery and

    concentration levels of SPM in work zone were found much higher than their

    corresponding level in ambient air. Similar study conducted by. Reddy and Ruj (2003)

    in Raniganj-Asansol area also reported higher concentration of SPM (exceed the

    norms set by CPCB) while below the standard for SO2 and NOX. D. Mal (1996)

    recorded higher concentration of SPM, (80 to 406 g/m3) at different locations of

    Nandini mines in Chattisgarh, while for SO2and NOXconcentration varies from 7.8

    to 26.7 g/m3and 30.2 to 86.9 g/m


    Study conducted by various researchers (Ghose, 2002; Banerjee and Hussain,

    1989; Sahoo, 1981) in Jharia coalfield reported higher SPM concentration exceeding

    permissible limits. Kumar and Ratan (2003) found higher SPM concentration at

    different zones viz., dust generating zone, non dust generating zone and residential

    zone. Same result of higher SPM in residential and rural area were found by Sinha

    and Sreekesh (2002) in mining Belt of Goa. A study for assessment and management

    of air quality was carried out in the Ib Valley area of the Ib Valley coalfield in Orissa

    state, India. The 24 h average concentrations of TSP, PM10, SO2 and NOx were

    determined at regular intervals throughout one year at twelve monitoring stations in

    residential areas and six monitoring stations in mining/industrial areas. The 24 h

    average TSP and PM10 concentrations were124.6-390.3 g/m3 and 25.9119.9 in

    g/m3 in residential areas, and were 146.3845.2 g/m

    3 and 45.5290.5 g/m

    3 in

    industrial areas. The air quality of Angul-Talcher area is deteriorated significantly due

    to coal mining, thermal power plants, NALCO smelter and other allied activities.

    Frequent movement of vehicles in this industrialized area caused significant air

    pollution load to this area. Excess air pollution load considerably deteriorates the air

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    quality and subsequently responsible for harmful consequences of the exposed

    population (Suman et al., 2007).

    As the production of coal by opencast mining is growing, it is essential to

    evaluate its impact on the air environment and also to assess the characteristics of the

    emitted airborne dust, which is harmful to human health.

    2.6.1 Characterization of Particulate matter

    Particle size is considered the most important parameter in characterizing the

    physical behavior of particulate matter, as it affects removal processes, atmospheric

    residence times and contribution of light scattering to visibility degradation. Particle

    size is typically defined in terms of its diameter. Although liquid aerosol particles are

    nearly always spherical but solid particles are often irregular in shape (Seinfield,

    1986). Characterization of Airborne PM is very important because it consists of many

    organic and inorganic compounds with a variety of size (Cheng and Lin, 2010).

    Different sizes and compositions of particles cause different adverse health effects

    and long-term exposure to high levels can cause significant risk to human health (Ny

    and Lee, 2011).

    Larger sizes are easy to eliminate from the respiratory system through

    coughing, sneezing and swallowing, while particles less than 5 m can reach the

    pharynx tract. There have been a few studies to evaluate the association between the

    size distribution of particulate matter and elemental concentrations in urban areas

    (Fang et al., 2000, 2006). In the past, some researchers in Europe and Asia have

    analyzed the size distribution of heavy metals in TSP and roadside environments.

    Espinosa et al. (2001) and Allen et al. (2001) studied size distribution of metals in

    urban area. In recent years, more importance has given on particulate matter of size

    2.5m (PM2.5) as reflected by a growing number of studies of this fraction, including

    not only the measurements of its concentration but also the determination of itschemical content (Yatkin and Bayram, 2008; Sudesh and Rajamani, 2006; Viana et

    al., 2006; Wu et al., 2006;Braga et al., 2005; Fang et al., 2005; Giugliano et al., 2005;

    Hueglin et al., 2005; Lonati et al., 2005; Viana et al., 2005). Fine particles with a

    diameter less than 2.5 or ultra-fine particles can travel deep into the lungs with the

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    potential to penetrate tissue and undergo interstitialization (GradeASteel, 2011). Fine

    particles are not easily removed and can be deposited on the respiratory tracks from

    the body, causing lung and heart problems, particularly if the particles contain toxic

    materials. During the characterization of the fugitive dust, Organiscak and Reed

    (2004) conclude that the unpaved mini haulage roads generate dust particle of all

    sizes. At least 80% of the air borne dust generated by haul trucks is larger than 10 m.

    In fact, the chemical composition represents a key tool for understanding the origin of

    particles, anthropogenic and/or natural, and for characterizing the atmospheric

    processes in which they are involved (Karar and Gupta, 2007; Braziewicz et al.,


    2.6.2 Influence of Meteorology on air pollution

    The linkage between meteorological factors (wind speed, wind direction,

    temperature, relative humidity, etc) and air pollutants are very old (Rajkumar and

    Chang, 2000).Several cases occurred in past (1940s, early 1950s and 1986) in US

    and Europe and India (Bhopal, 1984). There are several incidents of air pollution took

    place in past they are as following- Donora (Harold et al., 1949), Nashville (Turner,

    1961), Stockholm (Bringfielt, 1971), Bangi, Malaysia (Sani, 1987), California (Chow

    et al., 1998), Turkey (Tayanc, 2000), Ahmedabad, India (Lal et al., 2000), Hong Kong

    (Chan et al., 1998; Chan and Kwok, 2000), and Phoenix, AZ (Ellis et al., 1999, 2000).

    Donora, PA (1948) combination of particles and gaseous pollutants, lead tothe formation of thermal inversion layer in the lower atmosphere, which

    prohibit the mixing of pollutants. Hence air pollution accumulated to such

    levels that several thousand people become ill, many required hospitalization

    and twenty died (Nebel and Wright, 2000; Kupchella and Hyland, 1989;

    Battan, 1966; Hoecker, 1949).

    London (1952 and 1956) due to the mixing of smoke and fog in theatmosphere, leads to death of several thousand people and it occurred due to

    calm condition of the atmosphere which leads to poor dispersion of pollutants

    by the wind. Because of the cold, residents of London began to burn more coal

    than usual. The resulting air pollution was trapped by the heavy layer of cold

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    air, and the concentration of pollutants built up dramatically. The smog was so

    thick that it would sometimes make driving impossible. During winter, flow of

    wind in the opposite direction (anticyclone condition) and the winds low

    velocity (calm) held accumulated gases, ash, and unburned coal suspended in

    the atmosphere (Battan, 1966; Kupchella and Hyland, 1989).

    Ukraine (26 April 1986) the disaster that took place is known as Chernobyldisaster, it was a nuclear accident that occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear

    Power Plant in Ukraine (officially Ukrainian SSR), It is considered the worst

    nuclear power plant accident in history. An explosion and fire released large

    quantities of radioactive contamination into the atmosphere, which spread over

    much of Western USSR and Europe and is one of only two classified as a

    level 7 event on the International Nuclear Event Scale (the other being the

    Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster)(Richard, 2011) .The battle to contain the

    contamination and avert a greater catastrophe ultimately involved over

    500,000 workers and cost an estimated 18 billion rubles, crippling the Soviet

    economy (The battle of Chernovyl) .

    Bhopal, India (2-3 Dec.1984) a disaster took place in the night at the UnionCarbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide plant in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh,

    India. A leak of methyl isocyanate gas and other chemicals from the plant

    resulted in the exposure of hundreds of thousands of people leakage of MIC

    from Union carbide factory known as Bhopal Gas Tragedy, considered as one

    of the world's worst industrial catastrophes,(Bhopal trial, 2010, BBC News).

    The official immediate death toll was 2,259 and the government of Madhya

    Pradesh has confirmed a total of 3,787 deaths related to the gas release

    (www.mp.gov.in). A government affidavit in 2006 stated that the leak caused

    558,125 injuries including 38,478 partial and approximately 3,900 severely

    and permanently disabling injuries.

    Thus, prevailing wind direction has a certain role on the transport and

    dispersion of dust particle (Aldrin and Haff, 2005; Wise and Comrie, 2005;

    Marcazzan et al., 2002).Wind erosion also catalyses the process of dust generation

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    (Sabre et al., 2000). Ghosh and Banerjee (2006) concludes that the actual contribution

    of pollutants to air quality from opencast mining and their dispersion to the

    surrounding locations can be successfully evaluated by factal analysis technique

    where meteorological parameters (specially wind speed and wind direction) plays

    crucial role. There is a strong seasonality in the meteorological factors that modulate

    air quality levels (Espinosa et al., 2004). Ragosta et al., (2006) reported in their study

    that correlation structures of metals vary under the condition of low relative humidity

    and high wind speed and vise versa. The results agree with the spatial distribution of

    the possible heavy metal industrial sources. Under mild wind speed a systematic

    decrease of particulate matter concentration was also observed by Chen et al (2008) in

    an industrial area of Sanghai, China.

    2.6.3 Source Apportionment Study

    Particulate matter originates from various natural and anthropogenic sources,

    namely: resuspended surface dust, combustion of fossil fuels, windblown soil and

    mineral particles, volcanic dust, sea salt spray, biological material such as pollen,

    spores and bacteria and debris from forest fires etc, and traffic. From a toxicological

    point of view, the most important particles are those with a diameter

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    The geological distribution of As is varied in individual coal basins and exist

    both in organic and inorganic form. Previous studies shows that most of As in coal is

    associated with pyrite, most commonly as As rich inclusions in the pyrite lattice

    (Coleman and Bragg, 1990) but sometimes associated with clay minerals, phosphate

    minerals (Swaine, 1990) and arsenic minerals including orpiment realgar and

    arsenopyrite (Ding et al., 2001). The world average As content of bituminous and

    lignite are 90.8 and 7.41.4 ppm respectively whereas Mercury in coal is 0.1.01

    ppm. Several study conducted by various researches are given below

    2.6.4 Aerobiological Study

    Depending on physicochemical characteristics and the degree of pollution,air

    can condense, disperse or carry many harmful agents such as aerosols, organic

    particles, viruses, bacteria, fungi and volatile substances. This particulatematter can

    adversely affect both human health and air quality standards (Macher et al. 1999).

    Aerobiology deals with the study of airborne particles of biological origin including sources,

    liberation, dispersal, deposition and impact on other living organisms and the effects of

    environmental conditions on each of these processes (Reanprayoon and Yoonaiwong,

    2012; Main 2003). Exposures to outdoor allergens are important in the development of

    allergic disease. Understanding the role of outdoor allergens requires knowledge of

    the nature of outdoor allergen-bearing particles, the distributions of their source, and

    the nature of the aerosols (particle types, sizes and dynamics of concentrations) The

    exposure to spores causing health problems is usually assessed by determining the

    concentration of spores percubic meter of air (CFU/m3).Particles of 10 m are deposited

    easily into thebronchial tree and are associated with immediate hypersensitivity responses,

    while particles of 2.5 m or less have the capacity to penetrate into the smaller airways and

    are associated with delayed hypersensitivity mechanisms (Horner etal. 1995; Macher et al.

    1999).An estimated 300 million persons suffer from asthma around the world. The Program

    on Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) suggests that this number increases each year. TheNational Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases(NIAID) in the United States indicates

    that more than 17 million people havebeen diagnosed with asthma; thus asthma is the sixth

    most common chronicdisease, affecting more than 4.8 million children.

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    The association between airborne fungi and symptoms of respiratory allergy

    and asthma is now well established (Malling, 1986; Strachan, 1988; Garrett et al.,

    1998). More than 80 genera of fungi have been reported to be associated with

    respiratory tract allergy (Latge and Paris, 1991; Horneret al., 1995) and more than

    100 species of fungiare involved with serious human and animal infectionsand many

    other species cause serious plantdiseases (Cvetnicand Pepeljnjak, 1997).Sensitization

    to fungal allergens is sometimes associatedwith life-threatening asthma (Black et al.,

    2000)and death (Targonski et al., 1995).An important concern for the past studies on

    the airborne fungi around the world is, most of the reports dealt with the urban and

    sub-urban areas. Detailed long-term aerobiological studies in coal mining area are

    largely lacking. However, the rural agriculture based areas are reported to carry higher

    airborne load of fungal allergens and farmers are reported to get longer exposure of

    outdoor airborne fungi compared to the people ofall other professions.

    2.6.5 Air Dispersion Modeling and Air Quality Indexing

    Air quality dispersion modeling is a computer simulation that predicts air quality

    concentrations from various types of emission sources (point, area and line). It

    uses meteorological data such as temperature, mixing height, wind direction and

    wind speed to calculate concentrations. In coal mining area fugitive dust generated

    by various processes like drilling, blasting, overburden loading and unloading,

    coal loading and unloading, road transport over unpaved roads and losses from

    exposed overburden dumps, coal handling plants and exposed pit faces (Huertas,

    2012). Temporal and spatial variation of surface level TSP and PM10

    concentrations to assess the impact of the mining operations on air quality in the

    region and identify areas within the mining region that should be classified as

    highly, fairly and moderately polluted based on national legislation.

    Transportation of materials has been identified as the main source of TSP andPM10pollution (Huertas et al., in press; Trivedi et al., 2009; Chaulya, 2004; Ghose

    and Majee, 2000; Cowherd, 1988). TSP and PM10 in open pit mining regions

    reduce air quality and can cause silicosis, black lung (CWP) and increased

    mortality. They also reduce visibility and affect surrounding flora and fauna

  • 8/13/2019 1.1 Energy Scenario - India & the World


    Chapter 2 Literature Review

    (Wheeler et al., 2000; NIOSH, 2005). Holmes and Morawska (2006) conducted a

    review of the different particle dispersion models available, including Box,

    Gaussian, Lagrangian/Eulerian, CFD and aerosol dynamic models. They

    concluded that the major weakness in particle dispersion modeling was a lack of

    validation studies that compared the predicted and actual values. Chaulya et al.

    (2002) compared FDM (Fugitive dust model) and PAL2 (point, area and lines

    sources model) during a winter season in a coal mining region in India. They

    found a coefficient of correlation (R2) of 0.66 for PAL2 and 0.75 for FDM when

    experimental data from 3 high volume samplers was compared with model results.

    Trivedi et al. (2009) modeled TSP using FDM and obtained an R2of 0.71 using

    data from 5 monitoring stations. This information would enable the environmental

    authority to implement new decontaminating measures based on the pollution

    classification. Also, the results of the study could be used to estimate the

    contribution of each mine to the pollution in each population center within the

    mining region, thereby allowing the environmental authority to determine the

    appropriate contribution of each mining company toward financing

    decontamination measures. As of December 2006, the American Meteorological

    Society (AMS)/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Regulatory Model

    with Plume Rise Model Enhancements developed by the AMS/EPA Regulatory

    Model Improvement Committee (AERMIC) replaced the Industrial Source

    Complex Short Term Version 3 (ISCST3) dispersion model as the EPA preferred

    regulatory model. AERMOD accounts for several PBL effects not accounted for

    by ISCST3 (Faulkner et al., 2008). Perry et al.(2005) compared several existing

    air dispersion models in terms of modeled and observed concentration

    distributions and concluded that with few exceptions the performance of

    AERMOD is superior to that of the other applied models.