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SoilSoil--Metal StructuresMetal Structures
Evolution of Design Codes in North American
1.1This Standard applies to the material and fabrication requirements for corrugated steel pipe, spiral rib pipe, and structural plate corrugated steel pipe products.
1.2This Standard applies to the use of corrugated steel pipe, spiral rib pipe, and structural plate corrugated steel pipe for applications such as culverts, storm sewers, sanitary sewers, subdrains, ground recharge systems, well casings, underpasses, stream enclosures, shelters, and tunnels.
1.3This Standard does not include requirements for hydraulic design, structural design, construction, and installation.
CSA G401-01 (2007 Pending)
CAN/CSA–S6-06 Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code
Spans greater then 3 m.
This is the tenth edition of CAN/CSA-S6, Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code. It supersedes the previous edition published in 2000, which amalgamated and superseded CAN/CSA-S6-88, Design of Highway Bridges, and the Ontario Ministry of Transportation's OHBDC-91-01, Ontario Highway Bridge Design Code, 3rd ed. Earlier editions of the CSA Standard were published in 1978, 1974, 1966, 1952, 1938, 1929, and 1922.
Earlier editions of the Ontario Highway Bridge Design Code were published in 1983 and 1979 by the Ontario Ministry of Transportation.
ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials
AASHTO - American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
•Until the late 1930’s, the design of Soil-Metal structures was largely empirical.
•In the 40’s and 50’s, studies were instigated to better understand how corrugated steel structures preformed.
•Armco published Height of cover tables in 1955 but did not reference a design method.
•During this era, AASHTO referenced a rational design method based on past history and the “ring compression” theory.
•Prior to 1979, Canada followed the AASHTO design method.
Design HistoryDesign History
In 1976 Province of Ontario decided to develop their own Bridge In 1976 Province of Ontario decided to develop their own Bridge codecodebecause AASHTO was a very large bureaucracy and did not permit qbecause AASHTO was a very large bureaucracy and did not permit quickuickchanges to its design specifications.changes to its design specifications.
The term The term ““SoilSoil--SteelSteel”” structures was first used in 1976 by Dr structures was first used in 1976 by Dr BaidarBaidar BakhtBakhtas he was developing the 1as he was developing the 1stst edition of the OHBDC in Canada.edition of the OHBDC in Canada.
In 1979 the first Canadian based code was published In 1979 the first Canadian based code was published –– Limit States Design Limit States Design Method.Method.
As the OHBDC evolved through its various editions, things like MAs the OHBDC evolved through its various editions, things like MinimuminimumHeights of Cover, Design check during construction and backfill,Heights of Cover, Design check during construction and backfill, SoilSoilarching Factors, Seismic, and Bending Moments were addressed.arching Factors, Seismic, and Bending Moments were addressed.
In 1989, AASHTO decided to write an alternate specification modeIn 1989, AASHTO decided to write an alternate specification modeled after led afterthe OHBDC. This specification, called AASHTO LRFD (load and resithe OHBDC. This specification, called AASHTO LRFD (load and resistancestancefactor design) was published in 1994. It is only due to be adoptfactor design) was published in 1994. It is only due to be adopted this year. ed this year.
SoilSoil--Metal Structures DesignMetal Structures Design•In 1995 the rest of the Canadian Provinces worked with Ontario to begin the Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code (CHBDC). It was first published in 2000.
•The Second edition was published in Nov 2006.
Testing Back Up For the CHBDCTesting Back Up For the CHBDC
Box Culvert Haunch Bending Test
SuperSuper--CorCor Flexural TestsFlexural Tests
Super-Cor Seam Strength Tests
Full Destructive Box Culvert TestFull Destructive Box Culvert Test
Box Culvert InstrumentationBox Culvert Instrumentation
Box Culvert InstrumentationBox Culvert Instrumentation
MTO - Canada Test
Full Scale Arch Test Full Scale Arch Test –– Whitehorse Creek, CanadaWhitehorse Creek, Canada
WorldWorld’’s largest corrugated structures largest corrugated structure
Span of 24 mSpan of 24 m
Heavy live load Heavy live load –– 11001100 TonnesTonnes
Constructed in six weeksConstructed in six weeks
Structure MonitoringStructure Monitoring
Whitehorse Creek was Whitehorse Creek was instrumented and monitoredinstrumented and monitoredProvides a tool to validate design Provides a tool to validate design codes, and FEAcodes, and FEAGives immediate feedback Gives immediate feedback during construction phase, the during construction phase, the most critical timemost critical timeProvides information on how to Provides information on how to optimize future designsoptimize future designs
Finite Element Analysis (FEA)Finite Element Analysis (FEA)
First FEA programs geared towards soilFirst FEA programs geared towards soil--structure interaction developed in the 1970structure interaction developed in the 1970’’ssUsed as a method to confirm analysis theories Used as a method to confirm analysis theories from design codesfrom design codesA good tool for advancing productsA good tool for advancing productsEssential for understanding behaviour of Essential for understanding behaviour of structures outside the scope of design codesstructures outside the scope of design codes
FEAFEA –– Soil ZonesSoil Zones
InnovationsInnovations -- FEA Construction LayersFEA Construction Layers
FEA Structure ResultsFEA Structure Results
Bending Moment Axial ThrustBending Moment Axial Thrust
••Increase knowledge of large soilIncrease knowledge of large soil--metal structure metal structure behaviourbehaviour••Bending and axial stresses change even after construction has coBending and axial stresses change even after construction has completedmpleted
FEA Results FEA Results –– Soil StressSoil Stress
1.1. EC RibsEC Ribs
2.2. Concrete Relieving SlabsConcrete Relieving Slabs
3.3. SkewSkew--Bevel EndsBevel Ends
InnovationsInnovations -- Encased Concrete RibsEncased Concrete Ribs
Relieving SlabsRelieving Slabs
InnovationsInnovations –– SkewSkew--Bevel EndsBevel Ends
SoilSoil--Metal Structure SummaryMetal Structure Summary
Can be safely designed using the Canadian Highway Can be safely designed using the Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code & FEABridge Design Code & FEA
Deflections are smallDeflections are small
Economical alternative to traditional bridgesEconomical alternative to traditional bridges