1789 - 1815

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1789 - 1815. The Old Regime. Absolute Monarchy 3 rigid classes: Estates 1 st Estate – Clergy 2 nd Estate – Nobles 3 rd Estate – Commoners. The Old Regime. PRIVILEGED CLASSES 1 ST Estate – Clergy Paid no taxes Wealthy Tithe Land 2 nd Estate – Nobility - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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1789 - 1815

Absolute Monarchy3 rigid classes: Estates1st Estate Clergy2nd Estate Nobles3rd Estate Commoners

The Old Regime2The traditional political, social, and economic system of France before 1789 was called the Old Regime. Under the Old Regime, the king was an absolute monarch, the clergy and nobles enjoyed many privileges and the commoners burdened by heavy taxes were denied any political rights. The people were divided into three rigid, distinct classes, called Estates.The First Estate: The First Estate consisted of the clergy who were considered a privileged class. The Catholic Church, with its vast income from untaxed lands and from the tithe, was determined to prevent any restrictions whatever on its privileges.The Second Estate: consisted of the nobles and enjoyed great wealth and privileges. Nobles held the best and most profitable positions in the army, government, and church. In addition, they were exempt from most taxes.

PRIVILEGED CLASSES1ST Estate ClergyPaid no taxesWealthy TitheLand2nd Estate NobilityGreat wealth and PrivilegesExempt from most taxes

The Old Regime

Underprivileged ClassesPaid taxes in money, produce and laborThe Third Estate Bourgeoisie (Middle Class)Wealthy, educated, & outspokenLawyers, bankers, merchants and businessmenSans Culottes (City Workers)Little education, little moneyPeasants (Largest Group)Heavy taxesCorvee forced labor

The Old Regime

4The Third Estate, the underprivileged citizens, who paid taxes in money, produce, and labor, consisted of the bourgeoisie (middle class), city workers, and the peasantry. Although small in numbers, the bourgeoisie was the wealthiest, most educated, and most outspoken group within the Third Estate. These lawyers, bankers, merchants, and businessmen resented the fact that they were determined to remedy the situation., Peasants made up the largest group within the Third Estate. In general, French peasants were better off than peasants in other parts of Europe, but still they complained about the burden of heavy taxes, and the Corvee or forced labor they had to perform. Indeed, in the Old Regime, there were many deep-rooted abuses.THE ESTATE SYSTEM

Political CartoonThese 18thc. Political cartoons show a peasant bearing on his and her back a clergyman and a noble. The policies cartoonist is making a bitter comment of the fact that peasants must pay taxes and other dues to support the church, the nobles, and the government, while the clergy and nobles were exempt from most taxes.The triangle represents number of people in each class.The Old RegimeFrench EconomicsHuge Debts had accrued from Previous Rulers:Louis XIVEndless warsVersaillesLavish Spending brought France to the brink of BankruptcyLouis XVContinued warsRefused to tax the nobility

7When King Louis XIV died in 1715, France was the largest, the richest, and the most influential nation in Europe. However, the Grand Monarch left France with a heavy burden of dept incurred during his endless wars in which so many lives were lost and so much money wasted. Although France was a prosperous country, the French monarchy was approaching bankruptcy, both in its finances and in its ability to provide the nation with effective leadership. Louis XIVs successors, Louis XV and Louis XVI, proved incapable of dealing with the governments financial and administrative problems.When Louis XVI came to the throne in 1744, he saw the need for economic reform. Louis tow able finance ministers Turgot and Necker eased the financial crisis for a time by controlling government spending and reducing expenses at Versailles. However, these men had little success when they proposed taxing the nobles. Louis dismissed these ministers without effecting any financial reforms. By 1788 France was in bankruptcy. To solve the financial crisis, Louis XVI called into session the Estates-General that had not met since 1614. French kings had ruled without convening the Estates-General for 175 years. By breaking this precedent Louis admitted that the king alone could not solve Frances financial problems.French Economics

Louis XVIAppointed 2 finance ministers: Turgot and NeckerTheir solution: Tax the nobilityLouis feared the nobles and dismissed Turgot and Necker1788 France entered bankruptcyThe Estates GeneralLouis called the Estates-General into session (Which had not met since 1614)Estates General Meeting of Representatives from the 3 Estates1stEstate3rd Estate2ndEstateDespite somewhat proportional representation the voting policy was unfair, with 1 vote per Estate.

The Tennis Court OathThe Third Estate Demanded the Creation of the National Assembly Each delegate = 1 voteLocked out of the meetingJune 20, 1789 the delegates of the 3rd Estate assembled at an indoor tennis court and stayed until France had a Constitution

10The Undemocratic Features of the Estates-General: In 1614, the Estates-General met in three separately elected chambers representing the first estate, second estate, and third estate. Numerically, the three estates were almost equal. In addition, they voted by estate (each estate had one vote). The implications, if this precedent were followed in 1789, were obvious. The nobility and clergy would be enormously over-represented. Together they would always be able to outvote the third estate.There were many in France who called for a doubling of the third and a vote by head (each delegate would have one vote). The king authorized that the third estate be doubled, but the Parlement of Paris, dominated by nobles, opposed a vote by head. This was considered a slap in the face by the third estate! Now, the third estate treated the nobles with hostility and suspicion.When the Estates-General held its first meeting at Versailles on May 5, 1789, Louis XVI ordered the estates to meet separately and to vote by estates. The Third Estate demanded that the Estates-General be transformed into a National Assembly with each member, not each estate, having one vote. When the king rejected the proposed National Assembly, the representatives of the Third Estate, on June 17, declared themselves to be the National Assembly,. This was now a revolution.Louis XVI, under pressure from the nobles, locked the members of the National Assembly out of the hall in which it met. The members assembled at an indoor tennis court nearby. There, on June 20, they swore never to disband until they had given France a constitution.On July 14 the event occurred that, more than any other, has symbolized the French Revolution the storming of the Bastille. Incited by rumors that the king had ordered troops to Paris to disperse the Bastille hoping to secure weapons and demanding the removal of some cannon the governor of the prison had placed facing outward. The crowd got out of hand, fighting began, and soon the prison was in the hands of the mob. The governor of the prison was murdered as was the mayor of Paris. Their heads were mounted on pikes and paraded through the city. When the Duke de La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt told King Louis XVI about the storming of the Bastille, the king angrily exclaimed, This is a revolt! No sire, replied the duke, it is a revolution.

Storming the BastilleJuly 14, 1789 Spurred by rumors a Paris mob surrounded the Bastille.The Bastille was a prison for debtors and a symbol of the oppression of the Third Estate.Governor of Prison and mayor of Paris were killed and their heads were mounted on pikes and paraded through the city.This event symbolized the beginning of the French Revolution

The Great FearPeasants started attacking the nobles homes throughout France

Nobles offered to pay taxes in order to end the violence

The Women's MarchOctober 5, 1789Women from neighborhoods around the Bastille, gathered10,000 people (mostly women) walked to Versailles Goal: to convince King to provide them with breadLouis greeted the women and promised them bread13In late July, serious unrest called the Great Fear broke out in rural areas. Rumors reported an impending famine and told of bandits, in the pay of the nobles, roaming the countryside attacking peasants. Driven by fear and anger, the peasants armed themselves and prepared to fight the ruthless bandits. In addition, the peasants attacked many manor houses, often hoping to destroy the records of dues and services owned by the lords. New of these disorders alarmed many of the delegates in the National Assembly.The events in Paris and the disorder in the countryside forced the National Assembly into action. On the night of August 4, the nobles and clergy offered to end tax exemptions of the privileged classes, payment of feudal dues by the peasants, the tithe, and all class distinctions. It would prove to be the most sweeping and radical legislative session of the whole French Revolution.On August 27, 1789, the National Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, which embotdied many of the ideas of the philosophes. It declared that the authority of a government is derived from the people; that all citizaenx should be equal before the law,; that all citizens are entitled to a voice in making the nations law; and that the purpose of government should be the protection of the natural rights of men to liberty, properyt, security, and resistance to oppression. Freedom of speech, press, and religion should be guaranteed to all. The Declaration, along with the English Bill of Rights, Declaration of Independence and US Constitution, ranks as one of the great documents of modern times.In Paris new tensions were building. A rumor circulated that at a banquet in Versailles, newly arrived soldiers had treated the tricolor with disrespect. On October 5, an angry mob of some six or seven thousand women set off for Versailles dragging a cannon and brandishing whatever makeshift weapons they could lay their hands on. They were followed by Lafayette and 20,0000 National Guardsmen. They reached Versailles in the evening and invaded the National Assembly, calling for bread and punishment of those who had insulted the national flag. Then the women marched to Versailles and gained entrance to the elegant apartment of the queen. The king finally agreed to the demands of the women and under their escort journeyed with his family to Paris. Henceforth, the king and his family would be confined to Paris, more like prisoners than Princes.Just before midnight, Louis accepted a prior proposal by the nobles and clergy to the National AssemblyEnd tax exemptions of the privileged classesEnd payment of feudal dues by the peasantsEnd the titheEnd all class distinctionsKing and his family would be confined to Paris from this point on.

The Women's MarchWhat Enlightenedideas to you see?Which thinkers didthey come from?

Constitution of 1791: Limited MonarchyKing remained butCould not propose lawsOnly had temporary veto to block legislationCreation of a Limited Monarchy

What do you see inhis face? Why?15The Marquis de Lafayette, commander of the new National Guard, combined the colors of the city of Paris, red and blue, with the white of the house of Bourbon for the uniform of his National Guardsmen. Thus, the French tricolor, emblem of the French Revolution, was born.In 1791, the National Assembly finally gave France its first constitution. The new constitution established a limited monarchy with separation of powers between the executive, legislative and judicial branches. At the head of the executive branch was the hereditary king. He could propose no laws, and could only use a temporary veto to bloc legislation he did not like. The Legislative Assembly passed the nations laws. Members of the Assembly had to be property owners elected by taxpaying citizens. A new system of courts was set up as the judicial branch.Louis XVI resented the loss of his absolute power. ON june 21, he attempted to flee from Paris with Marie Antoinette and his family. He left behind him a defiant message in which he denounced the revolution. He planned to join with migr noblemen and seek help from foreign powers. Almost at his destination, the king was recognized and stopped. The king and his family were compelled to return to the capital wehere he was forced to accept his status as a constitutional monary.The new Legislative Assembly held its first sesion in October 1791. The seating arrangements in the Assembly reflected division among the revolutionaries. Moderate revolutionaries sat on the right side of the meeting hall, and radical revolutionaries sat on the left side. The moderates, in general, supported the limited monarchy and wanted to preserve the Constitution of 1791. This proved impossible, however, since too many groups were dissatisfied with the Revolution and opposed limited monarchy. The Girondins, a political party representing the bourgeoiesie, favored a middle-class republic similar to that of the United States. The Jacobins, a radical political party, represented the city workers, who paid no taxes and, therefore, under the constitution of 1791, had no voice in the government. They opposed both the king and bourgeoisie. The Jacobins desired a republic dominated by the poorer people.

Separation of PowersLegislativeExecutive JudicialThe Legislative AssemblyPassed nations lawsMembers had to be property owners and elected by taxpaying citizens

Creation of a Limited Monarchy

Which PhilosophePromoted This?Who was being left out?Eastern European Powers feared the spread of the Revolution Declaration of PillnitzPrussia and Austria threatened to use force to protect French Royal Family1792 The 2 powers entered FranceForeign Reaction

17Political Cartoons are British reactions to the French Revolution.Top: Counterrevolutionary: Cannibalistic RevolutionBottom: Counterrevolutionary: Depiction of Louis XVI taking leave of his family.Some European leaders began to fear that revolution would spread to their countries. In the Declaration of Pillnitz (August 1792), Prussia and Austria threatened to use force to protect the French royal family and safeguard the monarchy. Insulted by this threat, the Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria, Prussia joined immediately with Austria, and by the summer of 1792 the two powers invaded France. The French fared badly in the initial fighting. In Paris, defeat in war and economic shortages led to political demonstrations, especially against the king. On August 10, a Paris mob attacked the Tuileries Palace and Legislative Assembly. They took the king captive and forced the Legislative Assembly to suspend the monarchy and call for a national Convention that would draft a constitution for a French republic. The National Convention was chosen on the basis of universal manhood suffrage. (Under a system of universal manhood suffrage, all adult males had the right to vote.) The French Revolution was aobut to enter a more radical stage.

August 10 Paris mob attacked the Tuileries Palace and Legislative AssemblyTook King CaptiveForced the Legislative Assembly to suspend the monarchy and draft a constitution to create a French republicUniversal Manhood suffrage

The End of the MonarchyThis is howThe British viewed the Incident.The Radical Stage: 1792 - 94

September 21, 1792 National Assembly declared France a RepublicLouis XVI was put on trial for Treason convictedJanuary 21, 1793 Louis XVI was executed19The National Convention met on September 21, 1792, and promptly declared France a republic. The trial of the king before the Convention soon followed, on charges of treason to the nation. Louis was convicted, by a very narrow majority, and condemned to death. ON January 21, 1793 Louis XVI met his death courageously by the new humane method of execution the guillotine.The execution of the king outraged the royalty of most of Europe. War broke out between France and Britain in February. The British began organizing those countries that were alrade enemies of France Austria, Prussia, the Dutch Republic, Spain, Portugal, and Sardinia who with Britain comprised the First Coalition. To meet this crisis, the National Convention gave brad powers to a committee of twelve known as the Committee of Public Safety.

Louis execution is considered the beginning of the Radical Phase of the Revolution the Sans Culottes took over the Revolution.

Leaders of 12 member Committee

George Danton

Jean Paul Marat

Maximilien Robespierre

The Committee of Public Safety21To protect the Republic from its foreign enemies, the Committee of Public Safety subjected all Frenchmen to compulsory military service, called the draft, or conscription. In less than a year, the nation raised the larges army ever seen in Europe. Inspired by French revolutionary ideas, the citizen-soldiers of France pushed the invading forces back across the Rhine.The Committee of Public Safety

Goal: protect Republic from foreign enemiescompulsory military service created largest army ever seen in EuropePushed invading forces (Austria and Prussia) back across the RhineThe Committee of Public Safety

Turned attention to Domestic EnemiesDrunk with Power Robespierre instituted the Reign of Terror

The Reign of Terror

September 1793 July 1794Committee arrested people they suspected of treason20,000 40,000 were put to death by guillotineMarie Antoinette, was one victimNobles and clergy went to guillotineMost victims however were commonersEnded with execution of Robespierre July 179424To protect the Republic from domestic enemies, the Committee of Public Safety set in motion the Reign of Terror The Committee arrested all persons suspected of treason and sentenced between 20,000 and 40,000 to death by guillotine. The former queen, Marie Antoinette, was one victim. Many nobles and clergy also went to the guillotine. However, many victims were commoners, including peasants, laborers, shopkeepers, and merchants. This Reign of Terror brutally crushed all domestic opposition.of Terror brutally crushed all domestic opposition. Ended with the death of Robespierre:Creation of The Directory

After Robespierre power passed to wealthy middle classNational Convention created a new Constitution The Constitution of 1795Five Directors The Directory acted as the executive authorityIncompetent and corrupt the new government could not solve the countries problems.1799 The popular General Napoleon Bonaparte seized power.The Directory26By the summer of 1794, the French had succeeded in defending the country against invasion. Now, there was less need for the Terror, but it continued nonetheless. Robespierre, who had become very powerful, used the guillotine to rid himself of the most dangerous opponents within the Convention. Finally, his opponents in the Convention gathered enough votes to condemn him, and Robespierre was guillotined on July 18, 1794. The execution of Robespierre led to the end of the Terror.After the death of Robespierre, power passed to the wealthy middle class, which took control of the Convention. The National Convention prepared a new constitution for the Republic, the Constitution of 1795. Five directors the Directory acted as the executive authority. Incompetent and corrupt, the new government could not find a solution to the countrys economic problems and was still carrying on the war. This led to a coup d tat (violent overthrow of the government) in 1794 in which the popular general Napoleon Bonaparte was able to seize power.