18162902 nanorobots in heart surgery

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    NANOROBOTS IN HEART SURGERY

    ABSTRACT :-

    The evolution

    and revolution of Nanotechnology

    activities is increasing in all the area

    to fulfill the human applications.

    Nanotechnology is defined as a

    technology, which is used to

    produce the objects in nanometers

    (10^-9) that is one

    billionth.

    Using that

    much of

    size of the

    Nanotechno

    logy is

    highly used

    in

    biomedical

    field to

    remove the

    defects

    without

    human

    interference

    . In the

    polluted

    environmen

    t most of

    the humans

    are affected

    by heart

    block. The

    Nanotechno

    logy is

    helped to

    reduce the

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    effect of heart block. In

    that case, Nanorobotics is

    an important one for this

    application. Nanorobotics

    is a robot, which enable to

    clear this blockage by

    applying external control.

    Nanorobotics is designed

    to different techniques.

    The Nanorobotics will

    send to the affected area

    by means of injection to

    our human body. By this

    method , it is also used

    to reduce the allergy after

    the operation. In this

    paper we are dealing with

    nanorobotics.

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    INTRODUCTION :-

    Nanotechnology (or)

    molecular

    techniques used for

    producing the

    objects in

    atomic&molecular

    level are Dip Pen

    Lithography (DPN),

    Nanotweezers,

    Nanomanipulator,

    scanning probe

    microscopy

    (SPM),Atomic force

    microscopy(AFM).T

    his technology has

    become a next big

    technology to almost

    all technology at

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    present. Because of

    the molecular level

    operation it is used

    to produce our own

    DNA artificially in

    genetic

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    fantasy. Yet atransistormanufactured inatomic level. Weget the Pc equal to(or) smaller than

    our hand size. The

    HEART ATTACKS

    :-

    Blood

    vessels play an

    important role in

    supply a blood to all

    parts of the body.

    Due to the fatty

    deposition on the

    research on

    nanopowders and

    nanomaterials are

    going in advance to

    produce the parts

    of human being.

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    walls of blood

    vessels blood will

    not move freely to

    all parts of the

    body these leads to

    heart attacks and

    damage the vital

    organs.

    In

    general the

    most

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    common methodsof surgery used forheart attacks is

    By-Pass

    surgery

    Angio Plaster

    NANOROBOTS IN

    HEART

    SURGERY :-

    Both of

    the above methods

    are risky and

    number of side

    effects. As a result

    patient became very

    weak. But a surgery-

    using nanorobot is

    very simple one.

    Doctors do their

    treatment even

    without touching

    the body.

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    (Struc

    tureofNanoRo

    bots)

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    The above figure shows the structure

    of the nanorobots. It is constructed with various

    nanomechanical devices and nanosensors like.

    1 Molecular sorting rotors

    2 Propeller

    3 Fins

    4 Sensors

    MOLECULAR nanotubes. Simply a

    SORTING sheet of carbon atom

    ROTORS :- forms a carbon

    nanotube in that a

    It is roll having only one

    made up of carbon sheet of carbon

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    atoms thick is PROPELLOR :-

    known as singleThe

    walled carbonword propeller in

    nanotubes (SWNT).ship is used to drive

    Thus the electricalforward the device

    properties ofagainst water. Like

    SWNTs can be used

    that in nanorobots itto generate

    is used to drivemechanical motion

    forward against thefrom electrical

    blood stream. Finsenergy. One of the

    are fitted along withmain advantages of

    the propellers used

    these SWNTs isto propel the device.

    operating at theSensors are

    molecular level.fitted externally and

    Nanotubeinternally with the

    substitutes withnanorobots to

    nanogears with axle

    receive the signal forused for changing

    correct guidance.the direction of

    There aremovement. several techniques to

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    do the heart surgery

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    with thenanorobots.we haveto know how to injectnanorobots into ourbody, how

    INJECTION OF

    NANOROBOTS :-

    We

    have to find a way to

    introduce

    nanorobots into the

    body for surgery and

    allowing it to do the

    operation without

    ancillary damage. So

    we made the

    nanorobots smaller

    than the blood

    vessels as it

    to move it to the

    destination place,

    how to control and

    remove the device

    after surgery.

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    can travel. Femoral

    artery in the leg is

    considered to be a

    largest artery in our

    body. So we inject

    the nanorobot

    through this artery.

    NAVIGATION :-

    Every

    living thing needs

    area to move. Like

    fish to be moved in

    water nanorobots

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    use blood flow for itsmovement. It mustbe able to guide thedevice make use ofthe blood flow. Thedevices used for

    navigation ispropeller, fins, jet

    pump,

    electromagnetic

    pump. In order to

    move the nanorobots

    in blood flow

    following things are

    very important

    Speedof blood

    Get through

    the heart

    without stuck

    React with

    changes in

    blood flow

    rate

    Able to

    change the

    direction

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    according

    to the blood

    stream

    To satisfy the above

    consideration we

    have to make the

    nanorobots with

    electric motors

    turning propellers.

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    (Navigation of

    nanorobots into

    blood vessels)

    POSITIONING :-

    To

    know the location of

    nanorobots where it

    goes we use

    ultrasonic technique.

    Nanorobots must be

    able to produce

    ultrasonic waves by

    passing a signal to

    piezoelectric

    membrane, which is

    in built with the

    device. Several

    signals processing

    techniques are

    used to track this

    ultrasonic signal

    and finding the

    location at any

    time. Instead of

    ultrasonic wave we

    use infrared ray for

    signal processing.

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    DETECTION :-

    To

    locate a blood clot

    (or) deposit of

    arterial plaque we

    use sensors of

    different types.

    Already preplanned

    route is available to

    reach operation site.

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    With the help ofpreplanned route we

    (NanoRobots

    towards a

    destination)

    To

    control the

    nanorobots as per

    our wish fit the TV

    camera in the

    nanorobots and

    transmitting its

    reach the fatty

    deposited area.

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    picture outside the

    body to a remote

    control unit. Solid-

    state television

    camera sensors are

    used to receive the

    signals from the

    remote station and

    do the operations

    according to signals

    send by remote

    control unit. There

    are preprogrammed

    microchips available

    to give appropriate

    signals so that

    nanorobots is

    initiated externally

    through a computer.

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