19472180 intermediate grammar games

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  • 1. lntermediate GRAMMARGames A collectionof grammargamesand activities for intermediatestudentsof English Jill Hadfieldphotocopiablernate?ial

2. Pearson ducation imited E L Edinburgh ateG With grateful thanks to David Lott,Liz Paren Harlowand GenevidveTalon for their skilful and E s s e x M 2 02 J E C England patient editing of the various versionsof a n d A s s o c i a t e d o m p a n i e sh r o u g h o u tt h e w o r l d . C t this book. w w w . l o n 9m an .c o mO J i l lH a d f e l d2 0 0 3i Jill Hadfield T h e r i g h t o f J i l l H a d f i e l dt o b e i d e n t i i i e da s a u t h o r o f t h i s W o r k h a s b e e na s s e r t e d y h e r i n a c c o r d a n cw i t h t h e C o p y r i g h t , e s i g n s n d b eD a Patents ct 1988 APermissioto copy n T h e m a t e r i a li n t h i s b o o k i s c o p y r i g h t .H o w e v e r t h e p u b l i s h e r r a n t s , g p e r m i s s i o no r c o p i e so f t h e p a g e si n t h e s e c t i o n sr o m p a g e 3 8 t o 1 2 8f f t o b e m a d e w i t h o u t f e e s a s f o l l o w s :p r i v a t ep u r c h a s e rm a y m a k e s c o p i e s o r t h e i r o w n u s e o r f o r u s e b y c l a s s eo f w h i c h t h e y a r e i n fs c h a r g e ; c h o o lp u r c h a s e rm a y m a k e c o p i e s o r u s ew i t h i n a n d b y t h e s s f s t a f f a n d s t u d e n t s f t h e s c h o o lo n l y .T h i s p e r m i s s i o no c o p y d o e sn o tot e x t e n dt o a d d i t i o n a ls c h o o l s r b r a n c h e s f a n i n s t i t u t i o n w h o s h o u l d oo. p u r c h a s e s e p a r a t e a s t e rc o p y o f t h e b o o k f o r t h e i r o w n u s e . amF o r c o p y i n gi n a n y o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s i o r p e r m i s s i o nn w r i t i n g m u s tpri b e o b t a i n e df r o m P e a r s o n d u c a t i o n i m i t e d . E LFirst ublished003p2 r s B N0 5 8 24 2 9 6 41P r i n t e di n M a l a y s i aP r o d u c e do r t h e P u b l i s h e r b y G e n e v i d v e a l o n fs T D e s i g n e rT r e v o rS y l v e s t eT,S G D: r In memory of l l l u s t r a t eb y : G a b r i e l l e o r t o n( u n i t s , 9 , 1 8 , 2 1 , 2 2 , 2 4 , 3 4 , 3 6 ) ; dM 3Gillian Porter Ladousse J o h nP l u m b( u n i t s , 8 , 1 0 ,1 2 ,2 0 , 2 3 [ p 8 3 ] ,2 9 , 3 3 , 3 5 , 3 7: 4 T e r r yM c K e n n a u n i t s5 , 6 , 1 1 ,1 9 , 2 3[ p p .8 a - 5 ] .3 1 , 3 2 ) ( inspiring writer, generouscolleague,beloved friend. 3. Introduction 4Teacher's notes.7 IArticles in general statements.7 2Articles in general and particular statements 3Past simple and present simple8 4willI 5zuill and going to l0 6usedto 10 7Past continuous1t 8Presentperfect t2 9Presentperfect and past simple t210Presentperfect continuoust311Pastperfectt412Past perfect continuous1513Future continuous1514Future perfect 1615Present,past and future of must, have to and can 1716 l-ma3,tlmightlcouldlmustlcan'thaztet717Active and passiveinfinitivesl818Comparativesand superlatives 1919 lVh- questions: mixed question forms2020If ... will202lIf ... would 2T22If ... would hazte 2I23If and uhen2224zuish2325Presentpassives2426Presentperfect and past perfect passives 2427Past passives2528Reported speech2629Time prepositions2630-ing and -ed participles 273lVerb + -ing or * to2832Constructions with preposition * -ing2833Relative clauses 2934Relative clauseswith extra information 3035Question tags3I36Verb + preposition 3237Adjective + preposition3338Noun * preposition 3) 39Phrasalverbs I 3440Phrasalverbs 2 35 Garnes rnaterial37 Rules sheets124 4. 1 About games language and anal-vscits components. Other exercises.like gramrnar drills, work by presenting students with grammaticai A game is an activity u'ith rules, a goal and an clemenr patterns to repeat and imitate, to help students absorb of fun. There are two kinds of games: contpetitiucgames, the langr,ragewithout pausing fbr too long to analysc it. in which players or teams race to be the first to reach the Some of the games in this book function more like the goal, and cooperatixegames, in r.vhich plavers or teams first tvpe of,practice exercise, some more like the second. work together torvards a common goal. Languagc games can be divided into twc'rfurther categories: ling uistic games and c ttr.unttuticgames. cttizte 3 About this book In linguistic gamesJ the goal of the game is linguistic The games in this book have been dcsigned to practise accuracy: in the case of these gramrnar games, using thegrammar, not to introduce or explain it. This book assumes correct grammmatical forms. Commun.icative games havc that the class has already met each grammar point, and a goal or aim that is not linguistic: successfulcompletionthat it has been explained in the textbook or course that of the game wili involr'e solving a pwzz.leor completingthev are folloi,ving. The gamcs are to be used as pracrice a picture. However, in order to carry out this task it will exercisesto help students get used to and remember be necessarl, to use language and by careful construction grammatical rules and patterns. Thel' are designed as fun of the task it is possible to restrict the language to certalnactivities to help lighten the load of grammar learning. grammatical structures and to ensurc that these are It is up to .vou, the teacher, to decide when and hor,v to practised intensivel-v. use them, but one suggestion is as light relief at the end In this book, there is a continuurn betu'een gamesof a lesson which has lbcused on grammar or after a session requiring strict linguistic accuracv at one end of the scaledoing more traditional, perhaps rvritten, grammar exerclses. and freer communicatir.c games at the other. In what I have called accurac.) games, there is only one right Types of game answerJe.g. only one possible match tbr a pair of cards Some games in the book are u'hat could be called 'choice' or only one right u'ord to fill a blank. ln production games) games. These tend to be more analytic, based on the the piayers have more lee'uva-v invent and create.to conscious application of a grammar rule. In them the For example, there is more than one possiblc match forplayers have to choose the correct linguistic form, rather pairs of cards, or players may be asked to complete as in traditional grantmar exercise types such as gap-fiIl, sentence frames in any u'ay their cxperience or irnaginationsentence completion, multiple choice, etc. The difference dictates. Contrrttuticatioil games have a freer structure is not onl1, that they are in game format, u'hich means the-v where players mav use a range of language, includingare more fun and lighter-hearted, but also thar in mosr the target language, to reach their goal. casesthere is a context for the game, whereas most Games can be used at any stage of thc lesson once the grammar exercises are a collection of unrelated sentences. target language has been introduced and explained.The context is verv often the students' oi.vn experiences, They serve both as a memory aid and repetition drilltastes and pret-erencessince I believe that a personal and as a chance to use language freely, as a means to element gives emotional colour to an cxercise and this is an end rather than an end in itself. They can also servea valuable memorv aid - if you have invested something as a diagnostic tool for the teacher, who can note areasof yourseif in an cxercise you are less likell, to forget it. of difficulty and take appropriate remedial actlon. (Besides which, it's fun!) These are the types of 'choice' games in the book: 2 About grammar ruatching: e.g. matching t'uvor.vords or phrases, matching half-sentences or matching words and pictures How do students acquire grammatical understanding and 'fithordering: e.g. ordering words to make a sentenceJ or accuracy?difficultl" is a short answer, but it scems ordering pictures and u'ords to make as long a sentence to me that students adopt two main approaches 1r.l'ith, as possible ofcourse, all sorts ofvariants and hybrids in betn'een1. coiltpleting:completing incompiete sentences or questions There are the analysts and thc absorbers those like "vhocontpetitions: e.g. see how many sentencesyou can make, to dissect language into little pieces to understand how how quickly you can unrnuddle sentences it is made, and those r.l'ho sr.vallowit rvhole in enormous card gantesand other.faniliar game 4rpe.r: e.g. bingo, guips without worrying too much about the recipe. Pelmanism, happl' families, consequences, board gamcsJDifferent t.vpes of grammar practice exercises reflect dominoes these two sryles of learning. Some, like gap-fi1ling, multiple tilentor! ganrcs: e.g. seeing hor,v many sentences players choice or word-order exercises, help students understand can remember and practise grammatical forms by getting them to segment4 5. 'reinforcement' way, this nced not deter you: the traditional arrangement Other games, r""hich could be called games, u'ork more like substitution dril1s or patternof front-facing desks can be easily adapted to pairwork, practice, getting students to internalise rules by repctitionwith peopie at adjoining desks u,orking together, while of patterns. These games are designed to provide small groups can be forrned by two people turning their intensivc repetition of a grammatical structure or structures' chairs round to face the people behind them. Whole-class but il,'ithin a meaningful context and, since these areactivities present a little more of a problem, but often games not drills, the repetition has a purpose: students there is a space big enough for the students to move are working towards winning or completing the game.around in at the front of the class, or desks can be pushed 'reinforcement' games in the book: back to clear a space in tht: centre. These are the rypes of inforntation gap ganes'. one player has access to some Sometimes an alternative small-group version of the information not held by thc other player or players, whole-class gam