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©2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 1 Key facts, figures and tables Overview of Australian Indigenous health status 2012

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2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 1 Key facts, figures and tables Overview of Australian Indigenous health status 2012 Slide 2 2 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Indigenous population At 30 June 2011, the estimated Australian Indigenous population was 669,736. In 2011, NSW had the highest number of Indigenous people (208,364 people, 31% of the total Indigenous population). In 2011, the NT had the highest proportion of Indigenous people in its population (30% of the NT population were Indigenous). In 2011, around 33% of Indigenous people lived in a capital city. There was a 21% increase in the number of Indigenous people counted in the 2011 Census compared with the 2006 Census. The Indigenous population is much younger than the non- Indigenous population. Slide 3 3 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Estimated Indigenous population, by jurisdiction, Australia, 30 June 2011 Source: ABS, 2012 Notes: 1.Preliminary estimates are subject to revision; population projections are expected to be finalised by 2014 2.Australian population includes Jervis Bay Territory, the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Christmas Island 3.Proportions of jurisdiction population have used total population figures estimated from demographic information for June 2011 JurisdictionIndigenous populationProportion of Australian Indigenous population (%)Proportion of jurisdiction population (%) NSW 208,36431.12.9 Vic 47,3277.10.9 Qld 188,89228.24.2 WA 88,27713.23.8 SA 37,3925.62.3 Tas 24,1553.64.7 ACT 6,1670.91.7 NT 68,90110.329.8 Australia 669,7361003.0 Slide 4 4 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Population pyramid of Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations, 30 June 2011 Source: ABS, 2012 Slide 5 5 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Births and pregnancy outcome In 2011, there were 17,621 births registered in Australia with one or both parents identified as Indigenous (6% of all births registered). In 2011, Indigenous mothers were younger than non-Indigenous mothers; the median age was 24.8 years for Indigenous mothers and 30.6 years for all mothers. In 2011, total fertility rates were 2,740 births per 1,000 for Indigenous women and 1,884 per 1,000 for all women. Slide 6 6 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet In 2010, the average birthweight of babies born to Indigenous mothers was 3,190 grams compared with 3,376 grams for babies born to non-Indigenous mothers. In 2010, the proportion of low birthweight babies born to Indigenous women was twice that of non-Indigenous women (12.0% compared with 6.0%). Slide 7 7 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Age-specific fertility rates, by Indigenous status of mother, selected jurisdictions, Australia, 2011 Source: ABS, 2012 Notes: 1.Rates per 1,000 women in each age-group 2.n.p. refers to numbers not available for publication, but included in totals where applicable 3.Figures are not provided for Tas and the ACT because of the small numbers involved and doubts about the level of identification of Indigenous births, but numbers for those jurisdictions are included in figures for Australia Status of mother / age-group (years) Jurisdiction NSWVicQldWASANTAustralia Indigenous mothers 15-19715485106728078 20-24157117163180153145155 25-29162128155154147115147 30-3411711111210110379105 35-3954645852383652 40-4411n.p.13n.p.10 11 All mothers 15-191492219154416 20-2451376658519852 25-2910190111107105 101 30-34125123117125121104122 35-3973746466625870 40-4416 131513n.p.15 Slide 8 8 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Total fertility rates, by Indigenous status of mother, selected jurisdictions, Australia, 2011 Source: ABS, 2011 Notes: 1.Total fertility rate is the number of children born to 1,000 women at the current level and age pattern of fertility 2.Figures are not provided for Tas and the ACT because of the small numbers involved and doubts about the level of identification of Indigenous births. Numbers for those jurisdictions are included in figures for Australia Status of mother Jurisdiction NSWVicQldWASANTAustralia Indigenous 2,8632,4862,9323,0112,6112,3232,740 All mothers 1,9081,7481,9641,9531,8472,1311,884 Slide 9 9 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Mean birthweights and percentage of low birthweight for babies born to Indigenous and all mothers, selected jurisdictions, Australia, 2010 Source: Li, Zeki, Hilder, and Sullivan, 2012 Notes: 1.Low birthweight is defined as less than 2,500 grams NSWVicQldWASANTAustralia Indigenous mothers Mean birthweight3,2333,2343,1993,1393,1303,1193,190 % low birthweight10.710.311.513.616.013.812.0 Non-Indigenous mothers Mean birthweight3,3763,3663,3823,3533,3443,2923,369 % low birthweight5.86.36.46.16.88.86.2 Slide 10 10 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Indigenous mortality In 2006-2010, the age-standardised death rate for Indigenous people was 1.9 times the rate for non-Indigenous people. Between 1991 and 2010, there was a 33% reduction in the death rates for Indigenous people in WA, SA and the NT. For Indigenous people born 2005-2007, life expectancy was estimated to be 67.2 years for males and 72.9 years for females, around 10-11 years less than the estimates for non-Indigenous males and females. In 2007-2011, age-specific death rates were higher for Indigenous people than for non-Indigenous people across all age-groups, and were much higher in the young and middle adult years. Slide 11 11 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet For 2009-2011, the infant mortality rate was higher for Indigenous infants than for non-Indigenous infants; the rate for Indigenous infants was highest in the NT. From 1991 to 2010, there were significant declines in infant mortality rates for Indigenous and non-Indigenous infants in WA, SA and the NT. For 2006 to 2010, the leading causes of death among Indigenous people were cardiovascular disease, neoplasms (almost entirely cancers), and injury. In 2003-2005, maternal mortality ratios were 2.7 times higher for Indigenous women than for non-Indigenous women. Slide 12 12 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Jurisdiction Indigenous rate Non-Indigenous rate Rate ratio NSW9625981.6 Qld1,0895971.8 WA1,4315742.5 SA1,0606151.7 NT1,5416452.4 NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT1,1515971.9 Age-standardised death rates, by Indigenous status, and Indigenous:non- Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT, 2006-2010 Source: Australian Health Ministers Advisory Council, 2012 Notes: 1.Rates per 100,000 are directly age-standardised using the 2001 Australia standard population 2.Rate ratio is the Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate 3.Due to the incomplete identification of Indigenous status, these figures probably under-estimate the true difference between Indigenous and non-Indigenous rates Slide 13 13 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet PopulationMalesFemales Indigenous Australia67.272.9 NSW69.975.0 Qld68.373.6 WA65.070.4 NT61.569.2 Total population Australia78.782.6 Expectation of life at birth in years for Indigenous people and the total population, by sex, selected jurisdictions, Australia, 2005-2007 Source: ABS, 2009 Note: The Australian Indigenous estimates are based on deaths in all states and territories Slide 14 14 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Age-group (years) IndigenousNon-IndigenousRate ratio MalesFemalesMalesFemalesMalesFemales NSW 076541.51.6 1-4413418172.22.0 51413111071.31.5 15-24812945201.81.5 25-3417410273302.43.4 35-44391228123673.23.4 45-548254152791693.02.5 55-64154310226633912.32.6 65+49114431419337321.2 Qld 087541.61.7 1-4505622172.33.4 51418 12101.51.9 15-241267156252.32.9 25-3424912386342.93.7 35-44515304128684.04.5 45-549295622701593.43.5 55-64173313846403722.73.7 65+61174921399335311.51.4 Age-specific death rates, by Indigenous status and sex, and Indigenous:non- Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT, 2007-2011 Slide 15 15 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Age-group (years) IndigenousNon-IndigenousRate ratio MalesFemalesMalesFemalesMalesFemales WA 0105333.41.8 1-4634822122.84.0 51438298.89.34.33.1 15-2424110656264.34.1 25-3440621989364.66.1 35-44834510121666.97.7 45-541,3881,0212601535.36.7 55-642,3811,6715793434.14.9 65+6,3805,2963,8193,4231.71.5 SA 067431.52.4 1-40.09026140.06.5 51417 7.97.42.12.4 15-241669655203.04.8 25-3434118888363.95.3 35-44684517147794.76.5 45-541,2788732931894.44.6 55-642,1311,4966773983.13.8 65+4,2483,8724,35939111.0 Age-specific death rates, by Indigenous status and sex, and Indigenous:non- Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT, 2007-2011 Slide 16 16 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Age-group (years) IndigenousNon-IndigenousRate ratio MalesFemalesMalesFemalesMalesFemales NT 01411433.63.3 1-4786032152.44.1 5145238208.62.64.4 15-24296112107392.8 25-3443824388355.07.0 35-44897638151506.012.8 45-541,5961,2113381604.77.6 55-642,9202,0047893003.76.7 65+6,5945,5313,41225631.92.2 Age-specific death rates, by Indigenous status and sex, and Indigenous:non- Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT, 2007-2011 Source: ABS, 2012 Notes: 1.Rates are per 1,000 2.Rate ratio is the Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate 3.Due to the small number of deaths registered in Vic, Tas and the ACT, information for these jurisdictions have been excluded Slide 17 17 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Jurisdiction Indigenous Non- Indigenous Rate ratio MalesFemalesMalesFemalesMalesFemales NSW5.13.94.43.41.21.1 Qld9.96.85.24.11.91.7 SA4.36.63.62.91.22.3 WA10.23.73.32.63.11.4 NT14.311.63.04.24.82.8 Infant mortality rates, by Indigenous status and sex, and Indigenous:non- Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Qld, SA, WA and the NT, 2009-2011 Source: Derived from ABS, 2012 Notes: 1.Infant mortality rate is the number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births 2.Rate ratio is the Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate 3.The Indigenous rates are likely to be under-estimated, due to the incomplete identification of Indigenous status on births and deaths records 4.Due to the small number of deaths registered in Vic, Tas and the ACT, these jurisdictions have been excluded Slide 18 18 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Cause of death Rate Rate ratio IndigenousNon-Indigenous Circulatory diseases3512011.7 Neoplasms2451781.4 Endocrine, metabolic and nutritional disorders (including diabetes)118225.4 Respiratory diseases112492.3 External causes84372.3 Digestive diseases58202.8 Kidney diseases40113.5 Nervous system diseases27241.1 Infectious and parasitic diseases258.72.9 Conditions originating in the perinatal period6.02.82.2 Other causes85432.0 All causes1,1515971.9 Age-standardised death rates, by Indigenous status and cause, and Indigenous:non-Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT, 2004-2008 Source: Australian Health Ministers Advisory Council, 2012 Notes: 1.Due to under-identification of Indigenous deaths, these rates are likely to under-estimate the true differences between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations 2.Rates per 100,000 population have been standardised using the 2001 Australian population as the standard 3.Rate ratios are the Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate Slide 19 19 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Indigenous statusConfinementsMaternal deathsMaternal mortality ratio Indigenous27,901 Direct and indirect maternal deaths 621.5 Direct maternal deaths 27.2 Non-Indigenous745,347 Direct and indirect maternal deaths 597.9 Direct maternal deaths 273.6 Numbers of confinements and maternal deaths, and maternal mortality ratios, by Indigenous status, Australia, 2003-2005 Source: Derived from Sullivan, Hall, King, 2008 Notes: 1.Maternal mortality ratio is the number of maternal deaths divided by the number of confinements (in 100,000s). 2.Due to some uncertainty about the numbers of Indigenous deaths and confinements, some caution must be exercised in the interpretation of the ratios 3.The non-Indigenous numbers and ratios include deaths for which Indigenous status was not known. This probably results in a slight, unknown over-estimate of non-Indigenous numbers and ratios, and a resultant under-estimate of the differences between Indigenous and non- Indigenous women Slide 20 20 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Indigenous hospitalisation In 2010-11, 4.0% of all hospitalisations were of Indigenous people. In 2010-11, the age-standardised separation rate for Indigenous people was 2.5 times higher than that for other Australians. In 2010-11, the main cause of hospitalisation for Indigenous people was for care involving dialysis, responsible for 44% of Indigenous separations. Slide 21 21 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Jurisdiction IndigenousNon-Indigenous Rate ratio NumberRateNumberRate NSW64,2705592,530,4213361.7 Vic19,1127722,352,3994061.9 Qld81,7548061,741,7973882.1 WA67,9441,440898,0893973.6 SA21,4351,097652,0003643.0 NT72,9201,70431,5132167.9 All jurisdictions327,4359118,206,2203672.5 Numbers of hospital separations and age-standardised separation rates, by Indigenous status and jurisdiction, and Indigenous:non-Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Vic, Qld, WA, SA and the NT, 2010-11 Source: AIHW, 2012 Notes: 1.Rates per 1,000 population 2.Non-Indigenous rates and numbers include separations for which Indigenous status was not stated 3.Rate ratio is the Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate 4.Numbers and rates for the NT are for public hospitals only 5.The incomplete identification of Indigenous status means that these figures probably under-estimate the true difference between Indigenous and non-Indigenous rates Slide 22 22 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Age- group (years) MalesFemales Indigenous rateNon-Indigenous rateRate ratioIndigenous rateNon-Indigenous rateRate ratio 0-43402451.42751871.5 5-91321021.3104801.3 10-14106841.391711.3 15-191431281.12951741.7 20-242001291.54922492.0 25-292651322.05563141.8 30-343651552.46283801.7 35-396341893.47513542.1 40-449062284.08903052.9 45-491,1612794.21,2643114.1 50-541,4133633.91,4243733.8 55-591,6314803.42,0154394.6 60-642,0016613.02,1695444.0 65+1,9471,2881.52,0839432.2 Age-specific hospital separation rates, by sex and Indigenous status, and Indigenous:non-Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Vic, Qld, WA, SA and the NT, 2010-11 Source: Derived from AIHW, 2012, ABS, 2009, ABS, 2012 Notes: 1.Numbers include separations for which Indigenous status was not stated 2.Rates are expressed as separations per 1,000 population 3.Rate ratio is the Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate 4.The rates have not been adjusted for likely under-identification of Indigenous separations, so it is likely that the Indigenous rates, and hence the rate ratios, could be 25-30% higher Slide 23 23 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Principal diagnosisNumber of separationsProportion of separations (excl dialysis) (%)Ratio Injury24,365132.0 Pregnancy-related20,524111.6 Respiratory diseases19,471112.8 Digestive diseases16,6479.01.1 Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings15,4708.41.5 Mental and behavioural disorders13,8247.52.1 Circulatory diseases9,8175.31.6 Genitourinary diseases8,6184.71.3 Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue7,7304.22.5 Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue diseases5,9563.20.8 Infectious/parasitic diseases5,7423.12.0 Cancers4,6892.50.7 All causes, excluding dialysis184,1291001.3 Numbers and proportions for leading causes of Indigenous hospital separations (excluding dialysis), and Indigenous:non-Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Vic, Qld, WA, SA and the NT, 2010-11 Source: AIHW, 2012 Notes: 1.Excludes hospitalisation for dialysis 2.Numbers and rates for the NT are for public hospitals only 3.Ratios are the standardised separation rates for Indigenous people divided by the standardised separation rates for non-Indigenous people (non-Indigenous includes separations for which Indigenous status was not stated) 4.Due to the incomplete identification of Indigenous status, these figures probably under-estimate the true difference between Indigenous and non-Indigenous rates Slide 24 24 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Cardiovascular disease In 2004-2005, 12% of Indigenous people reported having a long- term heart or related condition; after age-adjustment, these conditions were around 1.3 times more common for Indigenous people than for non-Indigenous people. In 2010-11, Indigenous people were hospitalised for cardiovascular diseases at 1.6 times the rate of non-Indigenous people. In 2006-2010, cardiovascular disease was the leading cause of death for Indigenous people, accounting for 26% of Indigenous deaths. In 2006-2010, the age-adjusted death rate for Indigenous people was 1.7 times the rate for non-Indigenous people. Slide 25 25 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Cancer In 2004-2008, age-adjusted cancer incidence rates were slightly higher for Indigenous people than for non-Indigenous people. In 2004-2008, the most common cancers diagnosed among Indigenous people were lung and breast cancer. In 2010-11, age-standardised hospitalisation rates for cancer were lower for Indigenous people than for non-Indigenous people. In 2006-2010, the age-standardised death rate for cancer for Indigenous people was 1.4 times higher than that for non- Indigenous people. Slide 26 26 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Site of primary cancerIndigenous peopleNon-Indigenous peopleRate ratio Lung80431.9 Breast (females)821040.8 Prostate (males)1051480.7 Bowel48590.8 Cervix (females)1872.8 Pancreas15101.5 Non-Hodgkin lymphoma14160.9 Skin (melanoma)9320.3 Unknown primary site24121.9 Age-standardised incidence rates for selected cancers, by Indigenous status, and Indigenous:non-Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Qld, WA and the NT, 2004-2008 Source: AIHW and Australasian Association of Cancer Registries, 2012 Notes: 1.Rates per 100,000 population 2.Ratio is the Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate 3.Rates are age-standardised to the Australian population at 20 June 2001 4.Due to the incomplete identification of Indigenous status, these figures probably under-estimate the true difference between Indigenous and non-Indigenous rates 5.Levels of missing data on Indigenous identification for prostate cancer (16%) and melanoma of the skin (41%) were particularly high Slide 27 27 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Site of primary cancerIndigenous peopleNon-Indigenous peopleRate ratio Lung61341.8 Breast (female)27221.3 Prostate (males)30 1.0 Bowel15170.9 Pancreas13101.3 Cervix (females)824.4 Non-Hodgkin lymphoma560.9 Skin (melanoma)260.4 Unknown primary site17101.7 Age-standardised death rates for selected cancers, by Indigenous status, and Indigenous:non-Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT, 2006-2010 Source: AIHW and Australasian Association of Cancer Registries, 2012 Notes: 1.Rates per 100,000 population 2.Ratio is the Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate 3.Rates are age-standardised to the Australian population at 20 June 2001 4.Due to the incomplete identification of Indigenous status, these figures probably under-estimate the true difference between Indigenous and non-Indigenous rates 5.Levels of missing data on Indigenous identification for prostate cancer (16%) and melanoma of the skin (41%) were particularly high Slide 28 28 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Diabetes In 2004-2005, 6% of Indigenous people reported having diabetes; after age-adjustment, Indigenous people were 3.4 times more likely to report having some form of diabetes than were non-Indigenous people. In 2006-08, age-adjusted hospitalisation rates for diabetes for Indigenous males and females were 3.4 and 5.0 times the rates of other males and females. In 2004-2008, Indigenous people died from diabetes at almost seven times the rate of non-Indigenous people. Slide 29 29 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Age-group (years)Proportions of Indigenous people (%)Proportions of non-Indigenous people (%)Ratio 15-241.00.51.9 25-344.30.66.8 35-4410.02.05.1 45-5420.74.05.2 55+32.111.62.8 Proportions of people reporting diabetes/high sugar levels as a long-term health condition, by Indigenous status, and Indigenous:non-Indigenous ratios, Australia, 2004-2005 Source: ABS, 2006 Notes: 1.Proportions are expressed as percentages 2.Ratio is the Indigenous proportion divided by the non-Indigenous proportion Slide 30 30 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Social and emotional wellbeing In 2008, 79% of Indigenous adults experienced at least one significant stressor in the previous 12 months; the comparable figure for the total population was 62% in 2010. In 2008, after age-adjustment, Indigenous people were 2.6 times as likely as non-Indigenous people to feel high or very high levels of psychological distress. In 2008, 90% of Indigenous people reported feeling happy either some, most, or all of the time. Slide 31 31 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet In 2010-11, after age-adjustment, Indigenous people were hospitalised for ICD Mental and behavioural disorders at 2.1 times the rate for non-Indigenous people. In 2010, the death rate for ICD Intentional self-harm (suicide) for Indigenous people was 2.4 times the rate reported for non- Indigenous people. Slide 32 32 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Type of stressor Indigenous status / year Proportion of Indigenous people (%) Proportion of total population (%) 20082010 Death of a family member or close friend4023 Serious illness or disability3330 Not able to get a job2315 Alcohol-related problems218 Mental illness1713 Pregnancy17-- Drug-related problems15-- Trouble with the police154 You, a family member or friend spent time in jail13-- Overcrowding at home13-- Treated badly/discrimination10-- Total reporting stressor(s)7962 Proportions of stressors reported in the previous 12 months, by Indigenous status, year and stressor type, Australia, 2008 and 2010 Source: AIHW, 2011 and ABS, 2011 Notes: 1.Proportions are expressed as percentages 2.The content of this table is restricted to the more frequently reported stressors 3.Data have not been age-standardised 4.The total population proportion for serious illness or disability data has been estimated by adding proportions for the two sub-components together, so may slightly overstate the true proportion 5.The 2010 GSS combined alcohol and drug related problems within the one sub-category Slide 33 33 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet JurisdictionIndigenousNon-IndigenousRate ratio NSW1081.2 Qld22121.9 WA36113.2 SA22112.0 NT28141.9 Age-standardised death rates for intentional self-harm, by Indigenous status and Indigenous:non-Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT, 2006-2010 Source: ABS, 2012 Notes: 1.Rate per 100,000 population 2.Rate ratio is the Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate 3.Due to the incomplete identification of Indigenous status, these figures probably under-estimate the true differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people Slide 34 34 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Age-group (years) IndigenousNon-IndigenousRate ratio MaleFemaleMaleFemaleMaleFemale 15-2455241344.46.5 25-347220 33.76.3 35-4451212432.18.4 Age-specific death rates for intentional self-harm, by Indigenous status, sex and selected age-groups, and Indigenous:non-Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT, 2006-2010 Source: ABS, 2012 Notes: 1.Age-specific rates per 100,000 population 2.Rate ratio is the Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate 3.Due to the incomplete identification of Indigenous status, these figures under-estimate the true differences between Indigenous and non- Indigenous people Slide 35 35 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Kidney health In 2006-2010, after age-adjustment, the notification rate of end stage renal disease was 7.2 times higher for Indigenous people than for non-Indigenous people. In 2010-11, care involving dialysis was the most common reason for hospitalisation among Indigenous people; Indigenous people were hospitalised at 11.4 times the rate for other Australians. In 2006-2010, the age-standardised death rate from kidney disease was four times higher for Indigenous people than for non- Indigenous people. Slide 36 36 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Jurisdiction IndigenousNon-Indigenous Rate ratio NumberRateNumberRate NSW1292843,647982.9 Vic414642,7161034.5 Qld2997302,1291037.1 WA2221,0141,0129710.5 SA769248401078.6 NT3241,579547920.0 Australia1,10470210,914977.2 Numbers of notifications and age-standardised notification rates for end- stage renal disease, by Indigenous status, and Indigenous:non-Indigenous rate ratios, selected jurisdictions, Australia, 2006-2010 Source: Derived from ANZDATA, 2010, ABS, 2008, ABS, 2001, ABS, 2009 Notes: 1.Rates per 1,000,000 population have been standardised using the ERP from 30 June 2001 2.Rate ratio is the Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate 3.Notification rates for Tas and the ACT have not been shown separately because of the small numbers of notifications, but are included in the figures for Australia Slide 37 37 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Age-group (years) IndigenousNon-Indigenous Rate ratio NumberRateNumberRate 0-145513470.7 15-241935240172.1 25-3477206497346.0 35-442407088805812.2 45-543481,4371,54710613.5 55-642872,1062,28219111.0 65-741091,8512,7753744.9 75+197132,5593841.9 All ages1,10470210,914977.2 Numbers of notifications and notification rates of end-stage renal disease, by Indigenous status and age-group, and Indigenous:non-Indigenous rate ratios, Australia, 2006-2010 Source: Derived from ANZDATA, 2010, ABS, 2008, ABS, 2001, ABS, 2009 Notes: 1.Rates per 1,000,000 population 2.Rate ratio is the Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate 3.Rates for All ages are age-standardised Slide 38 38 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Injury In 2010-11, after age-adjustment, Indigenous people were hospitalised for injury at 2.0 times the rate for other Australians. In 2006-08, the hospitalisation rate for assault was 36 times higher for Indigenous women than for other women. In 2010, injury was the third most common cause of death among Indigenous people, accounting for 14% of Indigenous deaths. Slide 39 39 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Respiratory disease In 2004-2005, 27% of Indigenous people reported having a respiratory condition, with 15% having asthma; after age- adjustment, the levels of respiratory disease were similar for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people. In 2010-11, the age-standardised hospitalisation rate for respiratory disease was 2.8 times higher for Indigenous people than for other Australians. In 2010, after age-adjustment, the death rate for Indigenous people was 2.6 times that for non-Indigenous people. Slide 40 40 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet MalesFemalesPersons RateRate ratioRateRate ratioRateRate ratio Chronic lower respiratory diseases953.0633.2763.1 Pneumonia and influenza272.1221.8242.0 Other respiratory disease221.2100.9151.1 Total respiratory disease1442.3952.21162.3 Age-standardised death rates for respiratory disease, Indigenous people, by sex and condition, and Indigenous:non-Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT, 2004-2008 Source: AIHW, 2011 Notes: 1.Chronic lower respiratory diseases include asthma, bronchitis and emphysema 2.Rates, in deaths per 100,000, are directly age-standardised using the Australian 2001 standard population, by 5-year age-group to 75+ Slide 41 41 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Eye health In 2004-2005, eye and sight problems were reported by 30% of Indigenous people. In 2008, the rate of low vision for Indigenous adults aged 40 years and older was 2.8 times higher than for their non-Indigenous counterparts. In 2008, the rate of blindness for Indigenous adults aged 40 years and older was 6.2 times higher than for their non-Indigenous counterparts. Slide 42 42 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Bilateral vision loss and blindness among Indigenous adults, by type of eye problem, 2008, Australia Source: NIEHS 2009 Slide 43 43 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Ear health In 2004-2005, ear/hearing problems were reported by 12% of Indigenous people. In 2008-10, the hospitalisation rate for Indigenous people for all ear disease was 1.3 times higher than the non-Indigenous rate. Slide 44 44 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Oral health In 2000-2003, Indigenous children had more caries in their deciduous and permanent teeth than did non-Indigenous children; they also had higher levels of gingivitis. In 2004-2006, caries and periodontal diseases were more prevalent among Indigenous adults than among non-Indigenous adults. Slide 45 45 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Disability In 2008, after age-adjustment, Indigenous people were 2.2 times as likely as non-Indigenous people to have a profound/core activity restriction. Slide 46 46 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Age-group (years)Proportions of Indigenous people (%)Proportions of non-Indigenous people (%)Ratio 18-242.51.32.0 25-342.81.22.3 35-444.91.72.8 45-548.22.73.1 55-6413.24.82.8 65+20.213.41.5 All ages8.44.12.1 Proportions of people aged 18 years or older needing assistance with core activities, by Indigenous status and age-group, Australia, 2006 Source: ABS, AIHW 2008 Notes: 1.Proportions are expressed as percentages; proportions for All ages have been standardised using the 2001 Australian standard population; ratio is Indigenous proportion divided by the non-Indigenous proportion 2.Ratio is Indigenous proportion divided by the non-Indigenous proportion 3.ABS notes that needing assistance with core activities is conceptually related to the presence of a profound/core activity restriction Slide 47 47 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Age-group (years)Proportions of Indigenous people (%)Proportions of non-Indigenous people (%)Ratio 18-246.33.02.1 25-346.22.42.6 35-446.23.02.1 45-5410.24.12.5 55+17.78.52.1 All ages10.34.72.2 Proportions of persons 18 years or older with profound/core activity restriction, persons, by Indigenous status and age-group, and Indigenous:non-Indigenous ratios, non-remote areas of Australia, 2008 Source: Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision, 2011 Notes: 1.Ratio is the Indigenous percentage divided by the non-Indigenous percentage 2.Proportions for All ages is age standardised 3.ABS notes that needing assistance with core activities is conceptually related to the presence of a profound/core activity restriction Slide 48 48 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet YearsNSWVicQldWASATasACTNTAust 2007-0814481526437.3182320 2008-0919631832498.1272425 2009-10256219364612431628 Proportion (%) of Indigenous potential population aged 0-64 years accessing state/territory-delivered disability support services, by years and jurisdiction Source: Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision, 2012 Slide 49 49 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Communicable diseases In 2005-2009, after age-adjustment, the notification rate for tuberculosis was 11.1 times higher for Indigenous people than for Australian-born non-Indigenous people. In 2009-2011, the crude notification rate for hepatitis C for Indigenous people was 3.6 times the notification rate for non- Indigenous people. The crude notification rate for hepatitis B was the same for both populations. In 2010, notification rates for Haemophilus influenza type b were 20 times higher for Indigenous people than for non-Indigenous people. In 2006-2008, the age-standardised rate of invasive pneumococcal disease was 7.3 times higher for Indigenous people than for other Australians. Slide 50 50 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet In 2003-2006, the age-standardised notification rate of meningococcal disease was 2.6 times higher for Indigenous people than for other Australians; the rate for Indigenous children aged 0-4 years was 4.9 times higher than that for their non-Indigenous counterparts. In 2009-2011, Indigenous people had higher crude notification rates for gonorrhoea, syphilis and chlamydia than did non-Indigenous people; Indigenous notification rates ranged from 5.6 to 64 times higher than the rates for non-Indigenous people. In 2011, age-standardised rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis were similar for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people. In some remote communities, more than 70% of young children had scabies and pyoderma. Slide 51 51 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet JurisdictionNumberRate NSW212.7 Vic42.3 Qld486.5 WA61.7 SA64.2 Tas22.1 ACT00.0 NT6520.0 Australia1525.8 Numbers of new cases and crude notification rates of tuberculosis among Indigenous people, by jurisdiction, Australia, 2005-2009 Source: Roche, 2007, Roche, 2008, Barry, 2009, Barry, 2012, ABS, 2007 and ABS, 2009 Notes: 1.Population figures are for 30 June 2007 (the mid-point of the five-year period, 2005-2009) 2.Rates are crude incidence rates per 100,000 population Slide 52 52 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Age-group (years) IndigenousNon-Indigenous Rate ratio NumberRateNumberRate 0-451.5550.91.8 5-14121.8470.45.1 15-24173.3700.56.6 25-34256.8710.514 35-44309.0470.329 45-543113.3620.431 55-641914.8600.529 65+1315.82361.79.2 All ages1525.86480.611.1 Source: Derived from: Roche, 2007, Roche, 2008, Barry, 2009, Barry, 2012, ABS, 2007 and ABS, 2009 Notes: 1.Rates are per 100,000 population 2.Any discrepancy between the figures shown for All ages and the sum of the number for the specific age-groups is due to age not being stated in the notification 3.Rate ratio is the Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate 4.The rate ratio for 'All ages' is the standardised incidence ratio, which is the number of Indigenous cases reported divided by the number expected if the Indigenous population had the same age-specific rates as the non-Indigenous population Numbers of new cases and notification rates of tuberculosis, by Indigenous status and age-group, and Indigenous:non-Indigenous rate ratios, Australia, 2005-2009 Slide 53 53 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Nutrition In 2004-2005, the majority of Indigenous people reported eating fruit (86%) and vegetables (95%) on a daily basis. In 2004-2005, 13% of Indigenous people reported having no usual daily fruit intake (compared with 7% of non-Indigenous people), and 5% reported no usual daily vegetables intake (compared with 1% of non-Indigenous people). Slide 54 54 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Physical activity In 2008, 30% of Indigenous adults took part in some type of physical activity or sport in the previous 12 months. In 2004-2005, after age-adjustment, 51% of Indigenous people in non-remote areas reported low or very low levels of activity, compared with 33% of non-Indigenous people. Slide 55 55 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Bodyweight In 2004-2005, 57% of Indigenous adults were classified as overweight or obese; after age-adjustment, the level of obesity/overweight was 1.2 times higher for Indigenous people than for non-Indigenous people. Slide 56 56 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Immunisation In 2004-2005, 88% of Indigenous children 0-6 years in non-remote areas were fully immunised against the recommended vaccine- preventable diseases. Slide 57 57 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Breastfeeding In 2004-2005, 84% of Indigenous mothers breastfed their children; the proportion breastfeeding was higher in remote areas than in non-remote areas. Slide 58 58 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Tobacco use In 2008, 47% of Indigenous adults were current smokers; after age- adjustment, this proportion was 2.3 times higher than the proportion among non-Indigenous adults Between 1994 and 2008, there has been a decline in the number of cigarettes smoked daily among Indigenous people. In 2009, almost 50% of Indigenous mothers reported smoking during pregnancy; this level is 3.8 times that of their non-Indigenous counterparts. Slide 59 59 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Alcohol use In 2008, 35% of Indigenous adults abstained from alcohol; this level was 2.5 times higher than that among the total Australian population In 2004-2005, after age-adjustment, Indigenous people were twice as likely as non-Indigenous people to have consumed alcohol at short-term risky/high risk levels at least once a week in the previous 12 months. In 2008-10, after age-adjustment, Indigenous males were hospitalised at five times and Indigenous females at four times the rates of their non-Indigenous counterparts for a principal diagnosis related to alcohol use. In 2006-2010, the age-standardised death rates alcohol-related deaths for Indigenous males and females were five and eight times higher, respectively, than those for their non-counterparts. Slide 60 60 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet Illicit drug use In 2008, 23% of Indigenous adults reported that they had used an illicit substance in the previous 12 months; this is 1.6 times the level among non-Indigenous people in 2010. In 2005-2009, the rate of drug-induced deaths was 1.5 times higher for Indigenous people than for non-Indigenous people. Slide 61 61 www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet 2013 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet2012 Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet JurisdictionIndigenous rateNon-Indigenous rateRate ratio NSW11.55.52.1 Qld4.04.30.9 WA9.35.41.7 SA17.86.32.8 NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT7.85.31.5 Rates of drug induced deaths, persons, by Indigenous status and sex, and Indigenous:non-Indigenous rate ratios, NSW, Qld, WA, SA, and the NT, 2005-2009 Source: Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision, 2011 Notes: 1.Rates are per 100,000 (indirect standardisation) 2.Non-Indigenous does not include deaths where Indigenous status is not stated 3.Separate rates for the NT were not provided due to low numbers of deaths