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GARMENT EXPORTS A A GARMENT INDUSTRY DEPARTMENTS AND WORKING GARMENT INDUSTRY DEPARTMENTS AND WORKING RAJESH.K 1 Summer Internship Report

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GARMENT EXPORTS

A A

GARMENT IINDUSTRY DEPARTMENTS AND WORKIING GARMENT NDUSTRY DEPARTMENTS AND W ORK NG

RAJESH.K

1 Summer Internship Report

GARMENT EXPORTS

TABLE OF CONTENTSCHAPTER 1 DEPARTMENTS 2.1. MERCHANDISING 2.2. SAMPLING DEPARTMENT 2.3. FABRIC SOURCING 2.4. PURCHASING DEPARTMENT 2.5. FABRIC AUDIT DEPARTMENT 2.6. ACCESSORY STORES DEPARTMENT 2.7.PLANNING DEPARTMENT 2.8 .LABORATORY DEPARTMENT 2.9. MACHINE MAINTENANCE TITLE

2.10. CAD ROOM2.11. CUTTING ROOM 2.12. PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT 2.13. IED DEPARTMENT 2.14. EMBROIDERY DEPARTMENT 2.15. WASHING DEPARTMENT 2.16.QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT 2.17.FINISHING DEPARTMENT

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CHAPTER 2 2.1. MERCHANDISINGMerchandising is a process through which products are planned, developed, executed and presented to the buyer. It includes directing and overseeing the development of product line from start to finish. Marketing and merchandising department: A team of merchandisers and marketers work together under a profit controls head. Merchandisers handle the foreign buyers. The teams are made according to the buyers being handled. Two type of merchandising done in garment exportsy y

Marketing merchandising. Product merchandising.

Marketing merchandisingMain function of marketing merchandising is3 Summer Internship Report

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y y y

Product Development Costing Ordering

Marketing merchandising is to bring orders costly products development and it has direct contact with the buyer.

Product merchandisingProduct merchandising is done in the unit. This includes all the responsibilities from sourcing to finishing i.e. first sample onwards, the products merchandising work start and ends till shipment.

A Merchandisers key responsibility is as follows:y y y y y y y y y y y

Product Development Market and product Analysis Selling the concept Booking orders Confirming Deliveries Designing and Sampling Costing Raw Material Flow Monitoring Production Follow Ups Payments Follows

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Department structure

MARKETING MERCHANDISER

HEAD MERCHANDISER

SENIOR MERCHANDISER

JUNIOR MERCHANDISER

In an export house, merchandising is a combination of business and technical aspects. Senior merchandisers have responsibilities of products development and coordinating with the buyer, the garment styles that meets buyers expectations in regards to delivery, quality, and price point. Junior merchandisers have the responsibility of handling paper work and follow up, detailing with buyers, overseas communication etc. Once the order is placed it is their duty to complete the necessary paper work, provide breakdown information to all other department and get samples approved for fit, color and quality. Communications with overseas and domestic suppliers, approval of production samples, and development of fabric and yarns are also included in product development, which are co-coordinated with other departments. Merchandisers have to negotiate with the buyers on pricing, work out delivery schedules, and investigate for future buyers. Overall we can say that merchandising is the core department of the entire industry.

CostingThe most important activity for the merchant is to estimate correctly and negotiate for the cost of production before the buyer sends on his PO .During the pre-development stage an initial costing occurs to get an idea of the garment cost likely to be incurred per piece.5 Summer Internship Report

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These costs includes general raw material cost, manufacturing cost, washing cost, markup cost etc. Once the production sample is approved and the grading done a final costing is done accurately using fabric averages from the CAD, cost of trims etc.

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GARMENT EXPORTSStart

Obtain tech pack from buyer

Costing

Sampling

Analyze fabric consumption from CAD

Analyze cost of trims and fabric

Obtain general sewing data from IED

Develop sample as per the tech pack

Prepare cost sheet from sample

Develop proto sample

Cost sheet & sample sent to buyer for approval

Confirmation of order

Yes

Approval

No

Cost sheet reworked

Obtain PCD & details from production unit

Source trims & fabric from concerned dept.

Book washing & embroidery capacity if required

Obtain GSD from IED

Execution of order by entering details in ERP

Prepare sample as per buyer requirements

Forward the sample to buyer for approval

Hold pre production meeting with the production unit

Yes

Approval

No

Comments received from buyer should be incorporated and fit sample reworked Offer garments for final inspection. Truck out Follow up on the payments for goods

Execute bulk order

Follow up with production departments & update the buyer

Submit required documents to documentation dept

End

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2.2. SAMPLING DEPARTMENT

BASIC WORK FLOW; In any export house, the sampling department is one of the most important departments and it plays a vital in the uplifting of a unit. Sampling department directly co-ordinates with the merchandising and production department. Sampling is done to see how the product will look like when produced in bulk and to check whether there are any discrepancies in the pattern are made according to the buyers specification. Merchandiser procures order from the buyer. The buyer sends spec sheet, sketches, fabric details, embellishment details, stitch type etc to the merchandiser. Merchandiser files this information along with the details regarding costing, average, proto, fit, correction, size set and approval in to a style package and hands it over to the Sampling department head. Sampling is the product development stage. It is a process by which a small number of garments are made so as to match the buyer requirement and to get approval from the buyer so as to start off the production. The sampled garments represent the accuracy of the patterns and quality of production skills and techniques. The samples not only serve the purpose of communicating correctly with the buyer regarding their styles and products, but it also helps to calculate the fabric consumption along with that of thread and other accessories used. It is different from bulk production as here each tailor is multi skilled. This department makes samples on the basis of specifications and requirements sent by the buyer in the tech pack.

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TYPES OF SAMPLES Proto Sample: Fit Sample: Pilot Run Sample: Pre Production Sample: Pre Size set: Size Set: TOP Sample: Shipment Sample: Sales Sample:

Machine details There were a total of 300 machines in the sampling department.y y y y

250 operators 5 cutting tables 8 pattern making tables 1 conveyor belt fusing machine

Finishing machinesy y

11 ironing tables 1 shirt folding machine

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The Details Attached to the Garment Sample After the confirmation of order, each sample sent to the buyer has the following details attached to it, with the help of a tag. It contains the details pertaining to both, what the buyer has demanded and what supplement fabric/trim etc they have used (if applicable).y y y y y y y y

Ref no. Color Fabric Composition Description Quantity Style no/ Size Store

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Tech pack received from merchant

Develop patterns

Costing CAD marker

Develop sample

Develop fit/proto sampleIf any comments If no comments

Revise Fit/Proto sampleIf any comments

PP sampleIf no comments

Revise PP sampleIf any comments

Size set sampleIf no comments

Incorporate buyer commentsIf any comments

Sealer sampleIf no comments

Incorporate buyer comments

Fig 3: Workflow of sampling

Bulk production (shrinkage to be added if it s a wash

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2.3. FABRIC SOURCINGFabric sourcing department is basically engaged in determining how and where its merchandise i.e fabric will be obtained. It works in co-ordination with the merchandising department and looks after the delivery of the required goods within the scheduled time and cost. A fabric sourcer must have a knowledge about all varieties of fabric in order to execute their function effectively.

STORAGE Location system of storage is followed i.e. fabric packages are stored in two areas (a)Checked fabric and (b) Unchecked fabric. Such system maintenance of the store makes it easy to locate the fabric whenever needed in future. FABRIC ISSUE The fabric store issues the fabric for cutting on challan. All fabric is not issued at one go; instead it is issued as required. The challan contains information regarding style no, color, buyers name, and quantity to be issued and issued for which production unit.

FABRIC SOURCING

Fabric requisition from merchandiser

Order placed

Fabric receive invoice/challan

Unloading after checking

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Tally with supplier invoice for quantity

Send bill to gate for entry

Receive fabric in store

Forward fabric for inspection

Inspection report sends to the concern merchant or sourcing dept.

After comments reentry in the system with final comments if rejected or accepted

If accepted

Relocation in store

Issue against job order

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Sampling

Start

Bulk

Technical analysis. Vendor evaluation/selection

Receiving order from merchants

Order PlacementIf Ok

Technical analysis If not Ok

S/Off

Rate quotation from suppliers

Supplier selection

Submit to buyer

Redo S/Off

Sampling yardage/ lab tests

Resubmission

POP Review & P.O Confirmation

Final approval by buyer

P.O Release to supplier

Fabric receipt Bulk

Co-ordinate with fabric audit & factory for quantity and quality checking.

End

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2.4. PURCHASING DEPARTMENTFunctioning of the Department:

The purchasing department is similar to the sourcing department but the main difference is that the sourcing department works for sourcing the fabrics alone while the purchasing department works for sourcing the accessories and trims. However, the working procedure is the same. The working is as follows.

The merchandisers give the techpack and the BOM (Bill Of Materials) for a particular style to the purchasing department and the concerned person will start the further process and for costing purposes the in-house price is given like, the cost involved in the production and also the price involved for a unit involved with respect to the complete procedure involved for its production. In the process of doing the in-house price , suppose the cost of 100 pieces of button is Rs.32 then a Taxes of 2% + 14% of exercise duty + 10% of per unit price is added as the transportation charges and this all together makes the in-house price (a hidden margin of 5% is also taken into consideration).

This breakup is given to the merchandiser by the purchasing department for the costing purpose, the cost sheet is made by the merchandisers and the order is confirmed by the buyer based on the cost sheet given by the merchandiser.

After the order is being confirmed by the buyer the merchandiser will sit with the other concerned departments and then the exact quantity required and the breakup of the trims and accessories with respect to colour, size, MOQ, etc., will be given by the merchandiser to the purchasing department in the form of a sheet which is generally followed in the industry for all the orders irrespective of the buyer.

Once the purchasing department receives this format, then the PO is sent to the concerned department for accessories and trims. Once the first shot of the raw materials is sent by the supplier then the lab dips is done and is approved by the buyer.

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After receiving the goods from the supplier they are checked for the quantity and also checked according to the inspection criteria specified by the buyer and replaced if any of them are not meeting this criterion. This department also keeps in track of all the quantities received in-house timely. The goods are generally received in breakups as suggested by the merchandiser according to the requirements stated by the planning and the production department and this breakups will have specified date and quantity and if this breakups is not being mentioned then the order is being placed with the supplier several times for small quantities and POs have to be sent all the time so, in order to overcome this a breakups are being is given. Then the purchase department has to follow up with the supplier for deliveries as and when the merchandiser asks for the new set of the materials for that particular style and then the department also has to maintain the receipts and also they have to maintain the documents of the inspections that are being carried out for those materials.

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Booking from merchants

If Yes

Check existing stock

If No

Adjust existing qty

Supplier price Quotation and negotiation

Proposals

PO conformationRaising PO in ERP

PO sendingSend PO to accounts

Follow ups for the Shipping doc sfor imports only

Sending doc s to documentation dept.- for imports only

Follow up with stores for any short age/ execess

End

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2.5. FABRIC AUDIT DEPARTMENTThe main objectives of this department are:y y

Analysis of defects in the fabric by various methods. Selection of fabric according to AQL 1.5.

Inspection is done on the following grounds:y y y y y y

100% shade segregation is done. 100% width segregation is done. 15% fabric inspection is done for defects. 10 15% shrinkage test for light weight fabrics and mostly 100% for heavy weight fabrics. The fabric is checked in full width form only. The quantity is checked, whether the mentioned length of the roll is correct or not.

SHADE SEGREGATION The process for shade segregation in the fabric audit department is described follows:y y y

y y y y

The fabric is received from the fabric store with Lab report. Swatch of fabric of about minimum 10% or at times 100% rolls from each lot / color are cut for lab tests if any. meters stripe across width of each roll or taka selected is cut and shade segregation is done. All the cut pieces are aligned and made into a family or group and declare shades. Sometimes, swatch cards or shade bands are prepared and then fabric strip from each roll is matched. In some cases the shade groups are made after washing also. While doing shade segregation, color matching done by using paramount color matching cabinet which is provided with D-65, TL-84, CWF, TL-83, UV, INCA light sources. The shade bands or lot bands are then sent to concerned merchandisers, sourcing departments, cutting departments for approval and references. All the shade details are sent to the concerned people.

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FABRIC INSPECTION In GARMENT, four point grading system is followed in the fabric audit department. All fabrics are inspected under the 4 point inspection system. Penalty points are assigned based on the standard fault size for every type of fault and colored stickers are then put for the identification of serious defects in the subsequent process. Fault description under the 4 point inspection system :

LEVEL 0-3 inches 3-6 inches 6-9 inches Over 9 inches

POINT 1 2 3 4

INDICATION Yellow Green Navy Red

y

Here the fabric acceptable level is maintained at: o 30 points per 100 sq yards for mill made/ imported fabric. o 40 points per 100 sq yards for power loom fabric. For checking whether the fabric is within the acceptable level, points/100 sq. yards is calculated as: Points / 100 sq yard = (total no. of points * 3300) / (width in inches * length in mtrs) Example:PASS :- (57*3300) / (44*300) = 14 points / 100 sq yards FAIL :- (47*3300) / (44*45) = 78 points / 100 sq yards Width measurement of all the rolls is taken at least 1 time and minimum width is recorded which helps in freezing the cuttable width of the fabric. The fabric length of the roll piece is checked and compared against length declared by supplier. For every fabric order one meter of fabric is kept aside for lab testing and quality standard reference randomly. Minimum of the ten bits from different bales of fabric is kept from every consignment order for shrinkage test. The inspection results are then filled in goods inspection reports (GIR). The GIR reports have following categories:

y

y y y y y y

A

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PO INTS 1 S AR S

THAN LASSI I A TIO N E PTE E LO REJE T E A O E PO INTS PO INTS

19

GARMENT EXPORTSMETERAGE BALE NO. PIECE NO. IN STICKER ACTUAL FOLD LENGTH (IN CMS) IDTH (IN INCHES)

ARN DEFECTS THICK THIN SLUB

W &W ARP EFT DEFECTS

PENALTY POINTS FOR DEFECTS W EAVING PRINTING/DYEING BOW LEVEL ING CS SS OTHERS DEFECTS DEFECTS & STAINS (IN INCHES) VARIATION!

There i a space i the bottom for Remarks; where whether the roll is acceptable or rejected is specified. y When the fabric is inspected as per the 4 point system, the defects are marked with different colored stickers for different types of defects as: Red Sticker Bl e Sticker Green Sticker Arrow Sticker y Weaving Defect Processing Defect Other Defects Centre-Selvedge shade variation.

The fabric is issued for cutting, if both Lab & Audit reports are O.K. However, the cuttings are kept for reference. TIONS

INSPE TION INST y y y y y

The width is checked and average width is mentioned. The fold length is checked and the average is mentioned. The reed is checked and +/- 2 threads is acceptable. Center to selvedge color variation is not acceptable. For the bowing level is checked for by the following set acceptance levels: LE EL 1 acceptable 1.5 acceptable 2 acceptable

WIDT Up to 44 inches 45 to 60 inches 60 to 72 inches

y

After inspection of the roll/ takka is done, if the roll is passed/ rejected, a sticker is put on the respective roll. It contains following information:

S

e Inte ns

Re

t

EPI

PPI

TOTAL POINTS

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Tag used: I-Bangalore Pass fabric Bale no.Pc no.Fabric QtyColourWidthNo. of pointsDateByShadeFace sidey

This sticker is of green color for the pass fabrics and magenta for the rejected fabric rolls or takkas.

MACHINE DETAILS: RAMSONS CHECK MATE Type Power input Power output Gear motor Power consumption R 501 1 , 220 v, 50 Hz 3 , 220 v, 50 Hz 1 hp, 100 rpm. 0,75 kw

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Start

Receive fabrics

Conduct shrinkage test on minimum 2 bits/bale or minimum 10 bits of consignment

If No

Verify whether quantity received match with quantity ordered

If Yes

Forward one meter of each consignment for lab test

Inform to stores and prepare goods received note (in case of imported fabric"

If No

Inspection based on four points system. Match bulk with approved dye lot, width of fabric etc.

If Yes

Name shade lot as ABC

Send to merchant for buyer s approval

If No

If approved

If Yes

Forward to cutting dept.

Reject lot End

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2.6. ACCESSORY STORES DEPARTMENTFunctioning of the Department:

The acceptance of the raw materials or the accessories is generally done in terms of documents i.e., whatever it may be whether acceptance and revival whenever they are done they are done according to the documents that have been received from the merchants and also the department also makes the document for anything they carry out within their roof. The department first receives a PO copy from the merchants, which the merchants would have sent it to any one among the three above mentioned supplier types. As soon as the accessory department comes to know about the date on which they will receive that particular material they will make a note of it in their ERP that they will be receiving that material and this is termed as PRE GRN. Once the material reaches the stores on the prescribed day and date the concerned person verifies the materials against invoice/ Delivery Challan and packing list which they would have received from the merchant as already stated. After it is confirmed that the received materials is according to the documents then they carry out a quality inspection and this inspection is carried out irrespective to the type of the buyer. The company carries this inspection as per AQL standard 1.5 for all the types of goods received.

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AQL quantity chart:

Lot size or quantity being audited

Inspect

Accept

less than 151 151-280 281-500 501-1200 1201-3200 3201-10000 10001-35000 35001-150000 150001-5000000 500000-above

8 20 32 32 50 80 125 200 315 500

0 0 1 1 2 3 5 7 10 14

After inspecting the materials for the quality as per AQL then the allocation of trims done based on the nature of the item. Then the department prepares the GRN according to the materials received and against the documents received obtained from the merchants and they also do the bill entry. The bills whatever they enter is been forwarded to the accounts department for the payments and to fulfill other formalities and a copy of it is also given to the sourcing department in order to inform them about the materials in-housed. After this the department has to carry out two processes hand-in-hand they are,y Sub contracting: In this method they prepare the work order and also the delivery

challan and then they keep all the documents and also forward the trims along with the document for processing.

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y Production issues: Another thing that they have to do is identify trims which has been

approved by merchants and then prepare the delivery challan and keep the trims ready to issue to the factories. Materials to be issued after inspected by security against DC as already mentioned.Start

Accept & receive materials against documents

Prepare PRE GRN

Verify materials against invoice/ Delivery challan & packing list

Carry out quality & quantity inspection as per AQ 1.5#

Allocation of trims based on the nature of the item

Prepare GRN & do the bill entry. The same is forwarded to accounts for payment

SUBCONTRACTING

PRODUCTION ISSUES

Prepare work order

Identify trims which have been approved by merchants

Prepare delivery challan

Prepare delivery challan & keep trims ready to issue to the factories

Forward trims along with documents for processing Materials to be issued after inspection by security against DC

Material outward

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2.7. PLANNING DEPARTMENTFunctioning of the Department:

Planning department has a vital role to play in the approval of the order and helps the merchants to determine the costing of a particular style and they also tell the merchants if the company is capable of producing the particular style in the given span of time and also helps them to know the capacity of the production floor. On receiving the orders, from the merchants they start to decide the date for having the PP (Pre-Production) meeting with the departments which are directly involved which are, planning, production and the finishing departments. Then the department will allocate the style to the unit whichever has the capacity of completing the obtained project based on the line openings and also buyers specifications and the skill of labor required for it. The planning department then calculates and plans the PCD (Plan Cut Date), Order Quantity, Sample, order breakup, operation bulletin, etc. with respect to the particular unit in which that particular order has been placed with. The planning department takes the approval or sits and conducts a meeting with three other departments to come to end up giving a proper planning and scheduling dates for the particular style this will take about 10 15 days from the merchandiser approves the order that has to be followed. Firstly, they take inputs from IED (Industrial Engineering Department) on productivity based on the garment details which includes, SAM value of the garment, number of components in the garment, type of seams, length of stitches involved in the garment, types of machines required to finish the garment, any specialized machine is required or not for the manufacturing of the garment, difficulties involved during stitching of the garment if it is of a complicated style and structure, the skill level required for the various operations of the garment and the ratio of the operators with respect to their skill levels required for manufacturing the particular garment for all the operations all together. Then they finally come to a conclusion about planning entire style. Secondly, they confirm the details given to the concerned units i.e., they confirm the PCD, Order quantity, sample and other similar information from them in consultation with the GM and FM.

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Thirdly, they confirm this consultation if it is the final decision and then they also get a confirmation from the embroidery, washing and finishing departments if the slots for the dates on which they have planned for those particular styles is available and then after confirmation they fix the particular dates on which the style has to reach the embroidery, washing and finishing departments.

After, a proper output has come from the PP meeting and there are proper confirmation obtained from the departments the planning department will confirm the order plan with the merchants and then provide MIS (Management Information System) report to the management every fortnight, then they prepare a Batch Commitment Sheet and this sheet is prepared about 3 5 days before the cutting date. This commitment sheet includes the details regarding the batch that has taken up the job of producing the particular style, the quantity which they are committed to produce for a day and the labor details (which involves the number of operators and to which operation they are assigned to and they skill level will also be mentioned). This sheet will have to be updated once in a hour to know the hourly production of the batch. Then there exists another kind of a sheet which is made that is a Batch Variance Sheet, this sheet is completely based on the Batch Commitment Sheet and in this sheet the updating of the style in the production floor is done and is given to the merchants on daily basis. Then the planning department will follow up with the factory till the order is completely being executed and the entire order quantity is being shipped. The planning department is responsible for the timely input of the raw materials to the production floor and they must make sure that none of the days the batch /sewing line must sit idle with a reason of raw material non-availability. The planning department keeps in constant touch will most of the departments like the IED, Finishing, Washing, Production, Marketing, etc., the communication within the different departments is done purely on the mail basis and sometimes through phone calls but any types of mails regarding the changes in the line of the style or any such modifying sort of a situation then the department maintains a hard copy of it for the future reference and confirmation.

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Start

On receiving the orders, allocate the same to units based on line openings and buyer s ratings

Provide details to the respective units on PCD, order quantity & sample

Take inputs from IED on productivity based on garment analysis

Confirm the above details given to concerned units in consultation with GM & FM

Confirm in consultation with embroidery, washing departments

Confirm order plan with merchandising team

Provide MIS report to management every fortnight

Planning follow up with factory till order execution

End

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2.8 .LABORATORY DEPARTMENTFunctioning of the Department:

The laboratory in the factory is equipped with all the necessary devices and instruments that are required for the testing of both the fabric and the accessory items. But, there are several tests which the buyer prescribes for which the machineries are not available in the factory for such tests the factory does not have the right machineries so they send such fabrics or accessories, which requires some other tests to the external laboratories which are authorized ones with the buyers and the merchants approval. The laboratory in this unit is the centralized one for the units that are located in Bangalore city. The laboratory generally keeps in touch with three major departments. The departments and their main functions and applications with the laboratory are as follows.

y

Fabric Sourcing department:

The fabric sourcing department sends the samples of fabrics that have to be ordered later may be for sampling, pilot or for the bulk production. The sourcing department as soon as it receives the fabric swatches from the supplier they will select the fabrics which they require for the particular style and then order for a few meters and then after they receive the small amount then they sent it to the laboratory along with the tests that are to be carried out for that particular fabric sample. The list of tests that the sourcing department generally asks for are as follows. Count Construction Colour fastness to washing Colour fastness to crocking Dimensional stability to washing Fabric strength Fabric weight

y

Accessory Stores:

The stores receives the raw materials in-house and after this they will have to do the sampling process and then they have to make a list of the tests that are supposed to be29 Summer Internship Report

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carried out for that particular accessories and then they send this to the laboratory. The lists of accessories and tests that are generally tested are as follows, Button breaking test Colored laces and tapes are tested for color fastness Color fastness test for elastics Lining fabrics for their dimensional stability Corrugated box

y

Merchandising Department: The merchandising department keeps in touch with the laboratory for the general tests which has to be carried out on the garment samples which are termed as lab dips. The garment sample is sent to the laboratory with a list of tests that has to be carried out as per the buyer specifications. After the tests are been carried out and the results are received then the garment fabric samples are sent to the external laboratory for tests to be carried out if the buyer specifies.

Any of the three departments mentioned above, whenever they have to give a fabric/accessory/garment sample for the testing purpose to the lab then they generally send it in a format sheet which includes the style number, buyer name, specifications of the particular material with respect to the composition, construction, material type, color and other material related details which will help the lab technicians while carrying out the tests. The duration which the lab takes to finish the tests depends on several factors like:y y y y y y

Types of tests. Urgency of the task. Whether the test has to be carried out internally or externally. Duration of the tests that has to be carried out. Time required in getting the proper and the required output. Number of samples that has to be tested.

Generally, as soon as the laboratory receives the sample and the specifications from any of the departments they generally proceed on priority bases. If the results are required very soon and the tests does not involve any kind of long process then that particular sample is taken first and then tested and sent back within a day, suppose the sample received involves more number of30 Summer Internship Report

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tests and tests which involve long processing then such tests takes time about 2 3 days and then after receiving the proper output they note down the readings in the record and then send it the concerned department form where they have got it.Start

Fabric Sourcing

Accessory stores

Merchandising

Test

Test

Count

Buttons

Carry on test on fabric and garment as per buyer requirement

Construction

Color laces and twill tapes

Color fastness to washing

Color fastness test and elastic

Dimensional stability to washing

Fabric Strength Corrugated box

Fabric Weight

End

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$

Color fastness to crocking

On meeting buyer requirement, samples to be sent to external lab to get approval

ining fabrics

Dimensional Stability

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2.9. MACHINE MAINTENANCEApart from having quality system and the best practices, machine maintenance is also a very important are to get quality products. Unacceptable quality of products often results illmaintained machines. Breakdown and preventive maintenance is primarily aimed toward reduced downtime and increased life respectively. Proper machine maintenance is also necessary to avoid casualties at the floor. The function of PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE includes;

y y y y y y y y y

Care of the fittings Adjusting settings Oil changing Graph maintenance Outward/inward reports Needle weekly reports. Machine configuration chart History card Needle log cards.

Types of needles and their norms Needle systemsMACHINE NAME Single needle lockstitch Single needle chain stitch Single needle feed Double needle lockstitch Tandem needle lockstitch Double needle chain stitch NEEDLE BRAND NUMBER DBX1 UYX128/TVX3 DBX1 DPX1 UYX128/TVX3 UYX128/TVX3

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Over lock Flat lock Picotting Smoking Shell stitch Pick/ saddle stitch Bar tack Button stitch( shank button) Button stitch Button stitch chain stitch Button hole Zigzag Six thread cover seam m/c

DCX1/DCX27 UYX128/DVX43 UOX163/TVX7 DVKX25/DVX57 LS-151 DBX1 DPX5/DPX17 TQX3 DPX5/DPX7 TQX1/TQX7 DPX5 DBX1 UOX118

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2.10. CAD ROOMGARMENT EXPORTS has its own CAD department for varied style garments are made with help of Optitex software package. FUNCTIONS OF CAD ROOM CAD department is responsible for the following functions:y y y y y y

Determining cutting average for costing Making the most efficient cutting marker Development and alteration of patterns Development of size set pattern by grading Embroidery graphics making Digitizing the pattern

BASIC WORKFLOW Firstly the merchandiser sends the following documents to the CAD room:y y y

Approved style sheet and spec sheet containing all the measurements. Graded measurement spec sheet. Fabric detail sheet containing information like fabric form ( open roll or folded form), roll size, GSM, type of fabric, style no, vendor, buyer etc.

Then the work of the CAD room begins.

Receive spec sheet form Receive patterns from pattern Digitize pattern to feed in

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Pattern correction

Pattern grading

Output to Graphtec plotter

Cut ratio planning Market planning according to the cut plan ratio

Pattern sent to merchandiser for sampling

Output marker to plotter

WORK FLOW IN CAD DEPARTMENT

Output mini marker to printer

Send to cutting room for cutting

Send to merchandiser for costing

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2.11. CUTTING ROOMBASIC WORK FLOW Cutting department receives the order for cutting a garment style from the production manager. Cutting order is an authorization by the production manager to cut a given amount of styles, from the spreads. It comes in form of a package file that carries the following details:y

Sampling average, weight of garment (base fabric consumption only), and other trims averages.

y y y y y y

Measurement sheet Design worksheet of the garment Purchase order Fabric requisition sheet CAD mini marker Marker planning- length of lay etc., size ratio and colors in which the patterns are to be cut.

ACTUAL CUTTING PROCESS Solid cuttingy

Spreading

Spreading is the process of superimposing plies of fabric on a horizontal table in a manner, which permits these plies to be cut simultaneously into product components acceptable for assembly. For this, first of all a thin brown paper sheet is spread on the cutting table using an adhesive tape to prevent the bottom plies from shifting during cutting. Then the actual spreading process begins with the laying of first fabric layer on this brown sheet and subsequently the other plies are laid. The spreading of this lay is done either manually or automatically by the spreading machine. While manual spreading is time consuming, the use of traveling machine gives faster and more accurate results. The length of the lay depends upon the quality of the fabric & length of the

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marker as specified by the CAD. Whereas the lay height depends upon the thickness of the fabric and the capacity of the machine.y

Cutting The lay is cut with the help of electrically powered straight knife cutting machines or CAM m/c. The machine is moved through the lay following the pattern lines of the marker and the reciprocating blade cut the pieces of the fabric progressively. Notches are also added. For smaller components like collars, ribs etc. that need high accuracy, band knife-cutting machine is used. It is a non-portable cutting device, which cuts the fabric as it is passed across the blade. The garments are kept aside as and when they are cut. Spread

Place marker

Cut pattern pieces Block cutting Jacquard, stripes and checks cannot be spread with the spreading machine due to requirements of matching so they are spread manually. Often structures like jacquard and checks are spread and cut in single number for accuracy. The plies are spread one at a time, matching the stripes with those in the previous plies. Then block are cut out from this spread for specific number of pieces. The size of the block is dictated by the CAD room itself, which sends a mini marker for the cutting of the blocks from the lay and placement of the patterns on the blocks. Accordingly the cut blocks are manually marked on the top with marking chalk and using the hard paper patterns. The plies in the block are aligned to the match the stripes and a rough cutting of the fabric following the markings of the pattern is done. The cut shapes are again checked for alignment and the stripes superimposed. A final precise cutting occurs to finish the patterns. Cutting of striped fabric is a much more time consuming process. The wastage involved is also more due to cutting in two stages.

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Spread

Match

Mark blocks

Match

Mark patterns

Cut patterns Match

Final precise shaping of patterns

Sorting and Ticketing The pieces cut out from the lay are now sorted out size wise. All the components of one garment size are bought together. It is very important to take care that pieces cut from two different bolts (bundles) of fabric are not mixed up. This is because within a lot there are bolt-tobolt variations in the color shade. The sorted pieces are now ticketed. Ticketing is the process of marking the cut components for shade matching precision, and sequence identification. The worker secures one end of the stack and puts on the ticket using ticket gun as he flips over the cut parts. The ticket contains the size, bundle number and piece number and serves as important means to track the parts of the garment in the assembly line from start to end.

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Cut panel checking The ticketed panels are now sent to the checking area for inspection of every individual piece for any objectionable faults. Panels having faults like wrong grain line, inappropriate size, incorrect shape and any fabric defects like holes, cut, shade variations etc. that cannot are not within the acceptable quality parameters, are removed from the cut lay. A cutting component checking report is filled for the total quality cut, checked and approved. The rejected pieces are sent back and an equal number of fresh panels are separately cut, replaced in the set and ticketed with the same number as the rejected ones. Other mendable faults are marked with an alteration sticker and passed on. These will be spotted out during garment finishing or washing. Bundling The checked components of one style and in one size are now clubbed and bundled using ties. The size of bundle depends upon the requirement of the production plant. Each bundle will contain pieces of the same style and same size only. The cutting department issues the amount required by the production department when asked for. Embroidery The cutting department is responsible for sending the cut components of a style for embroidery as stated in the production package. They check for any embroidery and follow up these departments accordingly. Blocks of panels are sent are sent for embroidery, which are re cut after receiving back. To avoid mixing of the patterns the panels of the same size are stitched together temporarily before dispatch for the embroidery. Fusing Fusing is also carried out in the cutting room itself. The parts to be fused are separated from the bundle. The fusing material (like interlining) is cut according to the size of the components to be fused. The components along with the cut fusing material are kept between two papers sheets and the pack is passed through the fusing machine. By means of the temperature and the pressure fusing takes place at a particular speed and for a particular time. The pack comes out at the other end on the conveyors and the pieces are removed and re bundled.39 Summer Internship Report

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y y y y y y y

Length of spreading table Width of spreading table Height of spreading table Table top type Spreading mode No of clamps

40 meter 6 feet(72) 3 feet(36) Plain, card board type face one way, nap one way 14

Two air channels on the bottom side of the table surface, along with 12 air nozzles per square meter.

y

Five blow motors per table, each supplying air to the particular zone of the table.

Cutting package from production manager Acquire fabric from fabric store

Cut sample to check40 Summer Internship Report

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Require CheckingYes

Send to CAD for Change

No

Cut for initial size set

Receive changed pattern from CAD

Assemble and check

Require changes NONo

Yes

Issue jobWORK FLOW IN

Cut plan Bulk cutting Sorting Bundling IssueSummer Internship Report

CUTTING DEPARTMENT

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2.12. PRODUCTION DEPARTMENTFunctioning of the Department: The production floor does production in two types, once during pilot production where they have to produce about 150 200 garments for the new style this will take about 40 55 days. The production floor will receive the details like,y y y y y y

the style or the garment, number of operators required, the batch for which the style has to be installed, any extra kinds of machines that are to be used for the particular style, target for each day Breakup of the production quantity.

After receiving all these details they send a request for the cut parts from the cutting and sorting section and the request is sent to the accessory stores for all the accessories that are required for the particular style then they start the production for the new style. Before starting the proper production the production floor does a process of batch-setting for the floor which is training the operators for the new style that has to be produced bulk, this teaching session will go on for about 3 4 days maximum. After this batch setting process the production for the next day starts with a smaller commitment i.e., may be for 50 pieces for the entire day and then the production gradually increases from 50 100 150 and so on, this will make the operators learn slowly and precisely about the processes that has to be carried out for the particular style. Once the cut parts is received from the cutting and sorting section then the parts are prepared and assembled according to the line that is planned. After the assembling of the parts is done then there will be a line checking, where the shade matching and the measurements are checked and sent. During the process of garment making there exists two types of checking, they arey y

In-process checking. Endline checking. Here there exists both AQL audit and normal checking.

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The garment making is divided into three different stages and at these three stages the checking is done. The flow of material in the production floor is through the bundle system and each operator gets a bundle containing similar pieces and there will be about 15 20 pieces in each bundle and the operator completely finishes the job and sends it to the next operator to do the next operation on them. Each bundle will contain same component of different garments. The movement of the materials within the operators in the batch/line is generally zig zag motion which is followed. The checking person will be present at a position where the garment is partially finished and it is as mentioned checked thrice in the line and sometimes more than three and this depends on the buyer as well as the number of components present in the garment. The supervisor plays a vital role in the production floor. He/she manages the entire batch which is been allocated to them and they have the following functions to perform, 1. They have to convey the proper stitching method to the operators. 2. Guide the operators when they face difficulty in making an operation and teach them the most suitable and an easy method of performing the task. 3. Check if the entire operator in the batch/line is busy with the work being allocated to them. 4. If the operator does not have any material to work on then the supervisor has to get him/her their material and ask them to work. 5. Complain the production managers if the operators are not performing their best. 6. Have to maintain a proper communication between the operators and the management. 7. Should be in a position to tell the manager about each operators skill level whenever asked for. 8. When any operator is on leave then the supervisor has to make sure who can be a better person to fit into that vacant place. 9. At times the supervisor himself sits and performs the operation if necessary. 10. The supervisor should be in good terms with all the operators by having a friendly approach to them and also must make sure that none of them create any trouble for the factory at any time.

The production managers help the planning department during planning or allocating a particular line for the style by telling them the capacity of the line and also telling them about the skills of the operators.43 Summer Internship Report

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Start Bulk Production Cut parts received from Sewing process begins Assembly In- ine% %

End line checking & AQ

Button & button hole/ Bar tack Washing Rough checking Ironing Final checking Measurement checking Tagging Packing FSA Audit Auditing by buyer QA Truck out

End

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2.13. IED DEPARTMENT

Functioning of the Department: The IED department has to work with many other departments as this department gives the entire idea of the garment construction and the thread and trims consumption criteria, operators skill level categorization and other related aspects hence they play a vital role in determining the cost of producing a single piece of the garment and they also calculate the cost of the factory for that particular style of garment. The different departments with which the IED works are as follows. The IED department helps the planning department to know the time required for the production of that particular style of the garment by calculating the SAM value for it and they also help in knowing the capacity of the factory based on which the planning department takes a decision if they have to proceed with the item or no. The IED calculates the SAM value for the garment, calculates the productivity of the given style for the initial costing and also calculates or counts the accessories consumption by the style and gives all these details to the merchandising department for the costing purpose because the entire costing criteria depends on these aspects and the IED also gives the merchants suggestions regarding the reduction of the cost of manufacturing the garment by modifying any of the steps and the method of doing it. The IED people using the (GSD) General Sewing Data prepare the style bulletin which includes the different types of seams and stitches that has to be done for the garment and it also includes the length of the seams and the types of stitches that has to be carried out at different places of the garment as per the buyers specifications and approval. Types of thread (which is the TEX), area of placement of the trims and accessories and its location different kinds of labels that are supposed to be placed, the criteria under which the finished garment has to be checked, the times at which the inspection has to be carried ou will also be mentioned in the style t bulletin, this bulletin will be similar to the Tech Pack but contains more technical data than that. This department will analyze and estimate the manpower and their skill level which is required for the production of the garment, they also set a target to the batch for an hour, for a shift and for a month which will help them to maintain their outputs and also helps in timely completion of the order or sometimes earlier. They will also give the target to each operator based on his/her capacity and skill in order to help them finish their piece of work on time and also maintain the quality of their work.45 Summer Internship Report

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After setting the targets for a batch and also for each operator then they will calculate the efficiency. This efficiency is purely based on the daily output of the batch as well as the single operator and then they come up with the monthly output by the particular batch. This department maintains a file which is the DPR (Daily Production Report), in this report they update the batch number, style/item number, actual output, committed output, SAM value of the garment (both actual and that particular days SAM value), total production till date, average efficiency of the batch till date, peak efficiency achieved, if the company was working that day or not, if there was a delay of production then the reason behind it, information about the batch setting prior to the mass production, etc., all this will be mentioned in this DPR. Based on the operators performance which would have been observed for a specified period of time, the department will allocate a grade to the operator which is as follows,

Skill type A B C

Grade Highly skilled Skilled Semi skilled

The operators for each batch are taken in a ratio of, 20% - Highly Skilled 25% - Skilled 55% - Semi skilled This is done irrespective to any style and buyer and the complication of the style. A record is maintained in which the skills of operators are updated on timely bases. Because of maintaining this record they keep in track of the operators skill and his efficiency, working method and after a particular span of time they update the record. Suppose a new operator joins and he is completely unaware of stitching then a training for about 45 50 days is given to him/her and then based on their learning and grasping capacity a grade is been allocated to them primarily. Suppose the operator/new employee knows or has a previous work experience in a garment industry then he is just been asked about his job which he/she would have done in the previous factory and then he/she is just given an hours test to know his skills and then grade is been allocated. Everyday the IED team there will be a meeting where in which they speak about the maintenance of efficiency of the batch in the production floor. They also conduct a production46 Summer Internship Report

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review meetings with the operation team in which they discuss about the line and the operation carried out in the batch suppose the previously planned flow is not giving the estimated efficiency and output then they will think of changing the line plan and review it and later follow the right one.

Start

Training, selection & development

Production Dept.

Pre-prod. activities

Systems development

Prepare O.B Selection of operators, helpers, supervisors, checkers, QC, etc. Calculate accessories consumption

ourly production tracking

Efficiency calculation

Summer Internship Report

'

&

ine balancing

Capacity study

Skill matrix

Batch layout

Style bulletin

Batch performanc

End

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GARMENT EXPORTS

During batch setting a model of the sewing line or batch is planned in the following manner as shown in the picture on a planning table carrying Velcro and small plastic boards which represent the machines.

TIME STUDY AND ELEMENTAL BREAKDOWN WAS STUDIED FOR THE FOLLOWING STYLE:

Style NO.2Description Buyer Brand Item No Colors Sizes

: FL130204T : Womens 100% Cotton Casual full sleeve shirt :Walmart : Faded Glory : H025, H027 : Rally Blue, Arctic White, Berry Combo, Navy Combo : S, M, L, XL, XXL

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SNO

operation description collar marking clr run st clr trim for run stitch clr clip & turn with iron clr edge st clr band iron satin tape attach to NB clr band att to top clr clr peak ready clr ready trim & mark clr peak turn & crease cuff hem piping atach to cuff cuff run st clr peak turn &iron slv open slv snall plt att(folder) slv tack at plkt slvslve big plkt iron slv big plkt attch slve big plkt dia finish back panel box pleat back yoke att back yoke top st back patch fab iron label att to back patch fab patch fab att to back yoke

smv 0.45 0.6 0.35 0.48 0.42 0.38 0.35 0.51 0.55 0.35 0.57 0.55 0.607 0.95 0.54 0.38 0.52 0.35 0.72 0.45 0.85 0.42 0.45 0.4 0.35 0.5 0.6

opr N Y Y N Y N Y Y Y Y N Y Y Y N N Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

ACT time in min 85% 0.53 0.71 0.41 0.56 0.49 0.45 0.41 0.60 0.65 0.41 0.67 0.65 0.71 1.12 0.64 0.45 0.61 0.41 0.85 0.53 1.00 0.49 0.53 0.47 0.41 0.59 0.71

SAM trgt in pcs 100% 133 100 171 125 143 158 171 118 109 171 105 109 99 63 111 158 115 171 83 133 71 143 133 150 171 120 100

SAM trgt in pcs 85% 113 85 146 106 121 134 146 100 93 146 89 93 84 54 94 134 98 146 71 113 60 121 113 128 146 102 85

M/C type TABLE SNLS UBT SNLS EC TABLE SNLS UBT IRON TABLE SNLS UBT SNLS UBT SNLS EC SNLS EC IRON TABLE SNLS UBT SNLS UBT SNLS EC IRON TABLE TABLE SNLS UBT SNLS UBT IRON TABLE SNLS UBT SNLS UBT SNLS UBT SNLS UBT SNLS UBT IRON TABLE SNLS UBT SNLS UBT

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GARMENT EXPORTS28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 frnt bust dart st with side close frnt pckt hem with trim frnt pckt iron frnt pckt att mark and set frnt pckt att bottom btn plkt hem (folder) B/H plkt att (kansai) frnt back set(slv, clr & cuff) shoulder att shoulder top st clr att clr finish uptosatin tape clr finish above satin tape slv tack guesset & btm side edge st sle O/L&btm gusset O/L slv top st &gusset T/S side seam att wth W/C label side seam O/L side seam top st pleat making cuff att cuff finish cufftop st btm stay st btm hem Total TOTAL SAM OPERATOR SAM NON-OPERATOR SAM 1.1 0.35 0.6 0.65 0.72 0.48 0.66 1.33 0.65 0.48 0.65 0.65 0.35 0.4 0.659 1.2 1.08 0.95 0.68 1.15 0.68 0.655 0.69 0.68 0.35 0.85 31.89 31.89 25.34 6.55 Y Y N N Y Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1.29 0.41 0.71 0.76 0.85 0.56 0.78 1.56 0.76 0.56 0.76 0.76 0.41 0.47 0.78 1.41 1.27 1.12 0.80 1.35 0.80 0.77 0.81 0.80 0.41 1.00 37.52 37.52 29.81 7.71 55 171 100 92 83 125 91 45 92 125 92 92 171 150 91 50 56 63 88 52 88 92 87 88 171 71 46 146 85 78 71 106 77 38 78 106 78 78 146 128 77 43 47 54 75 44 75 78 74 75 146 60 SNLS UBT SNLS UBT IRON TABLE TABLE SNLS UBT SNLS UBT SNLS UBT TABLE SNLS UBT SNLS UBT SNLS UBT SNLS UBT SNLS UBT SNLS UBT SNLS UBT 5T O/L DNLS SNLS UBT 5T O/L FOA SNLS UBT SNLS UBT SNLS UBT SNLS UBT SNLS UBT SNLS UBT

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2.14. EMBROIDERY DEPARTMENTFunctioning of the Department: The embroidery section is a department which comes into picture only when the particular style demands. The embroidery section is the centralized and the second largest embroidery unit in Asia. The embroidery section receives the garment, style and the embroidery details from the merchandisers in the form of the hard copy format which is generally mainta ined in company, the department will maintain the file for all the formats received and they will also get a sample of the garment on which the embroidery has been already done and they will use this as their reference sample / piece. As soon as the department receives the details they check the design that has to be done and they scan the design using the CAD software and then they digitize the design and check for the number of stitches involved, area the design has to cover, the style of the stitch involved for the design, thread colours required, thread tex, starting point of the design on the garment while performing the operation etc., all these things are calculated and tabulated in the softcopy format and give to the merchandiser and after an approval from them they start the further operation . After the design has been finalized then they do the embroidery for the samples that has to be produced to the buyer, these samples are done for about 6 7 garments and it is something done against the actual or exact order quantity. After the samples have been generated then they conduct the pilot run in the embroidery section. Once the order has been confirmed and the exact order quantity that has to be produced is known then they start the bulk production during the production the embroidery action on the garment is done in two ways one is after the entire garment has been sewn and the other case is after the garment panels has been cut and before sewing them into a complete garment. The embroidery section receives the garments from the sewing floor or from the cutting department and then they start their embroidery process. After the embroidery is been done for the first set of the garment or the cut parts received then they send them to the trimming and the checking section for every machine there are operators for this process.

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The operators are provided with hearing aids in this department because of the maximum noise that is been produced by the machines.

Start

Receive designs from the merchant

Scan and punch design

Strike- off of design

Samples to be done against orders

Conduct pilot run of the styles

Start bulk production

Trimming & checking

Packing

Delivery

Style reconciliation

End

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2.15. WASHING DEPARTMENTFunctioning of the Department: Once the garment has been finished with all the operations then they are sent to the washing department for the washing or finishing that has to be done for that particular style according to the buyers specifications and hence it plays a vital role in the final feel and the texture of the garment which has to match the specifications of the buyer 100%. The merchandiser after getting the sample done, they bring the original sample that will be sent to the merchants by the buyer and they will also get the sample done in the factory and then they show both the samples and the specifications and ask the washing department to match the factory sample with the buyer sent sample with respect to the feel and the texture, for this the merchandiser himself/herself comes to the washing department in case of samples. The washing unit will now check the garment for the different aspects like,y y y y y y y y y y y y y y

Type of the material. The texture that is under demand. The feel and look of the garment under demand. Types of labels that are been used in the garment. Dye stuffs used for the garment (if it is a coloured fabric). Dye / ink used in the labels that are being attached to the garment. Types of threads used for in sewing. Types of chemicals that should be used to get the desired finish. The after effects of those chemicals on the fabric. The sensitivity criteria of the fabric. The wet processes that has to be carried out to get the end product. The sequence of the processes. Temperature at which the garment has to be treated. Duration of the treatment.

After coming to a conclusion of what recipe has to be used for the garment they start treating the garments in the desired sequence.53 Summer Internship Report

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At first they segregate the garments based on shade wise, job wise and unit wise, suppose the garments which are white in colour and which have to be treated in the similar manner then such styles are clubbed together irrespective of their styles. After this segregation washing is carried out as per the buyers specifications. In this washing there are two types. 1. Wet processing 2. Dry processing First the dry processing is carried out and then the wet processing is been followed. In the dry processing there are four different types they are, 1. Grinding 2. Ripping or Blowout 3. Sandblasting 4. Crinkling After the dry processing the next main thing which has to be done is wet processing. Wet processing involves mainly two types, they are 1. Dyeing: this is mainly done using two types of dyes which are reactive dyes and pigment dyes, these two dyes are more commonly used in practice and sometimes the usage of the dyes depends on the fabric and the buyer demands and requirements. 2. Washing process: After dyeing is finished the fabrics or the garments are taken to the washing process. There are different types of washing procedures involved and they are classified as follows,y y y y y y y y y

Normal wash/ water wash / dip and dry Softener wash Desize wash Enzyme wash Stone enzyme wash Rubber ball wash Denim wash Bleach wash Tinting/ T- staining

Sometimes it so happens that some styles / garments do not demand for dyeing so at such situations they are sent directly to the washing process from the dry processing stage or else54 Summer Internship Report

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the original procedure that is followed in the company is that first the garments are sent to the dry processing and then from there to the wet processing where it is first sent to the dyeing and then to the washing process. After the entire process is done then it is followed by the hydro extraction where in which a specified lot of garments are put into the hydro extracting machine depending on the tumbler capacity and then the excess of water which had accumulated in the previous stages will be extracted by compressing the garment with the optimum pressure that has to be used for that particular style / garment. Then the garments are dried using the drier. After the garments are dried they are inspected by the inspection people and the inspection here is random it does not involve any organized way, any garment from the entire lot is randomly selected and inspected according to the criteria that will be specified to them by the merchandiser. Once the inspection is over the garments are sent to the finishing and the packing section or sometimes if the garments has to be attached with some accessories or trims after the washing and dyeing stages then such styles are sent to the production floor to finish the left over job on them and then sent to the finishing and the packing department. The washing department in this unit (Unit 7) is the centralized one for the units located in Bangalore and its surrounding areas so the washing unit will be receiving the garments from different units for the washing purposes hence this department has to keep in track of the garments, quantity of the garments received, processes that has to be carried out for them, the stage in which they are, duration required for the process to be finished for the garments according to the types of the washes prescribed for them, etc., hence this

department maintains a record in which they fill in the details of the garment style number, PO number, item number, quantity received and the day and date of recieval. The department maintains these details both in the soft as well as in the hard copy format. The department will enter the details in the ERP. Whenever the washing unit receives or delivers the garment lot from the different units then the communication is mainly through the e-mails and also phone calls.

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GARMENT EXPORTSStart

Receipt of goods from different units(

Washing As per buyer

Wet Processing

Dyeing

Reactive

Pigment

Washing: softener/acid/desize/enzyme/stone/ rubber ball/stone enzyme/tinting/normal water wash/ dip n dry/denim

ydro Extraction

Drying

Accounting & despatch to different units

End

Summer Internship Report

)

Inspection (Random

)

Segregation ( O wise, unit wise, shade wise

Dry process: grinding/ripping/blowout/sand blasting/crinkling/whiskering/ severen

0

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GARMENT EXPORTS

2.16. QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENTFunctioning of the Department: Quality is the major criteria for any product and the same rule applied even to garment industries also. In order to maintain quality the quality assurance departments has split up their job into different stages of manufacturing and there are classified into four major groups which are as follows.

y

Pre-production audit: In this stage auditing is mainly done for the stages which come before the production and that is the sampling stage. Here the auditing is done for all samples and precisely for the size set samples and also for the pilot production garments. The size set samples are given importance to because they are mainly asked by the buyer for checking the dimensions of the garment hence an extra stress is given to these samples and the auditing for them is mainly done for the measurements of the garment and the measurements are checked at all the critical areas in the garment. For example: if it is a trouser then the measurements are checked at the areas like the length of the trouser, waist measurements, inseam measurements, the distance of the belt loops, etc., For the pilot run production also the garments are checked for the dimensions and also for the placement of the accessories and trims for example, the label attachment areas, etc.,

y

Cutting audit: In the cutting stage, which is the critical stage of the garment production the auditing is further divided into many other departments which are, 1. Spreading 2. Relay cut 3. Band knife 4. Shade 5. Hard pattern

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GARMENT EXPORTS

y

Sewing audit: In sewing process the inspection is done in two areas, they are 1. In line audit: Here the garments are checked during their different stages of manufacturing. Here the entire manufacturing process for a particular garment is split into the required number of parts may be two three and then at the end of each stage the inspection is carried out by the person whose main job is auditing. For example if the garment that is being manufactured is a shirt then the entire manufacturing process is broken down into stages like, the finish of front, finish if back, sleeve attach finish and then the entire shirt. In this case the shirt is being checked at each stage and the auditing personnel will be provided by certain specifications and also the tolerance limits based on which he checks the garment. Here every single garment is checked.

2. End line audit: Here the garments are checked after the entire process is over and the specifications are mainly based on the dimensions of the garment at the critical positions and then the placements of the labels.

y

Button/button hole : In this area the auditing is mainly done by the operator himself as the job is limited, it is just button attachment that has to be done and the operator does it himself as and when he finishes his part of the job with the garment and the operator will be given or taught about the specifications for the garment to attach the button/ making the button holes.

After the auditing is done in each and every stage the defects, findings and other related information will be recorded by the concerned departments in their own formats and they will be sent to the respective departments for rectification

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2.17. FINISHING DEPARTMENTFunctioning of the Department:

The finishing department is the department which comes after all the departments and it plays an equally important role in the final appearance of the garment. This department includes majorly of the following steps,y

Trimming: This involves the removal of the extra threads from the garment at the stitched areas.

y

Inspection: The inspection carried out here is according to the AQL 2.5 system and sometimes it depends on the buyer also i.e., if the buyer emphasizes for a 100% inspection then the company has to do as specified.

y

Semi pressing: This happens when a garment is difficult to inspect in the crushes manner as it comes from the washing department hence, they do a partial pressing for the garments and then inspect it and trim it and then send it to the complete pressing process.

y

Pressing: The pressing is done after the garment has been completely inspected and the garments are pressed on the basis of how they will be folded during packing.

y

Tagging section: Once the garments are been done with the inspection and complete pressing then they are sent for tagging the labels and the labels include the size labels, price tags and miscellaneous labels if any required by the buyer. Once the tagging is done the garments are folded according to the buyers specification and also they are either folded plainly or sometimes they are folded after they are put to the hangers as per the buyers specifications again. The packing material, PCB details, number of size ratios that are supposed to be put in are all suggested by the buyer and the packing is done according to these specifications.

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y

Packing: The packing is always done in the carton boxes and there are several criteria for the packing of the garments they are as follows, There are generally two kinds of packing the garment, 1. The garment is individually packed/wrapped in the poly bag whose design will be specified by the buyer i.e., either with the hanger attached or plain poly bag packing and then the entire garments (as per the packing criteria) is arranged in the carton box. 2. The other method is that the garments are just folded and arranged in the carton boxes without putting them in the poly bag.

The packing criteria followed in each carton box as already mentioned is done in different ways which is as follows,

y

Solid Packing: In this method of packing, the carton box will include garments of single colour and same size. For example, 20 shirts of a similar colour say navy blue and the size say S will be put in one carton box.

y

Ratio Packing: In this method the carton box includes garments of same colour but of different sizes according to the ratio. For example, S : M : L : XL = 5 : 7 : 7 : 5.

y

Mixed Packing: In this method the carton box includes garments of different colours but of same size or garments with different colours and different sizes in a particular ratio form.

After the packing is done the garments are kept in the godown/stores until the buyer sends the buyer QC for the inspection purpose before delivering them and once the QC arrives he will check them according to the 2.5 AQL level and then see if the garments has to be accepted or rejected.

60 Summer Internship Report

GARMENT EXPORTS

61 Summer Internship Report