4. reconstruction era
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- 1. Reconstruction Era(1867-1877)Reconstruction: refers to the period following the Civil War when the southern states were rebuilt and new political gains emerged for African Americans.
2. Problems following the Civil WarNorthern States Southern States Lost largest number of Cities in ruins soldiers Money worthless Factories closed Bitter feeling Government canceled Bridges and Railroad work ordersdestroyed Returning soldiers needed Farmland was burned jobs Lost political influence 3. Ruins in Richmond Ruins of Haxalls Flour Mill in Richmond, Virginia. When Unionforces entered the Confederate capital on April 3, 1865, they found much of the city destroyed by fire. 4. Savannah house destroyed by Union soldiers 5. Plans for ReconstructionThree plans had emerged at the conclusion of the Civil War to help rebuild the southern states:Lincolns Plan (Ten Percent)Johnsons PlanRadical Republicans (Congressional Reconstruction Act of 1867) 6. Lincolns Ten Percent PlanGoal: achieve a complete and unified Union peaceful nation instead of a fighting oneMain Ideas: (1) all southerners, except high-ranking Confederate political andmilitary officials, would be pardoned and regain citizenship whenthey took an oath to support the Constitution and the emancipationof slaves (2) when ten percent of the voters in a state took this oath they couldestablish a legal government that would be recognized by thePresident * Wanted to take it easy on southern states * Battled with Congress 7. Assassination of President Abraham LincolnLincoln would never see his plan take action: On the evening of April 14, 1865, while attending a special performance of the comedy, "Our American Cousin, at Fords Theater, President Abraham Lincoln was shot The assassin, John Wilkes Booth, a disgruntled actor 8. Johnsons PlanVice President Andrew Johnson became President following Abraham Lincolns assassinationAgreed with Lincolns Plan, however Johnsons Plan was stricterIdeas: Pardons would be granted to those taking a loyalty of oath to uphold the Constitution No pardons would be available to high Confederate officials A state needed to abolish slavery before being readmitted A state was required to repeal its secession ordinance before being readmitted. 9. Impeachment of President Andrew JohnsonCongress wanted harsher terms for ReconstructionPresident Andrew Johnson disagreed with congressional views on ReconstructionCongress determined that President Andrew Johnson had violated the recent Tenure of Office Act and prompted the Republican-controlled House to impeach the presidentThe Senate fell short of their impeachment process by one vote, however Johnsons political influence was gone 10. Radical RepublicansCongressional Military Reconstruction Act of 1867Ideas: Organized the south into five military districts The states had to have a military leader from the north No state could return to civilian rule and be readmitted to the Union until white and black voters framed a constitution that guaranteed suffrage to African Americans and ratified the Fourteenth Amendment. Act banned confederate leaders from voting, and any who didnt pledge their allegiance to the U.S. 11. Five Military Districts 12. JIM CROW LAWSAny law passed with the intention of keeping Blacks and Whites segregated1830- first law passed in Massachusetts which allowed railroad companies to segregate train cars 13. Jim Crow LawsPoll Tax Must pay to vote.Literacy Test Must pass a test to vote.Grandfather Clause If your grandfather could not vote then you can not. 14. Plessy v FergusonSupreme Court ruled that segregation was legal in the United Statesseparate-but- equal 15. Booker T WashingtonBorn as a slave in 1856studied at Hampton University 1872Founded Tuskegee Institute in 1881 16. W.E.B.DuBoisFirst African American to earn PhD from HarvardFounded Niagara Movement 17. National Association for the Advancement ofColored PeopleN.A.A.C.P.Fought for the rights of African Americans