8 highs and lows that make it exceptional

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www.joiscientific.com www.joiscientific.com © Copyright 2016 Joi Scientific, Inc. All rights reserved. Joi Scientific™ and Hydrogen 2.0™ are trademarks of Joi Scientific. All other trademarks and registered trademarks are property of their respective owners. Hydrogen: 8 Highs and Lows that Make It Exceptional 3 Highest Energy- to-Weight Pound-for-pound, hydrogen releases more energy than all other fuel alternatives. The combustion of hydrogen releases three-times more energy than that of gasoline and almost seven-times that of coal, on an equivalent weight basis. IMPLICATION: Hydrogen's high energy by weight provides a very high specific impulse, meaning that it can deliver a large amount of energy per-gram of fuel, which is why NASA has used it as a rocket fuel since the 1960s. 4 A 'Perfect' Gas Hydrogen has interesting kinetic properties. A hydrogen molecule (H2) is very small, has no net charge, and is non-polar. As a result, there is very little interaction between the hydrogen atoms in a gaseous state, making the H2 behave a lot like a ‘perfect’ gas. IMPLICATION: Hydrogen has a unique ability to conduct heat with a very high thermal conductivity (20-times higher) and specific heat capacity (9-times higher) compared to other gases. 1 Tiny, Neutronless Atom The simplest and smallest of all atoms, hydrogen has only one proton at the center and one electron that orbits around it. Hydrogen is the only element that does not have any neturons in its most common form. It is so minuscule in size that a soccer ball measures 2.5 billion-times larger than a hydrogen atom. IMPLICATION: Hydrogen is basic. Its number one place in the Periodic Table, dues to its lack of a neutron, makes it a contributor to molecule formation on Earth and across the universe. 2 Lighter than air Holding the lowest atomic weight of any element in the universe (at 1.00794 u), hydrogen is the lightest of all gases and is 14.4-times lighter than air. Because it is lighter than the atmosphere, hydrogen easily escapes into space. IMPLICATION: Hydrogen is positively buoyant, so it rises. This amazing property enabled men to fly for the first time using hydrogen-filled balloons. 3 Lowest Energy by Volume Hydrogen has the lowest energy density per unit volume of all elements, both as a gas and as a liquid. This energy density, which measures the compactness (or mass) of hydrogen atoms is so small that a roomful of pure hydrogen gas (or an equivalent of 1,333 gallons) would weigh only 1 pound. IMPLICATION: Getting enough hydrogen mass in one place is a challenge. It takes enormous pressures and very low temperatures to turn hydrogen into a liquid so that it can be sufficiently dense to be used as a fuel. 4 Lowest Boiling Points Hydrogen has the lowest boiling point (the transition from liquid to gas) and the lowest melting point (the transition from liquid to solid) of all substances, apart from helium. To store hydrogen as a liquid, it must be kept at an extremely low temperature of -253° C to prevent it from boiling. IMPLICATION: Lowering hydrogen’s temperature to just above absolute zero makes it more expensive and difficult to handle than other fuels. 2 Most Abundant Hydrogen is the most abundant element, comprising 75% of the universe by mass. On Earth, hydrogen forms the most number of compounds because it bonds easily with other elements. Hydrogen can form compounds in either the +1 or -1 oxidation states, where it can act like a metal or a non-metal. IMPLICATION: Using hydrogen energy to power our society would constitute an unlimited source of fuel. Since hydrogen is most commonly found in water, it would be available to virtually everyone on the planet who's close to a water source. 1 Life-giver All of the hydrogen in the universe was created in the initial moments of the Big Bang. From hydrogen, almost all other elements were formed. It is the source of all light we see, all energy we use, and all life around us. IMPLICATION: Hydrogen is essential for sustaining life as we know it in the form of water and energy. Hydrogen’s fusion process, which releases enormous amounts of energy, is what makes the sun and stars shine. THE HYDROGEN HIGHS THE HYDROGEN LOWS + An ultimate cheat sheet that features the 8 properties that make hydrogen exceptional among all other elements, but also more challenging to harness. Realizing the Wonders of Hydrogen Hydrogen embodies many extraordinary properties that make it the ultimate energy source to power our society. Joi Scientific’s mission is to expedite the world’s transition to clean and affordable hydrogen so everyone, everywhere can finally realize the wonders of the incredible number-one element. We call it Hydrogen 2.0.

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Page 1: 8 Highs and Lows that Make It Exceptional

www.joiscientific.com

www.joiscientific.com

© Copyright 2016 Joi Scientific, Inc. All rights reserved. Joi Scientific™ and Hydrogen 2.0™ are trademarks of Joi Scientific. All other trademarks and registered trademarks are property of their respective owners.

Hydrogen: 8 Highs and Lows that Make It Exceptional

3 Highest Energy- to-Weight

Pound-for-pound, hydrogen releases more energy than all other fuel alternatives. The combustion of hydrogen releases three-times more energy than that of gasoline and almost seven-times that of coal, on an equivalent weight basis.

IMPLICATION: Hydrogen's high energy by weight provides a very high specific impulse, meaning that it can deliver a large amount of energy per-gram of fuel, which is why NASA has used it as a rocket fuel since the 1960s.

4 A 'Perfect' Gas

Hydrogen has interesting kinetic properties. A hydrogen molecule (H2) is very small, has no net charge, and is non-polar. As a result, there is very little interaction between the hydrogen atoms in a gaseous state, making the H2 behave a lot like a ‘perfect’ gas.

IMPLICATION: Hydrogen has a unique ability to conduct heat with a very high thermal conductivity (20-times higher) and specific heat capacity (9-times higher) compared to other gases.

1 Tiny, Neutronless Atom

The simplest and smallest of all atoms, hydrogen has only one

proton at the center and one electron that orbits around it. Hydrogen is the only element that does not have any neturons in its most common form. It is so minuscule in

size that a soccer ball measures 2.5 billion-times

larger than a hydrogen atom.

IMPLICATION: Hydrogen is basic. Its number one place in the Periodic Table, dues to its lack of a neutron, makes it a contributor to molecule formation on Earth and across the universe.

2 Lighter than air

Holding the lowest atomic weight of any element in the universe (at 1.00794 u), hydrogen is the lightest of all gases and is 14.4-times lighter than air. Because it is lighter than the atmosphere, hydrogen easily escapes into space.

IMPLICATION: Hydrogen is positively buoyant, so it rises. This amazing property enabled men to fly for the first time using hydrogen-filled balloons.

3 Lowest Energy by Volume

Hydrogen has the lowest energy density per unit volume of all elements, both as a gas and as a liquid. This energy density, which measures the compactness (or mass) of hydrogen atoms is so small that a roomful of pure hydrogen gas (or an equivalent of 1,333 gallons) would weigh only 1 pound.

IMPLICATION: Getting enough hydrogen mass in one place is a challenge. It takes enormous pressures and very low temperatures to turn hydrogen into a liquid so that it can be su�ciently dense to be used as a fuel.

4 Lowest Boiling Points

Hydrogen has the lowest boiling point (the transition from liquid to gas) and the lowest melting point (the transition from liquid to solid) of all substances, apart from helium. To store hydrogen

as a liquid, it must be kept at an extremely low temperature of -253° C to prevent it from boiling.

IMPLICATION: Lowering hydrogen’s temperature to just above absolute zero makes it more expensive and di�cult to handle than other fuels.

2 Most Abundant

Hydrogen is the most abundant element, comprising 75% of the universe by mass. On Earth, hydrogen forms the most number of compounds because it bonds easily with other elements. Hydrogen can form compounds in either the +1 or -1 oxidation states, where it can act like a metal or a non-metal.

IMPLICATION: Using hydrogen energy to power our society would constitute an unlimited source of fuel. Since hydrogen is most commonly found in water, it would be available to virtually everyone on the planet who's close to a water source.

1 Life-giver

All of the hydrogen in the universe was created in the initial moments of the Big Bang. From hydrogen, almost all other elements were formed. It is the source of all light we see, all energy we use, and all life around us.

IMPLICATION: Hydrogen is essential for sustaining life as we know it in the form of water and energy. Hydrogen’s fusion process, which releases enormous amounts of energy, is what makes the sun and stars shine.

THE HYDROGEN HIGHSTHE HYDROGEN LOWS

+

An ultimate cheat sheet that features the 8 properties that make hydrogen exceptional among all other elements, but also more challenging to harness.

Realizing the Wonders of Hydrogen

Hydrogen embodies many extraordinary properties that make it the ultimate energy source to power our society. Joi Scientific’s mission is to expedite the world’s transition

to clean and a�ordable hydrogen so everyone, everywhere can finally realize the wonders of the incredible number-one element. We call it Hydrogen 2.0.