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    These are generally at the input end of asystem to convert the input signal into abinary code necessary for the operation ofthe system.

    Encoding circuits may take many forms eg:convert an analogue signal to BCD or 4 bit

    binary code; take in a binary signal andconvert it into another code to suit thesystem eg: OCTAL to BCD.

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    The drawing shows a keyboard layout(decimal input) to give a BCD output. Bypressing anyone key or switch (suitablydecimal numbered) the appropriate BCD codeis given at the output.

    Assume "4" is pressed then diode D5 willconduct through RC making the output (C) go

    high, all the other inputs stay low (DBA), sothe output is 0100 (decimal 4).

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    This principle will be employed in INS (Inertial Navigation Systems),

    IRS (Inertial Reference Systems) and

    FMS (Flight Management Systems) as all these havekeyboards.

    So some form of encoding will convert theinput signals into the correct code for the

    system.

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    In Flight Data recording some of the inputs

    into the system are in analogue form, such asdc, ac or syncro signals.

    This means that they have to be encoded into

    digital for use by the Central Processing Unit(CPU).

    This is done by an Analogue to DigitalConverter.

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    The diagram below shows the basic layout ofa digital ramp A to D converter

    DAC

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    When the start pulse is applied, it becomeslogic 1, the counter is reset, no pulses are fed

    through the AND gate as it is 'closed'.

    A comparator is a device with two inputswhich compare the voltages at each input to

    determine which is greater, the output islogic 1 if A is larger than B and logic 0 ifinput B is larger than A.

    On start B is 0, A is the larger output, fromthe comparator is logic state l and when theSTART pulse goes low the AND gate 'opens'and the clock pulses go to the counter. Each

    pulse causes the counter to advance.

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    As the counter counts up, its value is

    converted into its analogue equivalent by thedigital to analogue convertor (DAC or D to Aor D/A) and applied to the comparator at B.

    The DAC output therefore increases in stepsuntil it reaches just above the analogue inputlevel ie, B input >A.

    The comparator output goes low, AND gatecloses, the count stop, the digital read-out isthen taken from the counter.

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    The best approximation we can obtain,

    depends on how much input B has to begreater than A ie, the step size, this is knownas the quantization error.

    This type of Analogue to Digital converter isslow in operation and is unsuitable for highspeed operation, and of course the larger thevoltage the longer (more steps) time it takes.

    The comparator would be an operationalamplifier.

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    This problem can be partly overcome by using an

    up/down counter. It counts up when the comparator is logic 1 and

    down when the comparator output is logic 0.

    As the analogue input varies it simply counts upor down from the previous count rather than re-setting to zero as did the digital ramp convertor.

    This type is called the continuous digital rampconvertorand is a considerable improvement onthe previous one.

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    However, the fastest type of ADC of the onesconsidered is the successive approximation type ADC.

    This is similar to the previous circuit but the registeris used instead of a counter and a control logic blockis included between the comparator and register,which controls the output of the register.

    A TO D

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    Initially a reset signal puts all bits in theregister to 0.

    The control logic sets the MSB in the registerto 1 and the rest to logic 0.

    The output of the DAC is then compared tothe analogue input if B > A then this numberis too large and the MSB remains at 1.

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    At the next clock pulse the control changes

    the next bit in the register, if B>A, it is set to0, if B

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    A decoder is a device which is usually at theoutput end of a system and converts thebinary to decimal ie, changes the operationalworking code into the code necessary to

    operate the output system.

    Some examples of this are where BCD is

    converted into a code necessary to operate aseven segment display

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    The next drawing shows a binary weightedresistor method, so called as the values of theresistors increase in accordance with thebinary system eg, R, 2R, 4R, 8R.

    The output from the resistor chain is

    connected to an operational amplifier as asumming amplifier with a feedback resistor Rf

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    The output Vo is therefore

    Also in the circuit there are four switches S1,S2, S3, S4 which are electronic switches(digitally controlled).

    Each switch connects the resistor to a fixedreference Vref when the input bit is logic 1(+5v) and to ground (0v) when the input bit islogic 0

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    Assuming that Rf= R = 1K then the outputformula becomes

    If the input number is 0001then:

    ie each of the electronic switches connectingthe input to ground.

    V4 will be connected to Vref, we will assume

    that Vref is - 8v so the formula becomes:

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    With an input of 0100 V1 = V3= V4=0

    V2= Vref. Assume again Vref= -8v

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    The accuracy of this system depends on the

    resistors and the precision of the inputsupply.

    Resistors can be made to reasonable accuracy

    and the electronic switches can be replacedby precision level amplifiers, these ensuretheir outputs are exactly 5v or 0v dependingupon their outputs.

    High input ensures 5v from the amplifier tothe input resistor of the op amp (operationalamplifier) and a low output ensures 0v

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    Another problem is the larger the bit wordthe more the range of resistors is required ie,for every extra bit the range of the requiredresistors doubles.

    So another method of converting digital toanalogue must be found for digital words

    with a large number of bits

    it is called theR 2R type.

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    The circuit works on the principle that pair of2R resistors at the end of the ladder can beconsidered in parallel, forming an overallresistance R.

    This system does use twice the number ofresistors compared to the binary weightednetwork, but the use of only two values ofresistors means the system can handle any

    number of input bits, simply be extending theresistor ladder.

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