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Membrane Technology

Source: ZAINI UJANG Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Zaini Ujang

1

Why Membrane?

Zaini Ujang

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Why Membrane? Modular design, compact Small foot-print Continuous process, automation Good separation No phase and temperature change Easy for reuse, recycleZaini Ujang 3

Why Use Low-Pressure Membrane? Low fouling problems Low compaction on membrane surface Less energy consumption Relatively easier cleaning procedure Relatively cheaper Relatively easier maintenanceZaini Ujang 4

Fouling on Membrane Surface

Permeate

Zaini Ujang

Old Understanding 5

Permeate flow decline in membrane operation

m3/h

DaysZaini Ujang 6

Conventional Solution to Fouling Problem Back washing Mechanical cleaning Chemical cleaning Ultrasonic cleaning Change membrane module Engage membrane manufacturerZaini Ujang 7

New Solutions to BioFouling

Back washing Chemical cleaning Change membrane module Biotech solution

Zaini Ujang

8

Fouling on Membrane SurfaceFluid flow

Retente

Permeate Zaini Ujang

Old Understanding 9

Biofouling on Membrane Surface

Permeate Zaini Ujang

New Understanding 10

Biofouling on Low-Pressure Membrane Surface

Biofilm

Permeate Zaini Ujang

11 New Understanding

Biofouling on High-Pressure Membrane

Biofilm

Permeate Zaini Ujang

12 New Understanding

Chemical Cleaning of Biofoulants

Permeate Zaini Ujang

13

Backwash on Low-Pressure MembraneBiofilm

BackwashNew UnderstandingZaini Ujang 14

Backwash on Low-Pressure MembraneBiofilm

BackwashNew UnderstandingZaini Ujang 15

Backwash on Low-Pressure Membrane

Backwash (Plus Chemicals)New UnderstandingZaini Ujang 16

Why Immersed Membrane?

Zaini Ujang

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Why Immersed System? Low pressure system Hybrid with biochemical processes Hybrid with chemical processes Less fouling problems Relatively easier cleaning procedure Less sludge or by-products productionZaini Ujang 18

Conventional Membrane

Feed

Permeate

Retente/ Concentrate

Zaini Ujang

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Fig. Membrane plant for water treatment, Ogose Town, JapanZaini Ujang 20

Immersed MembranePermeate Feed Membrane

AerationZaini Ujang 21

Immersed Membrane

(a) Flat Sheet Membrane

Zaini Ujang

(b) Hollow Fibre Membrane 22

Zenons MF Hollow-Fibre Module

Zaini Ujang

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Kubotas MF Tubular (Ceramic)

Zaini Ujang

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Immersed Membrane

Feed

Permeate

Retente

Zaini Ujang

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Conventional Membrane

Feed

Permeate

Retente/ Concentrate

Zaini Ujang

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Membrane Bioreactor

Zaini Ujang

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Membrane Bioreactor Low pressure system Hybrid with biochemical processes Less fouling problems Relatively easier cleaning procedure Less sludge or by-products production

Zaini Ujang

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A B

MBR Pilot Plants in Tokyo (a) Mitsubishi (b) Kubota Zaini Ujang

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MBR by Mitsubishi Rayon Engineering

Zaini Ujang

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Mitsubishi Rayon Engineering MBRItemsTreatment Capacity (m3/d) Type of filtration Flux (m3/m2.d) Intermittent operation (min) MLSS (g/L) Air diffusion (m3/m2.s) Retention time (h) Recirculation ration

Pilot Plant Conditions32-48 Continuous flow Operating flux 0.5-0.7 Daily average 0.4-0.6 Operating: 8-12; Stop: 2 10 0.06 5.5 - 8.0 3Zaini Ujang 31

Effluent of MBR from Mitsubishi Pilot PlantBOD < 10 mg/l SS < 5 mg/l

Feed

Activated sludge

Treated effluent

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Financial o parison Financial o parisonB B

ith onventional ctivated ludge ith onventional ctivated ludge B0.069 8.37 34.65 72% 30% 0.963 11.25 48.3 100% 100%

Ite sludge ( 3/day) perating cost* ($/day) ludge treat ent* ($/day0 unning cost pace

* rice for electricity at $0.075 ource: , 1997 (in Visvanathan et al., 2000)Zaini Ujang 33

Terminology:

MBR Confusion? Activated sludge membrane reactor (Yamamoto et al.) Membrane process for biomass retention (Anderson et al.,1984)

Membrane separation bioreactor (Yamamoto et al.) Integrated type membrane separation activated sludge(Takeuchi et al., 1990)

Membrane bioreactors (most authors)Zaini Ujang 34

Why MBR for Industrial Wastewater Treatment? Small foot print Concentrate sludge Reduce sludge disposal Better solid-liquid separation

Zaini Ujang

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Problems Associated of Activated Sludge System Maintaining young sludge Separation between sludge-supernatant Foaming Bulking Large foot print for clarifiersZaini Ujang 36

Why MBR for Wastewater Treatment?Bioreactor Primary clarifier Secondary clarifier Effluent

Sludge Return sludge Activated Sludge SystemZaini Ujang 37

Sludge

MBR for Wastewater TreatmentBioreactor Primary clarifier Membrane Unit Effluent

Sludge Return sludge Sludge Activated Sludge Membrane SystemZaini Ujang 38

MBR for Wastewater TreatmentEffluent Influent

Bioreactor

Activated Sludge Membrane SystemZaini Ujang 39

Features of Membrane Application in Biological Wastewater Treatment Solid/liquid separation Aeration Dialysis

Zaini Ujang

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Features of Membrane Application in Biological Wastewater Treatment

Solid/liquid separation

External membrane

Immersed membraneZaini Ujang 41

Features of Membrane Application in Biological Wastewater Treatment

AerationOxygen/air Oxygen/air

Diffuse/fine bubble aerationZaini Ujang

Diffuse aeration & biofilm42

Features of Membrane Application in Biological Wastewater Treatment

DialysisEffluent NutrientsRecycling biomedium contains extracted priority pollutants

Membrane module

Extraction of priority pollutantsZaini Ujang

Influent

43

MBR for Wastewater Treatment Organic removal Nitrification-denitrification Phosphorus removal

Zaini Ujang

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MBR for Wastewater TreatmentFirst Generation MBRBioreactor Primary clarifier Secondary clarifier Membrane Effluent

Sludge Return sludge

For polishingSludge

Activated Sludge Membrane SystemZaini Ujang 45

MBR for Wastewater TreatmentSecond Generation MBRBioreactor Primary clarifier Secondary clarifierChlorination/ Disinfection

Effluent

Sludge Return sludge

For ReuseSludge

Activated Sludge Membrane SystemZaini Ujang 46

MBR for Wastewater TreatmentThird Generation MBR Bioreactor Primary clarifier Membrane Unit Effluent

Sludge Return sludge External membrane systemZaini Ujang

Sludge

Polishing & Compact

47

MBR for Wastewater TreatmentFourth Generation MBR Bioreactor Primary clarifier Effluent

Sludge Immersed membrane systemZaini Ujang

Compact, Advanced Treatment & Reuse

48

MBR for Wastewater Treatment?Fifth Generation MBR Bioreactor Effluent

Advanced Treatment, Reuse & Compact Immersed Membrane System Without ClarifiersZaini Ujang 49

MBR for Wastewater Treatment?Sixth Generation MBR Effluent

Bioreactor

Improvement on energy saving & cleaning methods using strong bubble aeration & hollow fiber Membrane System Without ClarifiersZaini Ujang 50

Hollow-Fibre MBRFeed

Wastewater

Hollow fiber membranes Bubbles from diffusers DiffusersZaini Ujang 51

MBR for Wastewater TreatmentSeventh Generation MBR Air Feed Treatment & Aeration Bioreactor Membrane as Solid/Liquid Separation & Air DiffuserZaini Ujang 52

Effluent

MBR for Wastewater TreatmentEighth Generation MBR Effluent

Feed

Bioreactor Sequencing Batch Membrane BioreactorZaini Ujang

Simultaneous organic & nutrient removal

53

MBR for Wastewater TreatmentNinth Generation MBR PAC Effluent

Feed

Bioreactor PAC / Membrane BioreactorZaini Ujang

Simultaneous organic & nutrient removal

54

Problems of Membrane Bioreactor Overflow of mixed liquor Irregular condition of sludge Biofouling during anaerobic stage Low water level during influent low flowrate Old sludge, less productivity

Zaini Ujang

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