a seminar report on floating wind turbine

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floating wind turbines are the turbines which float on water

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A SEMINAR REPORT ONFLOATING WINDMILSSubmitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degreeBACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGYInMECHANICAL (AUTOMOBILE) ENGINEERING

Submitted byMANOJ A (11402063)

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERINGSREE CHITRA THIRUNAL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERINGTHIRUVANANTHAPURAM-695018OCTOBER 2014

SREE CHITRA THIRUNAL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERINGTHIRUVANANTHAPURAM-695018DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATECertified that the seminar work entitled FLOATING WIND TURBINES is a bonafide work carried out in the seventh semester by MANOJ A in partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of Technology in MECHANICAL (AUTOMOBILE) ENGINEERING from the University of Kerala during the academic year 2014-2015, who carried out the seminar work under the guidance and no part of this work has been submitted earlier for the award of any degree.SEMINAR CO-ORDINATOR SEMINAR GUIDE

MOHAN G SIJI KUMAR T SAssistant Professor Assistant ProfessorDepartment of Mechanical Engg. Department of Mechanical Engg.SCT College of Engineering, SCT College of Engineering,

HEAD OF DEPARTMENTS H ANILKUMARProfessor Department of Mechanical Engg., SCTCE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost, I am extremely happy to mention a great word of gratitude to Prof. S H Anilkumar, Head of Department of Mechanical (Automobile) Engineering, Sree Chitra Thirunal College of Engineering, Thiruvananthapuram for providing me with all facilities for the presentation of this seminar.I wish to place on records my ardent and earnest gratitude to my seminar guide Prof. SIGI KUMAR T S Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, SCTCE.I would also extend my gratefulness to all the staff members in my Department. I also thank all my friends and well wishers who greatly helped me in my endeavour.MANOJ A

ABSTRACTA floating wind turbine system with a tower structure that includes atleast one stability arm extending there from and that is anchored tothe sea floor with a rotatable position retention device that facilitatesdeep water installations. Variable buoyancy for the wind turbinesystem is provided by buoyancy chambers that are integral to thetower itself as well as the stability arm. Pumps are included foradjusting the buoyancy as an aid in system transport, installation,repair and removal. The wind turbine rotor is located downwind of thetower structure to allow the wind turbine to follow the wind directionwithout an active yaw drive system. The support tower and stabilityarm structure is designed to balance tension in the tether withbuoyancy, gravity and wind forces in such a way that the top of thesupport tower leans downwind, providing a large clearance betweenthe support tower and the rotor blade tips. This large clearancefacilitates the use of articulated rotor hubs to reduced damagingstructural dynamic loads. Major components of the turbine can beassembled at the shore and transported to an offshore installation site.

CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION.62. NEED FOR FLOATING WINDMILLS...73. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND.84. DESIGN CONSIDERATION.105. ENERGY PRODUCTION FROM WINDMILLS156. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OFWINDMILLS..177. WIND POWER USAGE..198. GROWTH & COST TRENDS.229. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS..2410. GROWTH & COST TRENDS..2611. FLOATING WINDFARMS vs OIL AND GASRESERVOIRS2812. CONCLUSION.2913. BIBLIOGRAPHY30

INTRODUCTION

A floating wind turbine is a wind turbine mounted on a floatingstructure that allows the turbine to generate electricity in water depthswhere bottom-mounted towers are not feasible. The wind can bestronger and steadier over water due to the absence of topographicfeatures that may disrupt wind flow. The electricity generated is sent toshore through undersea cables. The initial capital cost of floatingturbines is competitive with bottom-mounted, near-shore wind turbineswhile the rate of energy generation is higher out in the sea as the windflow is often more steady and unobstructed by terrain features. Therelocation of wind farms into the sea can reduce visual pollution if thewindmills are sited more than 12 miles (19 km) offshore, providebetter accommodation of fishing and shipping lanes, and allow sitingnear heavily developed coastal cities.Floating wind parks are wind farms that site several floating windturbines closely together to take advantage of common infrastructuresuch as power transmission facilities.

NEED FOR FLOATING WINDMILLS

A few hundred meters offshore, winds are twice as strong as on land inmuch of the world. Offshore wind energy has huge potential,and floating wind turbines is a promising technology. Such turbines arenow being developed. They are meant to be used out at sea in deepwaters, and they do not need to be permanently moored to the oceanbed. DEEP SEA. Criteria for location of an offshore wind farm isexcellent wind conditions and suitable water depth. The wind farmmust be situated near a strong onshore power grid and near harboursand shipyards._ Energy is a major factor in todays society_ Alternative fuel and alternative energy resources are ingreat demand_ Most everyone in the world is looking for more energyefficientways to live_ Hybrid vehicles and other fuel-efficient technology is arisingaround the world_ The world has to change, this emergency that we areexperiencing today should have been taken care of longbefore now._ Now we have no choice but to develop new technology invery little time

HISTORICAL BACKGROUNDHumans have been using wind power for at least 5,500 years to propelsailboats and sailing ships, and architects have used winddrivennatural ventilation in buildings since similarly ancienttimes. Windmills have been used for irrigation pumping and for millinggrain since the 7th century AD in what isnow Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan.In the United States, the development of the "water-pumpingwindmill" was the major factor in allowing the farming and ranching ofvast areas otherwise devoid of readily accessible water. Windpumpscontributed to the expansion of rail transport systems throughout theworld, by pumping water from water wells for the steam locomotives.[6] The multi-bladed wind turbine atop a lattice tower made of wood orsteel was, for many years, a fixture of the landscape throughout ruralAmerica. When fitted with generators and battery banks, small windmachines provided electricity to isolated farms.In July 1887, a Scottish academic, Professor James Blyth, undertookwind power experiments that culminated in a UK patent in 1891.[7] Inthe United States, Charles F. Brush produced electricity using a windpowered machine, starting in the winter of 1887-1888, which poweredhis home and laboratory until about 1900. In the 1890s, the Danish8

scientist and inventor Poul la Cour constructed wind turbines togenerate electricity, which was then used to produce hydrogen.[7] These were the first of what was to become the modern form of windturbine.Small wind turbines for lighting of isolated rural buildings werewidespread in the first part of the 20th century. Larger units intendedfor connection to a distribution network were tried at several locationsincluding Balaklava USSR in 1931 and in a1.25 megawatt (MW) experimental unit in Vermont in 1941.The modern wind power industry began in 1979 with the serialproduction of wind turbines by Danish manufacturers Kuriant, Vestas,Nordtank, and Bonus. These early turbines were small by today'sstandards, with capacities of 2030 kW each. Since then, they haveincreased greatly in size, with the Enercon E-126 capable of deliveringup to 7 MW, while wind turbine production has expanded to manycountries._ The concept for "large-scale offshore floating wind turbines wasintroduced by Professor William E. Heronemus at the Universityof Massachusetts in 1972. It was not until the mid 1990s, afterthe commercial wind industry was well established, that the topicwas taken up again by the mainstream research community._ As of 2003, existing offshore fixed-bottom wind turbinetechnology deployments had been limited to water depths of 30-meters. Worldwide deep-water wind resources are extremelyabundant in subsea areas with depths up to 600 meters, whichare thought to best facilitate transmission of the generatedelectric power to shore communities. _ Developed by Hydro, a Norwegian offshore producer of oil andgas and the third largest aluminum supplier in the world._ Hydro is a fortune 500 country that was founded in 1905, with33,000 employees in 40 countries_ Hydro has researched this plan for more many years, and theresults look promising.9

DESIGN CONSIDERATION

ENERGY PRODUCTION FROMWINDMILLS1. The wind blows on the blades and makes them turn.2. The blades turns a shaft inside the nacelle (the box at the top ofthe turbine)3. The shaft goes into a gearbox which increases the rotation speedenough for...4. The generator, which uses magnetic fields to convert therotational energy into electrical energy. These are similar tothose found in normal power stations.5. The power output goes to a transformer, which converts theelectricity coming out of the generator at around 700 Volts (V) tothe right voltage for distribution system, typically 33,000 V.6. The national grid transmits the power around the country.

Instruments to measure the wind speed and direction are fitted on topof the nacelle. When the wind changes direction motors turn thenacelle, and the blades along with it, around to face the wind. Thenacelle is also fitted with brakes, so that the turbine can be switchedoff in very high winds, like during storms. This prevents the turbinebeing damaged. All this information is recorded b

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