a study on the working practices at apple inc---'byte into apple

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This report is on the History of Apple inc and it's work practices employed.

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  • 1. AppleInc.April 22011Byte into an AppleJazib Iqtidar01-111081-060BBA-7(B)Bahria UniversitySubmitted to: Col. Manzoor Iqbal

2. ContentsApple Inc. ...........................................................................................................................................3Apple Inc. .......................................................................................................................................419761980: The early years .............................................................................................................519811985: Lisa and Macintosh .......................................................................................................619861993: Rise and fall .................................................................................................................819941997: Attempts at reinvention.............................................................................................. 1019982005: Return to profitability ................................................................................................. 1220052007: The Intel transition ..................................................................................................... 142007present: Mobile consumer electronics era ............................................................................ 15Corporate ..................................................................................................................................... 17Users............................................................................................................................................ 18Headquarters ............................................................................................................................... 20Advertising ................................................................................................................................... 20Logos ........................................................................................................................................... 21Slogans ..................................................................................................................................... 22Labor practices ............................................................................................................................. 23 3. Apple Inc.Founded April 1, 1976Founder(s)Steve JobsSteve WozniakRonald WayneArea served WorldwideRevenueUS$ 65.23 billion (FY 2010)[2]ProfitUS$ 14.01 billion (FY 2010)[2]Total assetsUS$ 75.18 billion (FY 2010)[2]Total equityUS$ 47.79 billion (FY 2010)[2]Employees49,400 (2010)WebsiteApple.com 4. Apple Inc.Is an American multinational corporation that designs and markets consumer electronics, computersoftware, and personal computers. The company's best-known hardware products include theMacintosh line of computers, the iPod, the iPhone and the iPad. Apple software includes the MacOS X operating system; the iTunes media browser; the iLife suite of multimedia and creativitysoftware; the iWork suite of productivity software; Aperture, a professional photographypackage; Final Cut Studio, a suite of professional audio and film- industry software products; LogicStudio, a suite of music production tools; the Safari internet browser; and iOS, a mobile operatingsystem. As of August 2010, the company operates 301 retail stores in ten countries, and an onlinestore where hardware and software products are sold. As of May 2010, Apple is one of the largestcompanies in the world and the most valuable technology company in the world, havingsurpassed Microsoft.Established on April 1, 1976 in Cupertino, California, and incorporated January 3, 1977, thecompany was previously named Apple Computer, Inc., for its first 30 years, but removed the word"Computer" on January 9, 2007, to reflect the company's ongoing expansion into the consumerelectronics market in addition to its traditional focus on personal computers. As of September 2010,Apple had 46,600 full time employees and 2,800 temporary full time employees worldwide and hadworldwide annual sales of $65.23 billion.For reasons as various as its philosophy of comprehensive aesthetic design to its distinctiveadvertising campaigns, Apple has established a unique reputation in the consumer electronicsindustry. This includes a customer base that is devoted to the company and its brand, particularly inthe United States. Fortune magazine named Apple the most admired company in the United Statesin 2008, and in the world in 2008, 2009, and 2010. The company has also received widespreadcriticism for its contractors' labor, environmental, and business practices. 5. 19761980: The early yearsThe Apple I, Apple's first product, was sold as an assembled circuit board and lacked basic featuressuch as a keyboard, monitor, and case. The owner of this unit added a keyboard and a wooden case.Apple was established on April 1, 1976 by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne, to sellthe Apple I personal computer kit. They were hand-built by Wozniak and first shown to the publicat the Homebrew Computer Club. The Apple I was sold as a motherboard (with CPU, RAM, andbasic textual-video chips)less than what is today considered a complete personal computer. TheApple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66 ($2,572 in 2011 dollars,adjusted for inflation.)Apple was incorporated January 3, 1977 without Wayne, who sold his share of the company back toJobs and Wozniak for $800. Multi-millionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertiseand funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple.The Apple II was introduced on April 16, 1977 at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differedfrom its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because it came with color graphics and anopen architecture. While early models used ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they weresuperseded by the introduction of a 5 1/4 inch floppy disk drive and interface, the Disk II.The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the businessworldthe VisiCalc spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II, andgave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple IIcompatibility with the office. Accordingto Brian Bagnall, Apple exaggerated its sales figures and was a distant third place to Commodoreand Tandy until VisiCalc came along. 6. By the end of the 1970s, Apple had a staff of computer designers and a production line. Thecompany introduced the ill-fated Apple III in May 1980 in an attempt to competewith IBM and Microsoft in the business and corporate computing market.Jobs and several Apple employees including Jef Raskin visited Xerox PARC in December 1979 tosee the Xerox Alto. Xerox granted Apple engineers three days of access to the PARC facilities inreturn for the option to buy 100,000 shares of Apple at the pre-IPO price of $10 a share. Jobs wasimmediately convinced that all future computers would use a graphical user interface (GUI), anddevelopment of a GUI began for the Apple Lisa.When Apple went public, it generated more capital than any IPO since Ford Motor Company in1956 and instantly created more millionaires (about 300) than any company in history.19811985: Lisa and MacintoshThe Model from Apple's "1984" ad, set in a dystopian future modeled after the GeorgeOrwell novel Nineteen Eighty-Four, set the tone for the introduction of the Macintosh.Steve Jobs began working on the Apple Lisa in 1978 but in 1982 he was pushed from the Lisa teamdue to infighting, and took over Jef Raskin's low-cost-computer project, the Macintosh. A turf warbroke out between Lisa's "corporate shirts" and Jobs' "pirates" over which product would ship firstand save Apple. Lisa won the race in 1983 and became the first personal computer sold to thepublic with a GUI, but was a commercial failure due to its high price tag and limited software titles. 7. The first Macintosh, released in 1984In 1984, Apple next launched the Macintosh. Its debut was announced by the now famous $1.5million television commercial "1984". It was directed by Ridley Scott, aired during the third quarterofSuper Bowl XVIII on January 22, 1984, and is now considered a watershed event for Apple'ssuccess and a "masterpiece".The Macintosh initially sold well, but follow-up sales were not strong due to its high price andlimited range of software titles. The machine's fortunes changed with the introduction oftheLaserWriter, the first PostScript laser printer to be offered at a reasonable price point,andPageMaker, an early desktop publishing package. The Mac was particularly powerful in thismarket due to its advanced graphics capabilities, which were already necessarily built-in to createthe intuitive Macintosh GUI. It has been suggested that the combination of these three products wasresponsible for the creation of the desktop publishing market.In 1985, a power struggle developed between Jobs and CEO John Sculley, who had been hired twoyears prior. The Apple board of directors instructed Sculley to "contain" Jobs and limit his ability tolaunch expensive forays into untested products. Rather than submit to Sculley's direction, Jobsattempted to oust him from his leadership role at Apple. Sculley found out that Jobs had beenattempting to organize a putsch and called a board meeting at which Apple's board of directorssided with Sculley and removed Jobs from his managerial duties. Jobs resigned from Apple andfounded NeXT Inc. the same year. 8. 19861993: Rise and fallThe Macintosh Portable was Apple's first "portable" Macintosh computer, released in 1989.Having learned several painful lessons after introducing the bulky Macintosh Portable in 1989,Apple introduced the PowerBook in 1991, which established the modern form factorand ergonomic layout of the laptop computer. The Macintosh Portable was designed to be j