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Page 1: Abbreviations - Stellenbosch University...Abbreviations & Acronyms Table of Contents i Abbreviations and Acronyms 1 Forum Objectives 2 Executive Summary 6 Opening Remarks 9 Context
Page 2: Abbreviations - Stellenbosch University...Abbreviations & Acronyms Table of Contents i Abbreviations and Acronyms 1 Forum Objectives 2 Executive Summary 6 Opening Remarks 9 Context

Abbreviations& Acronyms

Table ofContentsi AbbreviationsandAcronyms

1 ForumObjectives

2 ExecutiveSummary

6 OpeningRemarks

9 ContextofOpenAccessforAfrica

10 GlobalPerspectivesonOpenAccess

15 ChallengestoOpenAccesstoAfricanResearch

18 CreatinganEnvironmentforOpenAccess(PanelDiscussion)

21 ASustainableOpenAccessModelforAfrica

24 CaseStudies/SuccessStoriesintheRegion

27 OpenForumforGeneralPlenaryDiscussiononPertinentIssuesonOpenAccessinAfrica

31 NextSteps

32 Appendix 1:ProgrammeoftheForum

35 Appendix 2:ListofParticipants

37 Group photo:OAConsultativeForumParticipants

ASSAf AcademyofScienceofSouthAfrica

AAS AfricanAcademyofSciences

AJoL AfricanJournalOnline

idrC InternationalDevelopmentResearch Centre

inASp InternationalNetworkforthe AvailabilityofScientificPublications

ir InstitutionalRepository

KnAS KenyaNationalAcademyofSciences

nASAC NetworkofAfricanScience Academies

norAd NorwegianAgencyforDevelopment Cooperation

oA OpenAccess

oer OpenEducationalResources

SidA SwedishInternational DevelopmentCooperationAgency

tWAS TheWorldAcademyofSciences

uneSCo UnitedNationsEducational, ScientificandCulturalOrganization

WoS WebofScience

i

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TheObjectivesoftheforumwereto:

1. InitiateadialoguebetweenscientistsandpolicymakersamongstakeholdersthatwillleadtothedraftingoftheNASACProjectProposalonanOpenAccessInitiativeforAfrica;

2. Support thedevelopmentof science-basedadviceonOpenAccess forAfricabytheNASAC,withspecialinputbyUNESCOandKNAW–theRoyalDutchAcademyofArtsandSciences;

3. Establish relationships with organisations keen on Open Access and provideevidencetoAfricanpolicy-makersandotherstakeholdersinAfricaworkingintheareaofOpenAccess;

4. Bring together researchers, academics, scholars and librarians responsible forthepublishingofresearchtoexchangeandsharetheirexperiencesandresearchresultswithregardstoOpenAccess;

5. DiscussthenewmodelsofscholarlycommunicationbasedonOpenAccess,andthepracticalchallengesencounteredandthesolutionsthatshouldbeadopted;

6. Understand/share the experiences, investment and commitment of countrieswheresuccessfulOpenAccesshasbeenimplemented;and

7. Focus beyond building the project to developing recommendations to policymakers-withanultimatetargetaudienceoftheAfricanUnion(AU).

Forum Objectives

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BackgroundOn 29th–30th January, 2015, a Consultative Forum took place at the Hilton Hotel,NairobitodiscusshowtoembedOpenAccessplatformsinAfrica.Stakeholderspresentwere representatives of organisations of theNetwork of African ScienceAcademies(NASAC)aswellasacademics,scholars,researchers,andlibrarians,professionalswhogenerate,use,andmediateknowledgeandinformation.TheobjectiveswereidentifiedasindicatedonPage1.

Discussionswereorganisedintofivemaintopicscomposingofseventeenpowerpointpresentations and groupdiscussions.Groupdeliberationswere in the formof openendeddiscussions,duringwhichparticipantsreactedtocriticalissues.Twostand-alonegroupsessionswereorganisedwithparticipantsanalysingtopicalissuesrelatedtotheOpenAccessinitiative.Inthesectionsbelow,asummaryofproceedingsattheForumisprovided.

opening SpeechesSpeakersaddressedissues,challenges,lessons,opportunities,andbenefitsrelatedtoopenscholarship.Thesalientpointsofthespeechesarehighlightedbelow.

Dr Indrajit Banerjee(UNESCO)startedbysayingthattherewasneedtodevelopanOApolicyforAfrica,anddeterminethecollaborativeeffortsandinitiativesneededinthisendeavour.Under-developedareasofOAcapacity that requireenhancementshouldbe identified and filled.Ongoing good practices and successful initiatives should beshowcasedandshared.

Themainpointsmadebyotherspeakersduringtheopeningsessionwereasfollows:

1. TheAASiscommitted,Prof. Fred Owino, AAS Fellowsaid,toactivelysupportthefollow-upactionsemanatingfromthisForum.

2. UNESCOwillensuretheexecutionandpromotionofOAinitiativesinAfricaforthebenefitofall,Dr. Abou Amani, UNESCOnoted.

3. According to Mr. David Maina, the Ministry of Education, Science andTechnologyiscommittedtosupportingOpenAccessinKenyawithfavourablepolicies.

4. Dr. Hans ChangofKNAWhighlightedthechallengesofdatasharinganddatacost,which shouldbemadepolicy topicsand institutionsof scienceshouldnegotiatefavourabletermswithpublishers.

5. Prof. Robin CrewecalledonparticipantstousetheForumtodevelopacoherentplanthatwouldmakeOAaviableoptionforscientificcommunication.

Global Perspectives on Open AccessThe presentations made during this session focussed on developments in Open Accessinthreeworldregions:LatinAmerica,Europe,andAfrica.Thechallenges,criticalsuccessfactors, lessons, good practices, and growth areas, in policy and programming, were

Executive Summary

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enumerated.SomeofthechallengesfacedinLatinAmerica,Dominique Babininoted,areresearchandpublicationsof sub-optimalqualityand the lowscopeanddevelopmentofinstitutional repositories. Other challenges cited was the tension between publishing inlocalandinternationaljournals,whichcreateddifficultiesinstrikingthebalancebetweenimpact and evaluation of scholarly works. In Europe, Bhanu Neupane, laid out severalproblem areas concerning OA such as policy deficiencies that did little tominimise theemergingandinsidiousthreatstoeffectivetransferofknowledgeintheregions.InthecaseofAfrica,Tiwonge Msulira Banda,mentioned impedimentstoschorlalypublishing inthecontinent.Severalcapacitybuildingneedsemerged,suchaspolicyforfundingofresearch,incentivisingofresearchers,andsettingupofrequiredinstitutionalrepositories.Highlightedinthepresentationtoowastheneedtobuildnetworksandpartnershipsforresearchandknowledgeexchange.During theplenarypresentation, a casewasmade for researcherstopublish in reputable journalsand forOpenAccess initiatives inAfrica toborrowgoodpracticesonindexing.

Challenges to open Access to African researchThe focus of this session was to highlight the challenges that relate to policy, capacitydevelopment, and partnership about OA. Three presentations were made. In the firstpresentation,Michelle Willmer, from theUniversityofCapeTowndiscussed thefindingsofastudyofeightAfricanuniversities,whichidentifiedchallengesofscholarlypublishing.Remedial actionswereproposed, suchasdevelopingandadoptinggoodpolicyposition,institutionalpractices(organisationofresearch),capacitydevelopment,andimprovingthebehaviourofresearchers,whotendtodisengageinresearchwork.

Susan MurrayofAfricanJournalsOnline outlinedthefindingsofanotherinitiative,whichsoughttoanalysethechallengesfacingeditorsandpublishersinAfrica.Theseincludedinstitutionalandinfrastructuralproblemsthatwere impedingthedevelopmentofofOAinAfrica.TherecommendationsmadeincludedtheneedforanAfricanstatementonOA,furtherresearchtodeterminetheenablingfactorsofsuccessfulOAenterprises,andtheforgingofstrongernetworksandcollaborations,amongothermeasures.ThelastpresentationwasbyDaisy Selematsela, of theNationalResearchFoundation, South Africa.ShereportedonseveraldiscussionsthathavetakenplaceonOAglobally.Themajorhurdleswereclusteredintofourthemes:unsatisfactorypolicyclimate, limitedoutreach to researchers on OA, inadequate funding, poor quality management ofresearchworks,andlimitedaccesstodata.Intheensuingplenarysession,participantsprofferedideastostimulateactionthatpromotedopenscholarship.

Success Stories in AfricaThepanelliststackledthespecificquestionsofhowtocreateanenablingenvironmentfor Open Access highlighted the pertinent issues and shared their experiences. In“Creating Enabling Policies for Open Access”,David Bakibinga ofMakerereUniversitydelved into the link between law, institutional policies, and library managementpractices. The facilitative features of the law in Uganda on authorship (institutionalrights)wereoutlinedandthebenefitsof thisarrangementonaccessingofscholarlywork given. Besides, an area the law could speakmore clearly on is ownership ofinnovations, rather thanpublicationsdeveloped in institutional settings—wasnoted.In “Impact of Networking and Collaboration using Available Resources”, Francis Tusubira ofUbuntuNetstatedthatnetworkingwasaneffectivevehicleinreducingthecostofaccessingtheInternet.HispresentationwasfollowedbythatofHermogenes Nsengimana ofARSOon “StandardisingOpenScience”,which calledonparticipants

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toadoptinternationalstandards—standardsofopenscience,whichiffollowed,wouldspeed the realisation of OA in Africa.Bhanu Neupane of UNESCO talked about thedevelopmentofUNESCO’strainingcoursesandtargettedthestakeholdersforcapacitybuilding.

Inthepresentationtitled“ScholarlyPublishingandAfricanUniversities”Paul Samwel Muneja of Consortiumof TanzaniaUniversity andResearch Libraries, examined some challengesofscholarlypublishing inAfrica, includingcultural(readinghabits)andinstitutionalones,suchasopaquecriteriaforacademiccareerprogression.Additionallythevalueoffindingalternatives to theuseof impact factors in the contextof theOAwasdiscussed.Daniel Kalinaki ofNationMediaGroupexplainedthedifficultiesfacedbythemediain obtainingacademicliteratureforpublishingintheprintmedia.Toimprovecollaborationbetweenthemediaandtheacademicinstitutions,herecommendedthatpubliclyfundedresearchshouldbeopentothepublic.Theplenarysessiondiscussionsfocussedontheneedforpoliciesforintellectualproperty,clarityonresearchfocus,appropriateOAreductionofmortalityratesoflocaljournals,andemployingintercountrycollaborationstoharnessOAinitiatives.

Inanothergroupsession,participantsdiscussedsustainablebusinessmodelforOAinAfrica.Deliberationstoenhancethinkingandactiontookplaceonfollowingthemes:publishinginfrastructure,developingpolicyforOpenAccess,andtrainingandadvocacy.Intheplenarysessionthatfollowed,participantsreflectedonthepointsmadeduringthegroupdebate. Thepresentationsadvocatedthestrengtheningof thedigitalplatforms foraccessingOA.Rosemary Otando reported the findings of a study on the OA knowledge sharing andsustainablescholarlycommunicationinEastAfrica.Thefindingsshedlightonthecreationofoutreachgroups,OApolicies,andOApractices.Themajorobstacleshighlightedincludedpolicyinertia,lackoftechnicalsupport,andindifferencebyresearchers.Inthesubsequentpresentation,“StrategicApproachtoScholarlyPublishinginSouthAfrica”,Susan Veldsman oftheAcademyofScienceofSouthAfrica(ASSAf),gaveevidencethatshowedthescopeofaccessibilityofonlinepublicationsinSouthAfricawasbelowpar.Shesuggestedremediessuchasexploring the impactof theOAon researchpublicationsandencouraging youthparticipation inOA. Jessica Collacoof iHubhighlightedhowOAwas facilitatingcreativityand innovation. Shediscusseddifferent approaches to conducting research, usingdigitalplatforms,amongtheyouth.Theensuingpresentationon,“AJOLinAfrica-WidePartnership”,fleshed out the mandate and benefits of African Journal Online. `To build on theseadvantages,itwassuggestedthatcoordinationandcollaborationneededtobeincreasedtooptimiseonfavourableoutcomesalreadyrealized.“UNESCO’sGlobalOpenAccessPortal”,wasthenexplainedbyBhanu Neupaneilluminatinghowtheportalcanbeused.1 Open Forum for General Plenary Discussion on Pertinent Issues on open Access in AfricaIn this session,participantswent into threedifferentgroups to tackle several issuescoveringawidespectrumofissuesrelatedtoimplementingaviableopenaccesssysteminAfrica.

1GOAP Portal URL: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/portals-and-platforms/goap/

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Key IssuesPoliciesneededtoenableoptimalapplicationofOAwereenumerated.Thefollowingareaswereinfocus: • Intellectualproperty; • Datasharinganddatacost; • Enabletheestabilishmentofdigitalrepositories;and • Public fundingofresearch,whichwouldbealignedtonationalandregional

policiesonOA.

Key Recommendations • DevelopadocumentontheWayForwardondeliveringanOpenAccesssystem

inAfrica; • Pinpoint the coordination point for each country/region at national level

consultation; • DeterminethepartnerstoworkwithtorealiseOAinAfrica; • Developcapacitiesofdifferentprogrammesandidentifyon-goinginitiatives; • EachnationalacademytodevelopadocumentthatexplainsOA; • UNESCOtrainingmaterialsshouldberolledout.

Obligations assigned to NASACNASACshould: • DevelopanOAstatementtobeadoptedbyitsmembers,usingnon-technical

language. • DevelopanOApolicypaperandlinkittoUNESCO’sOApolicyframework. • DiscusswithAUthepossibilityofdevelopingacontinentalstatementonOA. • Facilitateexperiencesharingamongvariousnationalacademies. • Encourage national academies to initiate the processes of engaging

governmentsonOA. • AdoptOAascriticalstrategicissue. • ProvideaportaltohostOAinformationforAfricancountries.

Obligations assigned to UNESCO • FacilitateOApolicydevelopmentin3Africancountriesin2015–eachcountry

canapproachUNESCOthroughNASAConhowOAcanbedevelopedintheircountry.

• Assessthestatusand/orperformanceofOAinAfrica.

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1. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)

By: Dr Indrajit Banerjee, Director of Knowledge Societies Division, Communication and Information Sector

BackgroundIn setting the stage for his comments, Dr Banerjee observed that UNESCOmade aconceptualshiftin2005,byshiftingemphasistotheconceptofknowledgesocietiesfrominformationsocieties.ItisagainstthisbackgroundthatUNESCOinitiatedtheOpenAccessinitiativeworldwide.

UNESCO’sconceptofknowledge societies isbuiltonfourkeypillars:(i)educationforall,(ii)universalaccesstoinformationandknowledge,(iii)freedomofexpression,and(iv) the promotion and protection of linguistic and cultural diversity. Lack of accessto information and knowledge has been associated with exclusion, poverty, anddisempowerment. Open Access will help Africa achieve sustainable development.According to UNESCO’s Global Report on Knowledge Societies, published in 2005,informationcanbeleveragedtoeducateandempowerpeople.

issuesThenotionofOAimpliesashiftinthinkingabouthowknowledgeiscreated,shared,and disseminated. It is not just about the creation and diffusion of knowledge, butalso,howdifferentsegmentsofsociety interactwith theavailable information.As ithappens, informationandknowledgeare inaccessible tomanypeople: for instance,more than half the world’s population lack access to the Internet. This situation iscompoundedbyweakinformation,afeebleinfrastructure,andundevelopedcapacitytoaccessinformation.

In pursuit of OA, UNESCO has set policy guidelines and will provide the expertiserequiredtobuildaworldwideconsortium. Tothisend, itisinterestedinaddressingthefollowingquestions: i. HowcanOApolicybedevelopedforthewholeofAfrica?Whatcooperation

andpartnershipwillbeforgedaroundOA,andhowcanUNESCOhelp? ii. Whatcapacityenhancementeffortsareneeded? iii. Whatarethekey initiativesthatneedtobeshowcasedandhowcanAfrica

sharetheexperiences?

2. Kenya National Academy of Sciences (KNAS) By: Prof. Raphael Munavu, Chairman, KNAS

Inhisremarks,Prof.MunavupointedoutthatKNAS’s interest insharing informationandknowledgewithotheracademiesandorganisations,nationallyandregionally,ondevelopmentmatters. For the KNAS, proceedings of the Forumwould bebeneficialbecauseoftheworkshop’sfocusonhowknowledgeandinformationcanbeaccessedandappliedindevelopment.

Opening Remarks

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TheConstitutionofKenyaprovidestheprimaryframeworkinwhichpoliciesofsharing,using,oraccessingknowledgerest.Article33speakstothefreedomtogenerate,use,andaccessinformation,whileArticle11,theConstitutionrequirestheStatetopromotethecultivationof“cultureandindigenoustechnologies”andsafeguardthe“intellectualrightsofallpeople”.

Prof.MunavureiteratedthecharacteristicsandbenefitsofanidealOAframework.Itisimportantfortheknowledgegeneratedtoberelevantifitistobeuseful.Besides,OpenAccesscouldhelpinstitutionsorsystemsregeneratethroughflowofinformation.

3. African Academy of Sciences (AAS) By: Prof. Fredrick Owino, AAS

Prof.FredrickOwinorepresentingthePresidentoftheAfricanAcademyofSciencesgaveanoverviewofthestructureandfunctionsofAASandconfirmedthatAAScommittedto continue supportingNASAC and other partners towards achieving their commonobjectiveonOA.

Prof.Owinofurtherhiglightedthehistory,structure,programmes,andachievementsof theAAS. Founded in1985by10 founding fellows, theAASexists to support andenhanceAfricanscholarship.Ithasmorethan300scientists,whohavebeeninductedasAASFellows.So far,amongst theFellowsare threeNobelPrizewinnersandninedistinguishedwomenscientists.

AASplanstointensifyitsroleasakeypartnerandleaderintherealisingofsustainabledevelopmentinAfrica.ItengagesgovernmentsandpolicymakerstopromoteScience,TechnologyandInnovation(ST&I)byholdingopen,top-level,continent-widemeetings.TheAASwillbeastrongpartnerinthefollow-upactionsoftheOAconsultativeForum.

4. UNESCO Regional Office By: Dr. Abou Amani

Sustainabledevelopmentgrowsoutofaccess toknowledge,MrAbouAmaninoted.Therefore, UNESCO will strive to ensure the implementation and promotion of OAinitiativesinAfricaforthebenefitofall.UNESCOwillworkwithNASACandindividualcountries tomakeproposalson legalandpolicy frameworks thatwouldmakeOpenAccessareality.

5. Network of African Science Academies (NASAC) By: Prof. Robin Crewe, Immediate Past Chair, NASAC

Prof.RobinCrewenotedthatacademiesofsciencehaveavitalinterestinthematterofOpenAccess.Afterall,thecredibilityofAcademiesrestsonthequalityofscholarlycommunication that individual fellows produce. Communication sharing and openschorlalypublishingarethelife-bloodofscienceAcademies,whichusetheinformationto advise policy makers. In this respect, having open and accessible information iscriticalingeneratingtheneededevidence.

He pointed out that the Forum would need a coherent plan with which to makeOpenAccessareality.Hesaidthatofcritical interestshouldbethewholeaspectofdeveloping repositories of knowledge, securing funding to enable scholars publish

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in journals, observing intellectual property rights, disseminating knowledge in thescholarlycommunity,garneringresources,andbuildinginfrastructureforhandlingbigdatarequirementsinthefuture.

6. Kenya Ministry of Education, Science and Technology By: Mr David Maina – Assistant Director

GiventherequirementsoftheConstitution,especiallyArticle35,theKenyaGovernmentisobligedtofulfiltherightsofKenyanstoinformation.Thegovernmenthastakenstepstowardsfulfillingkeyinternationalpoliciessuchastheprovisionofuniversalandfreeprimaryandsecondaryeducation.

Onresearch,theMinistryofEducation,ScienceandTechnologyhasbeeninconsultationwithinternationalorganisationstosetupaplatformfromwhichKenyanuniversitiescanmakeinformationaccessibletostudents.TheMinistryseesOpenAccessasimportantinpromotingglobalknowledgeflowaswellassocialandeconomicdevelopment.Forthisreason,theconceptofOpenAccessneedstobecontextualisedandmadelocallyrelevant.

TheKenyagovernment ispreparedtosupporttheOpenAccessprogrammeandwillprovideaconduciveenvironmentforpolicyformulation.

Withthesefewremarks,MrMainadeclaredtheConsultativeForumofficiallyopened.

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By: Dr. Hans Chang, Director General, KNAW−the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences

In Europe, many research communities have set up online discussion forums.Technologicalfactorsareprofoundlychanginghowscientificdiscourseoccursandhowscientificknowledgeisappliedpragmatically.Amajordriverofthechangestakingplaceis the Internet.Theavailabilityofonlineplatformsmeans thatuniversalpoliciesarerequiredtoguideaccesstoscientificevidenceandinformation.

ThefollowingarethepotentialmajorimpedimentstoOA: 1. Limited access to the Internet which may be manifested in the form of

inadequatebandwidth,speedofdatatransmission,andprohibitivecost; 2. Highorunaffordablecostsofsubscriptions,whichhasconsequencesonthe

impactfactorofjournals;and 3. A surge in publication ofmediocre quality journals, prompted by concerns

aboutcareerprogression.

Thefollowingspecificrecommendationsweremade: 1. Onthequestionofsubscriptioncosts,institutionsofscienceshouldrecruitan

ablenegotiatortobargainforreasonablerateswithpublishersfollowingtheapproachadoptedinNetherlands;

2. Universitiesneedtosetuprepositorieswherestaffmemberscandeposittheirmanuscriptsforwiderdissemination;and

3. Datasharinganddatacostshouldbesupportedbyapolicy.

Context of Open Access for Africa

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Open Access Development in South America By: Dr. Dominique Babini – Latin America Council of Social Sciences, Argentina

BackgroundDr.DominiqueBabinihighlightedtheexperiencesofOpenAccessfromLatinAmericaCLACSO (TheLatinAmericanCouncilofSocial Sciences) isactive inpromotingOpenAccess initiatives, legislationandpolicies inLatinAmericaandindevelopingregions.CLACSO is a regional network that has 380 research institutions in 25 countries. Itsdigitalrepositoryintheyear2000,has850,000downloadsmonthly,withusersmainlydrawnfromLatinAmericaandtheCaribbean.

opportunity and risksIncreasingly, commercial publishers would like to manage Open Access academicjournals.ThereishoweverconcernaboutthecommercialisationofOA,whichwouldcausenewbarriersforresearcherswhouseorare interestedinusingOA.Toreducethis risk, it seemsprudent tohaveas abasic global, free-to-use, free-to-publishOAecosystem,securedbyaworldwidenetworkofinteroperabledigitalrepositories.

Highlights of Latin America’s Progress in Open Access useDrBabinioutlinedthefollowingcharacteristicsofOAinLatinAmerica: 1. Withitsinequalities,socialandeconomic,theregionneededresearchoutputs

tobevisibleandaccessibleinsupportofsustainabledevelopmentchallenges; 2. In the Latin America region, research is publicly funded and journals are

publishedaspartofthecostofresearch,mainlybyuniversitiesandscholarlyorganisations,withnoAPC´s(articleprocessingcharges);

3. Nearly80%ofreputableOAJournalsfromLatinAmericaareinOAformat; 4. LatinAmericahasaregionalOADeclaration(SalvadordeBahía,2005)that,(i)

urgesgovernmentstomakeOAahighpriorityinsciencepolicies,(ii)requirespubliclyfundedresearchtobeavailablethroughOpenAccess,(iii)callsforthecostofpublicationtobetreatedaspartofthecostofresearch,(iv)promotestheintegrationofdevelopingcountriesinscientificinformationintheworldwidebodyofknowledge,(v)promotesstrengtheninglocalOAjournals,repositoriesandotherrelevantOAinitiatives;and

5. Overthelast15years,theregionalapproachtoOAinLatinAmericahasbeendoneusingregionalsubjectdigitalrepositories,regionalportalsofopenaccessjournals(SciELOandRedalyc)and,morerecently,aregionalnetworkofnationalsystemsofinstitutionalrepositories,whichstarted,withninecountriesoftheregion(LaReferencia).

Challenges to Open Access in Latin AmericaDrBabinioutlinedthefollowingchallengestoOAinLatinAmerica: 1. OApoliciesstillrequirefine-tuning; 2. Theevaluationprocessonlyconsiderswhatispublishedinjournalsyet,only

5%ofqualityjournalsfromLatinAmericaareintheWebofScience(WoS); 3. Thequalityofresearchandpublications,stillrequireimprovement;

Global Perspectives on Open Access

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4. Institutionalrepositoriesareatafledglingstageandcontentsare limitedtothesis, journal articles, a growing collection of books, andmultimediawithscantydataregisters;and

5. Thereistensionbetweenpublishinginlocalandinternationaljournalsintermsofdifferencesinimpactfactorsandevaluationassessments.

Good Practices of Open Access in Latin AmericaThefollowingbenchmarksexistinLatinAmerica: 1. In countries like Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Mexico, and Argentina, national

research keep a list of quality journals, which are used as benchmarks inevaluations together with quality journals in SciELO and Redalyc (Red deRevistasCientíficasdeAméricaLatinayElCaribe,EspañayPortugal);

2. Overthelasttwoyears,universitieshavebeenusingScientificElectronicLibraryOnlineopensourcesoftwaretobuildtheirjournalrepositories.Forexample,theUniversityofChile,NationalAutonomousUniversityofMexico,andUniversityofSaoPaulo(Brazil),eachhavemorethan100journalseditedbydifferentfacultiesandresearchdepartmentsandwithopensystemplatformswhichrunall theeditorialprocessesandonopensoftware,providingvisibilityandaccesstotheirjournals;

3. Aregionalconsultativemeeting,sponsoredbyUNESCOin2013,agreedonthefollowing:GoldandGreenroutesareasuitableformofOAfortheregion:(i)forGreenroutes,inclusiveandcooperativeOAsolutions,shouldbepromotedtoavoidnewchallenges,and(ii) theGoldOArouteshouldkeep itspresentemphasisoncostsharing;

4. Nationalcouncilsofresearchformedevaluationcommitteestosetindicatorsforlocalpublishingandthecriteriatoemployinevaluations;and

5. Theuseofdigitalrepositories,openaccessjournalportals,andnetworkingofinstitutionalrepositoriesshouldbeincludedorincorporatedinthefamilyofresourcesthatcanbeconsideredforregionalOA.

plenary discussionsThefollowingarethekeyissuesthatarosefromthediscussions: 1. On translation:Thehighcostoftranslationofdigitalrepositoriescontentsinto

Englishisanencumbrance. 2. On the mechanics of institutional repositories:Thefollowingpointsemerged:

i. Researcherscanconsiderhavingforanationalrepositorywheninstitutionslackadigitalrepository.

ii. The linkage between institutional and national repositories meansinstitutionscanbuildthemetadatafortheirownuseandthenmakesuchknowledgeavailableforharvestingbynationalandregionalrepositories.

iii. Regardingtheregionalharvestingofinformation,itshouldbemandatorytooperatethroughtheOA,iftheentityispubliclyfunded.

iv. Ineachcountryintheregion,lawsexisttoprotectpubliclyfundedresearchthatisstrategicinnature;hence,researchthatcanbecommercialised.

v. OApoliciescanprotecttherightsandinterestofresearchersinagreementssignedwithpublishers.

vi. Regardingfundingofregionalrepositories,afterinitialexternalsupport,thecostsshouldbebornebyeachofthecountries.

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vii. SomechallengesfacedinLatinAmericaregardingresearchinclude:a. Theneedtoencouragethenewgenerationofresearcherstoworkin

thecontextofOA.b. Theevaluationproceduresneedtobereviewedtodeemphasisethe

commercialelementorinterest.c. FreshtrainingonhowtoevaluateresearchersbasedonOpenAccess

indicatorsshouldbeundertaken.viii.Onresearchfunding,theproportionofpubliclyfundedresearchinLatin

Americais75%.Especiallyinpublicuniversities,itisbecominganacceptedpractice, in LatinAmerica, for research results tobemadeavailableonOpenAccess.

Open Access Development in Europe By: Dr Bhanu Neupane, UNESCO

Challenges ObservedInthispresentation,theEuropeanexperienceinOpenAccesswasdiscussed.

InEurope,somecountriesarewayaheadinconceptualisingOAwhileothersarestillfarbehind.Drawbacks toOA include thepolicy setting framework,whichdoes littletoaddressthehighcostofhavingresearchpublicationsonOA.Thismeans,ineffect,thatscientificoutputswillbecomemorecostlytoeveryone.What isbeingobservedisthattheOAplatformguaranteestheoutcomeofscience;yet,thereisnoguaranteethat userswill access scientificwork. It is arguable that knowledge transfer processis not happening and the knowledge divide is not being bridged. In addition, theemergingformofOAseemsunlikelytoleadtocreatingaknowledgeablecommunity.TheemergingtrendssuggestOAinEuropemaynotfosterfreedomofexpressionandinformationsharing.

Otherchallengescitedinclude: i. Researchersandlibrariansarereluctanttouseopenjournals; ii. Lowscores(fourthquartile)havebeenobservedinrelationtoGlobalInnovation

Index; iii. Althoughinnovationandknowledgesharing,borneofscienceandtechnology,

is thegamechanger inpovertyeradication, these thingswerenot listedornotedinanyofthePreamblesoftheMDGs;and

iv. There isneedless competition in relation toOA,with fragmentation, ratherthanconsolidation,ofgroupsobserved.

possible remedies i. NationalpoliciesandlawsarerequiredtoenabletherealisationofatrulyOA

digitalrepositories,whichserveasthemainstayinallscientificdiscussions; ii. Thereisneedtoopenupscienceandtechnologytoimprovestandinginthe

GlobalInnovationIndex;and iii. Thereisneedtobuildcapacityoflibrariansandyoungresearchers.

Conclusion i. InmainstreamingOAtowardsthebroadercontextofsustainabledevelopment,

thereisneedtofocusonthehighestpossiblelevelsofauthority.

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ii. There is need to revisit the economics of Open Access; article processingchargesneedtobereviewedwithcostsharinginfocus.

plenary discussionsDiscussionsfocusedaroundIndexing.Thefollowingarethekeyhighlights: 1. Anauthor’scitationimpactwillriseifhe/shepublishesinOAjournals.Thereis

needforauthorstopublishinjournalswithcredibleindexingsystems. 2. OAneedstoborrowgoodpracticesonindexingfrompublishinghousesand

indexingsystems. 3. Thesystemforindexingofjournalsshouldbeacrucialpointfordiscussion. 4. In connection to the link between research finding and communication, it

wasobservedinIndiathattherewasasuddenriseofbiotechnologyresearchwhenthegovernmentwasinterestedindevelopingstrategiestoensurefoodsecurity.Thereisthereforeadirectcorrelationinthemoneyputinscienceandtechnologyandtheoutputproducedthereafter,intermsofdevelopment.

5. Policymakersshouldsupportscienceandtechnologywithenoughfundingforqualitysciencetoenrichdevelopment.

Open Access Development in Africa By: Mr. Tiwonge Msulira Banda, Ubuntunet Alliance

MrTiwongeBandadefinedOA as public information,which should be available forall towards knowledge and information sharing.OA is, at the sametime, helpful toscholarlypublishing,business,anddevelopment.

impediments to scholarly publishing in Africa i. The existence of numerous publications makes it difficult for librarians to

decidewhattostoreorsubscribeto; ii. Journalsubscriptionsareexpensive,especiallyforscholarlyjournalspublished

overseas; iii. Uncertainlongevityofemergingtechnologiesforaccessingscholarship; iv. LackofhardwareandpoorInternetconnectivityinsomeplaces;and v. Author-pay’smodeldiscouragesresearchersfrompublishinginOA,especially

forGoldOA.

Challenges Faced by African researchers i. Limitedequipmentandfacilities; ii. Lackofadequatefunding;and iii. Limitedaccesstoresearchfromjournalspublished intheNorth,as libraries

cannotaffordtosubscribetoseveraltitles.

Aims of Open Access in Developing Countries i. IncreasingaccesstoresearchresultsfromtheSouth; ii. Enablingcollaborationinresearchandaccesstomoreresearchfunding;and iii. MakingauthorsfromtheSouthandtheirinstitutionsvisibleandincreasingthe

citationoftheirresearchresults.

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AfricanresearchersdependonfreeinformationsourcesfromtheNorthbecauseoflocalresourceconstraints.Theyhavescantyaccesstoworldacclaimedscholarlyjournalsaswellaslimitedresearchfunding.Embedded,OApublishinginAfricawillfilltheproblemofnon-subscriptionsandpermitlong term access to full text articles (even in small libraries). OA would heighten theresearchprofileoflocalinstitutions,nolessspurinnovationanddevelopment.OAwouldfosterstrongacademiclinks(south-southandsouth-north)andenableAfricanscholarshiptobeavailableworldwide.InAfrica,OAwouldassistAfricaninstitutionsdeveloptheirownopensourcesoftwarerelevanttotheirindigenouslanguagesandmaterials.

the Way Forward1. Policy set up i. Install a bold national OA-friendly policy framework including public-funded

research,whichmustbealignedwithexistingnationalandregionalpoliciesonOA. ii. AdvocateforaNationalInstitutionalRepository(IR),whichwillconsolidateIRsin

thecountryfornationaldevelopment. iii. GovernmentsupportiscriticalfornationalplatformsforOAthroughIRsand

OAjournals. iv. SetupthenecessaryprotocolstooperateonanOAplatform.

2. Economic Matters i. ThereshouldbestrongeconomicsupportforOAfromuniversitiesandfundingagencies. ii. Thereshouldbenopersonalfinancialcoststobecoveredbyauthorswhowant

togettheirworkpublished.

3. Procedures i. AllOAjournalswillbepeer-reviewed,indexed,andbeofhighquality. ii. InstitutionswillacceptOAarticlesaspeer-reviewedandofhighqualityand

give them the same weight as hard copy subscriptions for the purpose ofcareerprogression.

iii. Thereisneedtocultivateandsecurethebuy-inofallstakeholdersintheOAenterprise.

iv. ThereisneedtoregisterIRwithdirectoriesandregistriesforeasysearchability.

4. Forging of Networks i. BuildnetworksandpartnershipswithotherOAcompliantinstitutions(South-

South,South-North)forresearchandknowledgeexchange. ii. SupportandrecognitionofOA.

plenary and discussion Keydiscussion topic revolvedonwhetheraduplicationofeffortexists in thecreationofrepositories,theircontent,effortandinfrastructure.Noconclusivedecisionwasmadeonthisissue.

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Thefocusofthissessionwastobringoutthechallengesthatrelatetopolicy,capacitydevelopmentandpartnership.

Scholarly Communication in Africa Project (SCAP) By: Michelle Willmers, University of Cape Town

problem AreasAstudydonein2012onresearchoutputfrom8universitiesinAfrica2,intermsofpeer-reviewedresearchpublicationshowedthenumberswereextremelylow.TheUniversityofCapeTown ledwith1,017publicationsperyearandthe lowestonewasEduardoMondlaneat23journalarticlesperyear.

NumerousdrawbackswereobservedaboutscholarlydiscourseinAfrica.Theneedformorecollaborationaroundtoolsofscholarlycommunication.TherearefewrepositoriesinAfricanuniversitiesandscholarsarenotwidelymakingtheircontentfreelyavailableontheweb.ThereluctanceofAfricanscholarstopublishingonlinecanbeattributedtoanxietiesabouttherisksofdoingso.Africanacademicsareincreasinglyinvestingtheirtimeinconsultancywork.Butaboveall,manyAfricancountrieslackOApolicies,whichfrustratethegrowthanddevelopmentofscholarlycommunication.

Possible Solutions i. Itwouldbeprudenttounderstandtheattitudesandbehavioursofacademics

intheirunwillingnesstouseOAforpublishingscholarlywork. ii. ItwouldbefittingforknowledgeinstitutionstofirstorganiseresearchforOA

worktobeeffective.

Questions for Consideration: i. The problem of low OA use seems to subsist in a complex web of policy

frameworks,behaviouralsystems,weakinfrastructureand,capacityshortfalls. ii. There is need to define the role of libraries and other intermediaries of

knowledge. iii. ItwouldbegoodtounderstandhowtoengageinGreenversusGolddiscourse

whenevenAPCsareunaffordable. iv. Thereisneedtomarkthelinkagesbetweenscholarlycommunicationandbig

scienceinitiatives,includinghowinfrastructure/networksbeleveraged? v. It is important to think about how to consolidate thenetworks andoverall

activitiesoftheOpenAccess,OpenScienceandOpenEducationalResourcescommunitiesinAfrica(OA>OER>OpenInnovation).

vi. ThereisneedtoworkouthowtoeffectaseismicshiftinthepolicyspaceforOA.

2Cape Town, Makerere, Botswana, Nairobi, Ghana, Dar es Salaam, Mauritius, Eduardo Mondlane

Challenges of Open Accessto African Research

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Findings of the Survey into the Challenges of Editors andpublishers in Africa By: Susan Murray, Africa Journals OnLine

ThepresentationreportedfindingsofastudydoneintothechallengesfacedbyeditorsandpublishersinAfrica.Thefollowingarethekeyissuesthatemergedfromthepresentation.

the Areas of Weakness i. There is no clear understanding on howOA is being realised in Africa, the existing

complexities and issues in the African context. Looking at subscription journals asagainstopenaccessjournalswoulddeepentheknowledgeontheoperationalbarriers.

ii. TheweakICTinfra-structureandcostsofqualityresearchinfluencesthescopeofOAapplicationinAfrica.

iii. There is limited proficiency in the use of some open software systems forjournalmanagement.

Opportunities and Way Forward i. NeedtobuildastrongandunitedAfrica-widenetworkthatcaninfluencepolicy; ii. The challenges and complexities with regards to making OA work and be

acceptabletotheintendedusersneedtobewelladdressed.Ifnot,userscouldreverttosubscription-basedpublishingmodels;

iii. ThereisformorecollaborationonOAbetweencountries; iv. There isneedto identify theenabling factorsnecessary forOA inAfrica.An

AfricanstatementonOAmayhelpframetheconversationgoingforwards;and v. Itmightbehelpful to setupapublishing services companybased inAfrica

insteadofpayingfirmsbasedinEurope.

The Role of the Global Research Council (GRC) in Promotingopen Access By: Daisy Selematsela, National Research Foundation, South Africa

ThepresentationfocusedonseveraldiscussionsthattookplaceonthewholeaspectofOpenAccesswithafocusontheroleofGRC.Thefollowingarekeyfindings:

Challenges Observed by GRC on OA i. Governance ii. Policies iii. Accessibilitytodata iv. Fundingandsustainability v. Technicalfeasibilityandstandards vi. Qualityassuranceandmanagement vii. Raisingawarenessintheresearchcommunity viii. PromotingandsupportingOA ix. DivergentviewsonOpenDataandDataSharing x. LackofAfrican(regional)participation/contribution

Forscientistsandresearchers,OpenAccessisnotautomatic;instead,itisaproductofenablingfactorsandchoices.Inrealisingit,thesequencetobefollowedwouldbeonethatfocusesondiscoveryandaccesstodata/outputs.

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Way Forward i. Policy:Licensesshouldallowavarietyofaccessmodes.Divergenceofnational

policiesneedstobeaccommodatedbymatchingthemwithasmallnumberofstandardisedlicenses;and

ii. IRs/data centres should allow multiple modes of access (free and open,acceptanceoflimitingconditions,andpaywall).

plenary discussions Thediscussionsbroughtoutthefollowing:

1. Building of Regional ArrangementsTheproposedAfricanWideConferenceonOAshouldbesupportedandpreliminaryregionalconferencesofthesameshouldtakeplace.SuchforumswouldallowawidernumberofpeopletoattendandbemadeawareofOA.Concertedefforts,tothisend,shouldthereforebeseenatnationalaswellasatasub-regionallevel.

2. Valuing Collaboration rather than Competition at Institutional LevelActionisneededabouttheopencontentcontinuumintermsofengagementintheOAspace.Africanresearcherswanttobepartoftheglobalconversation;however,theireffortsarebeingunderminedthroughintensecompetition.

3. Critical Success FactorsThismeansaddressingthemostcriticalactionlinesforthesciencesysteminsub-SaharaAfrica,includingaddressingthenexusofskills,capacity,andscalability.

4. Optimising Existing NetworksThismeanslinkingtoalreadyexistinginitiativesonOAinAfricaratherthanhavingtore-inventthewheel.Africaneedsastrategicresponse indealingwithregionalscale,infrastructuraldevelopments.Inthisvein,UbuntuNetmaybeofhelp.

5. Audit of InitiativesStocktakingonpublishinginitiativesinAfricawouldbewelcomeandhelpbroadentheunderstandingonthetransitiontakingplaceinpublishingisplayingitselfoutandtheimpactOAjournalscouldhave.

6. Funding conditionalitySomefundingagenciesrequiredatatobedeliveredviaOA.Whereassomeinstitutionscan fulfil this requirement, others cannot. In any event, there is need for dueconsiderationtobegiventowardsmechanisms,suchastheuniversalaccessfunds,torealiseOA.

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ThepanelliststackledthespecificquestiononcreatinganenvironmentforOpenAccessandwhatthepertinentissuesorexamplestheyhaveexperienced.

1. Creating Enabling Policies for Open Access: By: Prof. David Bakibinga, Makerere University

Prof. Bakibinga highlighted the relevant law for OA, and some institutional policiesandlibrarymanagementpractices,includingthatofrepositories.Thefollowingarethesalientpointsofhispresentation: i. The law protects any author of original work and the author’s permission is

necessary in theOAcontext.Yet, the lawpermits theauthor toassign, licence,or transfer their interest in theirwork for economic reasons. The lawgives theMinistryofJustice(caseofUganda)thepowertosetconditionsforreproductionofworksandauthorisecertainlibraries,non-commercialdocumentationcentres,scientific and educational institutions, tomake use of certain works. The legalregimepermitstheuseofanon-exclusivelicenseintranslatinganywork;

ii. ProvisionsintheCopyrightActandtheIndustrialPropertyActassignownershipofworksproducedbyanemployeeduringhis/hertermofemploymenttotheemployer. For learning institutions, thiswill help enhanceOA sincewhat isproducedbyemployeescanbemadeaccessibletoinstitutions;and

iii. Institutional policies on OA could be adjusted to recognise ownership ofinnovationsmadeundertheinstitution.

2. Impact of Networking and Collaboration using Available resources

By: Dr. Francis Tusubira, UbuntuNet

Networking sought to reduce internet costs. As it is, there is a functional networkspread across 8 different countries, allowing users to access journals online atuniversities.Researchers inuniversitiesneedtoaccess informationwithoutworryingaboutbandwidth.

3. Standardising open Science By: Dr. Hermogenes Nsengimana, African Organisation for Standardisation (ARSO)

Standards to use in guiding policy issues about OA would be welcome. This willmean creating a business model that permits ownership. In general, internationalstandards facilitate (i) openness and transparency, (ii) encourage the growth ofsystems,developmentoftimelines,andprocesses,(iii)andenablesmarketreviewofpublications.IfOAfollowstheinternationalstandardapproach,itwillbecomeareality.

4. UNESCO’s Training Courses By: Dr. Bhanu Neupane, UNESCO

Dr. Neupane talked about UNESCO’s Training Curriculum on Open Access. In 2014,UNESCOidentifiedtheOA’smostrelevantstakeholders,thosewhowouldbenefitmost

Creating an Environment for Open Access (Panel Discussion)

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fromcapacitybuilding.CitedwerefourdistinctlevelsofstakeholderstowardswhomOAtrainingshouldbedirectedtowards: i. Policymakers−theyneedtoappreciatewhatOAisallaboutandhowitwillbe

ofbenefittothem. ii. Librariansorarchivists iii. Youngresearchers iv. Publishers

Towardsthisend,UNESCOidentifiedexpertsfromallovertheworldtohelpdevelopapositionpaperonthetypeofcapacityneedsthatwouldberequiredforthefourgroupsofstakeholders.Guidelinesweredeveloped.

The process of developing the training course included, (i) having a web basedconsultation, (ii) carriedout subjectiveassessmentson thekindof curriculum tobedeveloped, (iii) identifiedexpertswhowould focusonspecificmodulesanddevelopthemfurther.

5. Scholarly Publishing and African Universities By: Mr. Paul Samwel Muneja, Consortium of Tanzania University and Research

Libraries

Africa’slowcontributiontoglobalscholarlyeffortcanbeattributedtolowmotivationinreadingandwritinglocallypublishedscholarlyworks.Locallypublishedjournalsarescarcelyusedandtendtobedowngraded: for instance,duetothesereasons,someof the locally published journals at the University of Dar-es-Salaam are leaving thepublishingbusiness.

Atthesametime,incentivesforpublishinginAfricaareinshortsupply.Otherchallengesfacedareundevelopedpublishingpoliciesandunsoundresearchcapacity.Thecriteriaforpromotionsofacademicjournalsareobscure.Ontopofthis,thenotionoftheimpactfactorisaleadingstumblingblocktoscholarlyeffortandneedstobefixed:especially,onhowOpenAccesscanforgeamechanismtosubstitutefortheimpactfactor.

OpportunitiesEncouragingthepublicationoflocallypublishedjournalswillstimulateareadingcultureandbuildknowledgecreation.TheUniversityofDar-es-SalaamproducesOAjournalsandencouragesitsscholarstopublishinsuchjournals.

RecommendationsThefollowingareneeded: i. Publishingpolicies ii. Shiftinthemind-setofuniversitiestowardsOpenAccess iii. AddressingoftheissueofIntellectualProperty iv. Sensitisationandadvocacycampaigns v. Fosteringofcollaborations

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6. Media and Open Access for Public Information By: Daniel Kalinaki, Nation Media Group

ChallengesCollaborationbetweentheacademiaandmainstreammedia iswanting.Thiscreatesproblemsforbothinstitutions.Themediafraternityfindithardtoobtaininformationfromresearchinstitutions.

Opportunities and Way Forward i. TheKenyaGovernmenthasmadeinformationavailabletothepublicthrough

OpenAccesstodata. ii. Researchsupportedbypublicfundsshouldbeaccessibletothepublic,andnot

justtoacademicsorresearchers. iii. Thereisneedtofindacommongroundforadvocacyandforhighlightingbest

practices.

Way Forward i. FacilitatingOpenAccessintermsoffunding. ii. Settingofinfrastructuretobeutilisedholisticallyandaffordably.

plenary discussionsThefollowingarethekeydiscussionoutcomes:

1. Favourable Legal Instruments Governments should be brought on board so as to enact enabling intellectual

propertylaws.

2. Facilitating Collaboration Communicationiscriticaltoenhanceeffectivecollaborationamongcountries.

3. Advocacy on OA ItisparamounttofindachampiontopushthecauseofOAtogreaterheights.

4. Clarity on Research Priorities WhatresearchareAfricanscholarsundertaking?Whoseproblemaretheysolving?

Whoseresearcharetheydoingandwhowilldeterminetheimpact?

5. Lower “Mortality rate for Local Journals” Policiesareneededtocreateincentivestoachievethisfavourableoutcome.

6. Change Mindset of researchers There is need for ownership of the process by researchers, using a bottom up

approachandtowardsbecomingmorecompetitiveinOA.

7. Setting of Standards on OA There is need for systems to test and safeguard the quality ofOA aswemove

towardsacriticalmassandtowardsregionalcooperation.

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Inthissession,participantswentintothreegroupstodiscussthefollowingthreetopics:

1. publishing infrastructure (costs and logistical requirements, repositories, online content management

services and journal platforms, other publishing services e.g. hosting, editorial services, and peer reviews).

Question Feedback

What is needed to conduct research?

• Funding• Physical infrastructure (computers, software, and internet connectivity)• Standard/best practices• Policies• Platforms• Support structures (Mentorship and Advisory Boards)

What content? • Question of books and monographs• What about ‘grey literature’?• Crucial role of peer review and standards• Need for collaboration and coordination to avoid duplication• Dealing with plagiarism • What implication does choice of content have on infrastructure?• When do we get to the point of shared infrastructure?

What is the role of stakeholders in the space?

• Role of funders in the ecosystem• Key roles of partners like UbuntuNet (utilisation of research infrastructure)• What is the role of academies?

– Establishing knowledge of OA activities in various Academies.– Placing OA at the centre of the agenda– Consensus among academies that the OA issue is critical.– Figure out ways to collaborate to engage/lobby government and regional

entities, e.g. the AU.

Key issues • Centralisation/coordination/advocacy• Training and capacity building• Standards/best practices>quality• Professionalisation • Need to differentiate between OA content and OA infrastructure.

Way forward • NASAC and academies adopt OA as key strategic issues• NASAC to coordinate activities and lobby AU.• Academies to establish the current baseline state.• Key question: who will pull the activities together?

A Sustainable Open AccessModel for Africa

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2. Developing a policy for Open Access (institutionalpolicies,governmentpolicies,fundersandacademies’policies).

Procedure to be followed1. NASAC should develop a comprehensive OA statement that should be adapted

by its members (2 pages)i. Respective institutions will link their policies to the NASAC statement.ii. Check European Academies Science Advisory Council (EASAC) to avoid

“reinventing” the wheel.iii. Circulate the draft to stakeholders (NASAC network members) for input.

2. NASAC to prepare OA document using non-technical language.

3. DevelopanOApolicy8−10pagesandlinkittoUNESCOpolicyframework.i. Get buy-in from various stakeholders e.g. universities, Ministry of Education,

and so on.ii. Conduct advocacy activities in different arena.

4. Forming NASAC OA Steering Committee: i. Appoint associate committee and be split into regional groups because of

its large size. Its mandate will be to collaborate with national stakeholders to have a workshop on OA.

ii. Complete African membership.

5. Review funders policies and how it impacts NASAC policy in terms of public and private funders.

3. Training and Advocacy (existing training needs, advocacy network, concept document for Tunisia).

The Group focused on the Training and Advocacy material prepared by UNESCO.Comprisedoftwomodules,thecourseiscustomisedandwillbeonlineinthenextfewweeks.

TheGrouprecommendedthatUNESCOmaterialformsagoodbasistostartthetrainingwithin institutions and that it be adapted. This approach would help bring aboutuniformityintraining.

Approachestomakeitasuccesswouldinclude: i. SensitisingDeputyViceChancellors(Research); ii. OA be made part of the curriculum in undergraduate and postgraduate

institutions; iii. Influencepolicyformulationandadoption; iv. Gettingoutsiderstoconducttraining; v. Teamingupwithexistinginstitutionssuchasgraduateschools; vi. Havestudentchampionsandinvolvetheminthecollege’sOAweek; vii. Piggybackonworkshops/conferencesbyacademics; viii. Takeadvantageofdiscussionforums; ix. Bevisibleonsocialmedia; x. Giveincentivesintheformofprizesandgifts.

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plenary discussionsKeydiscussionoutputs:

1. Optimising advocacyThereisneedtoengageaprofessionaltodrawupanadvocacystrategyforOA.Thiseffort can be coupled by using a champion, for example, the Minister of Scienceand Technology. Outreach efforts should include initiatives focussing on novice andintermediateresearchers.

2. Shift in the genre of publicationsThe type of publishing taking place in Africa ismainly case reporting. This form ofpublishingisnotwellrecognised.

3. Stimulating efficiencyEffectivenetworksshouldneitherbeinsularnorclosed. 4. Integrating OA into the curriculumTheUNESCOcurriculumhasbeenupgradedintoane-learningtool.Onecanbeanodetohostthecourse.

5. Materials and trainingThereisneedforopeneducationresourceswithanAfricanfocuse.g.OERAfricanHubformaterialandtraining.

6. Task for NASACInacollaborativestep,NASACshouldseektounderstandwhatisbeingdonetopromoteandsupportOA.Pertinentquestionsincludethefollowing: i. WhatcanNASACdoandwhatcanberealisticallydone,and ii. Withwhomcanrealisticdiscussionsbeheld?

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1. Presentation on the results of the study on the OA knowledge sharing and sustainable scholarly communication in Kenya, tanzania and uganda

By: Rosemary Otando, KNAS/University of Nairobi

The projectwas implemented from January 2013 till July 2014 by EIFL and partnerconsortia.Theobjectivesofthestudywereasfollows: i. Toraisevisibilityandaccessibilityofresearchoutputs; ii. To enhance access to and greater use of research findings produced by

universitiesandresearchorganisations; iii. Tosetup25OArepositoriesand5OAjournals; iv. Toorganise45events; v. Toadoptatleast5OApolicies; vi. To run institutional, national and regional campaigns to encourageuse and

reuseofOAcontentineducation,scienceandresearch; vii. TosetupinstitutionalandnationalOAadvocacygroups(researchers,students,

librarians,researchmanagers);and viii. ToincreaseunderstandingandawarenessofOA.

Major Project Results i. Over20institutionalandnationalOAadvocacygroups(researchers,students,

librarians,researchmanagers)havebeensetupandinstitutionalandnationalOAcampaignshavebeenimplementedtopromoteanddevelopinstitutionalandnationalOApoliciesandpracticesandencourageuseandreuseofOAineducation,scienceandresearch.

ii. FourOApolicieshavebeenadoptedat:a. KenyattaUniversity(Kenya),b. MuhimbiliUniversityofHealthandAlliedSciences(MUHAS,Tanzania),c. ClimateChangeImpacts,AdaptationandMitigationProgramme(CCIAMP

Tanzania)and;d. RegionalUniversityForumforCapacityBuildinginAgriculture(RUFORUM,

Uganda). iii. Sofar,therearefiveOApolicies(mandates)inEastAfrica. iv. Thirtyseven(37)OAawarenessraisingworkshopsheldand30CBeventson

OArepositorymanagersconducted. v. OA journal editors, institutional OA champions, setting up of over 20

institutionalandnationalOAadvocacygroups,increasedinstitutionspositionsin global rankings, there are 31 fully operational OA repositories in Kenya,TanzaniaandUgandaand29othersareunderconstruction.

Key Challenges i. SlowOApolicyimplementation ii. Governmentsupportiswanting iii. Lackofcapacitytoprovidetechnicalsupport iv. Indifferencebyresearchers v. Agenerallackofpreparednesstoundertakeprojectsatinstitutionallevels

Case Studies/Success Storiesin the Region

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Key LessonsThegovernment,institutionsincludingacademicandresearchconsortiashouldallworktogethertoensurethesuccessofOAinitiatives.

2. A Strategic Approach to Scholarly publishing in South Africa

By: Susan Veldsman, Academy of Science of South Africa (ASSAf)

issues: i. Ofthe262publishedjournals,27%areopenaccessible. ii. 1%ofalljournalsinAfricaareindexedinWoSJournals. iii. Upto2011therewasasteepgrowthofOApublication.From2011thegrowth

wasnotassharp. iv. ThereisneedtoexploretheimpactofOAintermsofresearchpublications

andresearch.

Challenges: i. NoOpenAccesspoliciesinplace ii. Higharticleprocessingcharges iii. PerceptionofpoorqualityOA iv. Impactfactor“pressure”vsOAencouragement–governmentanduniversities v. Weakdatamanagement

next Steps: i. ThepolicyregimeshouldfacilitatetheparticipationofyouthinOA. ii. Thereisneedforthedevelopmentofcreativewaysofworkingtogether.

3. ihub and Youth engagement By: Jessica Colaco, iHub

BackgroundMs.ColacoexplainedtheroleofiHubinyouthengagementthatis,catalysingopenandcollaborativesciencefordevelopmentintheGlobalSouth.UsedwerecasestudiesofOpenInnovationandOpenScience.Theopeninnovationmoduleobtainsideasfromthecommunitythatusestheproductandpermitscreatingdisruptinginnovationandthecreationofnewideasandnewmarkets.ItsapproachistowardsOpenAccessusingpeopleasasourceofinformation.

issuesInapplyingtheiHub,newapproachesandtechnologiesinresearch−usingopensystemsorpublicengagement suchas twitterandFacebookare required.Approachescouldinclude(i)socialmedia,(ii)publicengagement,(iii)openaccess,openpeerreview,(iv)openlabnotebook,(v)citizenparticipation,vi)openhardwareandsoftware.

Thereisneedtoreinventandre-useiHubforpurposesofopennessthroughtheresearchprocess,usingOpenScienceDevelopment(OCSDNet)inresearch.

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4. AJoL on Africa-wide partnership By: Susan Murray, African Journals OnLine

ThemissionofAfricanJournalsOnlinewasenumerated.TheAJoLworkstoincreasevisibility,qualityandonlineaccessofAfrican-publishedscholarly journals in supportofhighereducation,researchandresearchdisseminationonthecontinent(www.ajol.info).

Benefits of AJOL i. Freehosting(SEO),softwareandwebsitemaintenance ii. Free,permanentandreliablebackupofdigitalarchive iii. FreeDOIs(DigitalObjectIdentifiers)throughAJOL iv. Free (invitation only) trainingworkshops in online publishing software, and

publishingbestpractices v. FreeOpenJournalSystems(OJS)onlinepublishingworkflowhosting vi. Freeaccesstopublishingbestpracticeresources,andpublishingethicsguides

viaCOPE vii. Muchhighervisibilitythanbeingonlinealone viii. Affordsahugeinternationalreadership

next StepsCoordinationandcollaborationneedstobeenhancedtoshareastrategicapproachtooptimiseontheiroutcome.

5. UNESCO’s Global Open Access Portal By: Bhanu Neupane, UNESCO

UNESCO’sOpenAccessPortalsupportsmemberstatestohaveafullviewoftheOAscenario in specific countries and regions. Theportal plays the role of disseminatorfordecision-making. It isdynamicandcarriescurrent information. Individualexpertswhovolunteertowritefortheportal,playtheroleofeditors,reviewers,andoversightchampionstopromoteOpenAccess.

issues i. ForcountrieswhereOpenAccesshashadsomesuccess,itwouldberightto

knowwhattheenablingfeaturesorcriticalsuccessfactorsare. ii. What national organisations or funding agencies have mandates in place

requiring researchers to deposit their scholarship into an Open Accessrepository?

iii. Whoarethemajorplayers(organisationsandinstitutions)intheOArepository,andwhatarethekeynationalprojectsandinitiatives?

iv. What are the potential barriers for further adoption of the Open Accessrepository?

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Inthisgroupsession,participantstackledthefollowingquestions:

i. How can Academies add value and how can technology and options bediscussedwithpolicy-makersandthepublic;and

ii. Who else is working on these issues and what are the opportunities forpartnershiptosupportAfricandecisionmakersandstakeholders?

iii. WhatelementsshouldanopenaccessprogrammeforAfricaencompass? iv. WhatistheroleofacademiesandOpenAccessexperts? v. Whatarethebudgetaryimplications?Howcanfinancialresourcesbesecured

fromAfricaandbeyond? vi. Whichcrucialpartnershipsshouldbepursued? vii. Whattimeframeisbeingenvisioned?

ThefollowingistheGroups’feedback:

Question ResponseHow can academies add value and how can technology and options be discussed with policymakers and the public?

Approaches to Adding Value• Audit – to document and report on the UNESCO portal with regards to what

is going on in African countries viz OA. A position paper to be produced by the academies after this activity.

• Advocacy work to the importance of OA with focus on policymakers and the public.

• Academy can start a training node using the UNESCO material• Harvesting of metadata from various repositories • Cascading or taking the initiatives to young academies• Noted that only 21 countries have academies• Journal hosting service• Advocate for article writing workshops/editing workshops/ capacity building

courses for the editorial boards and the authors• Engage stakeholders including Library Consortium, Professional Bodies,

Government, University Councils, UNESCO, TWAS• NASAC to:

– Prepare an African position paper; Advocacy at continental level– Come up with standards that can be cascaded to the national level – Assisting journals to be of high quality– Use local scientists to do the work of the academy

How can technology options be discussed with policymakers and the public

• Provide best practices, metadata standards, accredit repositories• Settle on one technology e.g. D-space• Utilise Open Journal Systems (OJS)• Organise a workshop for editors• Assist with hosting of open journals and repositories• Utilise the NRENs for hosting the OAJ repositories• Digital preservation and digital curation

Open Forum for General Plenary Discussion on Pertinent Issues on Open Access in Africa

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Question ResponseWho else is working on these issues and what are the opportunities for partnership to support African decision- makers and stakeholders?

• University councils• Policymakers• Professional bodies • Library consortium• UNESCO• TWAS

What elements should an open access programme for Africa encompass?

Hardware• Repositories• Metadata/Curation• Platform• Preservation• IP/Licensing

Software• Metadata• IP/licensing• Publishing skills• Discoverability skills (search)• Metrics• Author’s publishing cost (APCs)• Best practices

What is the role of academies and Open Access experts?

Role of Academies• Lobby governments and institutions focusing on higher education and

research institutions (June 2015)• Advocacy – public, academics/researchers and media (April 2015)• Cooperation and coordination between the various academies (should be

on-going)• Communication (on-going)• Reporting to various academies (every 6 months)

Role of Experts• Information collection on best practices• Training on the various elements to ensure successful OA operations• Formulation of strategic plans for implementation• Populating repositories/the pulling effect• Dissemination/the push effect (information on social media)

What are the budgetary implications? How can financial resources be secured from Africa and beyond?

Budgetary Implications• Infrastructure• Planning• Training/advocacy• Policy formulation• Publications in publishing• Research on OA

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Question Response• Indexing• Consultancy• Communication and marketing• Sensitisation or advocacy• APCs

How financial resources can be secured from Africa and beyond

• Institutionalfinancialresources• National Partners/Funders

– Consortiums– Ministries of Science and Technology– Ministries of Higher Education– Commissions for Education– Telecommunication Companies

• Regional Partners/Funders– African Development Bank (ADB)– African Union Foundation– The Commonwealth – UNESCO– EIFL– INASP– European Commission– IDRC– Carnegie Foundation– Mellon Foundation– Gates Foundation– China Development Bank– Ford Foundation– SIDA – NORAD– Spider Publisher– Global Research Council

Which crucial partnerships should be pursued?

Recommendation: NASAC should discuss through the AU to have a continental statement on OA

What time frame is being envisioned?

Before this can be determined, there is need to understand the key actions. See next page for proposed time frame.

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table on the timeframe

Activity Responsible Timeframe

Advocacy Local academy and NASAC Continuous

Development of regular feedback mechanism All academies Continuous

OA Training (UNESCO Curriculum):• Callforproposals• Decision• NamesthroughtoNASAC

NASAC Immediately

Open Access Policy Development in 3 countries:• Callforproposals(expressionofinterests)• Decision• NamestoNASAC

NASAC Immediately

OA statement/position paper:• Developacomprehensivestatement• Circulatetoacademiesforcomments• Approve• Sign

Prepare OA documents – non-technical language

ASSAf through NASAC

Academies

ASSAf through NASAC

Immediately March–August2015

March–May2015

Update of OA information on UNESCO Portal (GOAP):

• Identifykeypeopleineachacademy• Callforupdateaccordingtotemplate• Coordinate• SendinformationthroughtoUNESCO

Marketing brochure:• Designofbrochure/pamphletforfunding

purposes

NASAC NASACASSAf NASAC

March–July2015

ASSAf and UNESCO March–April2015

Launch in Open Access week in October NASAC October15

NASAC OA Steering Committee:• CompleteAfricanmembership• Otherexperts?

NASAC 2015

Standards Development: • Codeofbestpracticesforeditorsandpeer

reviewers• Metadatastandards• Otherstandardsforrepositories

ASSAf 2016

Centralised hosting services: • IR’s• Journals

NASAC 2016

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ThroughtheClosingRemarksmadebyProf. Robin Crewe,Dr. Hans ChangandDr Bhanu Neupane,thefollowingarethekeynextstepstobefollowedthroughinthenextfourmonths:

Action By: DetailsNational academies • Present or inform the national government on the opportunities of OA for the country.

• Present an action plan based on the description of the country’s national situation in as far as OA is concerned. This would include mission, goal, and actions needed to meet the goal, budgets and timescale.

• Build in receiving broad national support through universities, media, researchers, etc.• Compile a document that explains OA.• Determine the partners they work with to realise OA in Africa.• Develop a document on the Way Forward on delivering an Open Access system in

Africa.• Pinpoint the coordination point for each country/region at national level consultation.• Develop capacities of different programmes and identify on-going initiatives.• Developane-learningtoolby2016.• Spell out what the ultimate goal of OA in Africa is.

UNESCO • Facilitateapolicydevelopmentexercisesin3Africancountriesin2015–acountrycan approach UNESCO through NASAC on how OA can be developed in their country.

• Assess the status and/or performance of OA in Africa.• Carry out capacity building exercises for the curriculum that has been developed

towards making it suitable and adaptable to Africa. UNESCO to work with NASAC in this regard.

• Key measures to be employed:– Development of a coordination mechanism that will bring together all parties

working in OA.– Development of best case practices from around the world, process documents

andoutcomedocumentsthatwillbegiventotheGeneralConferencein2017.• UNESCO’s Policy Framework and training material to be rolled out together.

NASAC • Spread the word on what is happening in the various national academies.• Coordinate group actions.• Develop effective approaches on ways to engage with national governments.• Have discussions with national academies to initiate the processes of engaging

governments.• Host information on OA for countries.

Key Interventions1. Have information exchange and coordination with respect to negotiating with publishing companies (on

reducing access fees).2. Draw up an OA statement that is supported by all academies as soon as possible. The statement would provide

a platform as an advocacy tool for discussions with governments.3. ThekeyinterventionsshouldnotberestrictedtoNASACaffiliatedacademiesbuttoallacademiesinAfrica.

Next Steps

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DAY 1: Defining Open Access for Africa

8:30−9:00 Registration of participants09.00–09.50 OPENING SESSION

Opening Session Welcome Addresses from:MODERATOR: Jackie Olang,NASAC

1. UnitedNationsEducational,ScientificandCulturalOrganization–Indrajit Banerjee, Director, Knowledge Societies Division, Communication and Information Sector, UNESCO

2. Kenya National Academy of Sciences – Raphael Munavu, Chairman, KNAS

3. African Academy of Sciences – Fred Owino, Fellow, AAS

4. Network of African Science Academies – Robin Crewe, Immediate Past Chair, NASAC

5. Kenyan Ministry of Education, Science and Technology – David Maina, Ministry of Education, Science and Technology

(7 minutes each)

Opening remarks and context of Open Access for Africa: Hans Chang, Director General, KNAW − the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (15 minutes)

09.50–10.20 GLOBAL PERSPECTIvE OF OPEN ACCESS1. Open Access development in South America – Dominique Babini – Latin

America Council of Social Sciences, Argentina(20mins presentation and 10mins discussion) Link to the slideshare http://www.slideshare.net/CLACSOredbiblio/nasac-oa-forum-2015-44002763

10.20–10.50 REfRESHmEnt BREAk And GRoup pHoto

1. Open Access development in Europe – Bhanu Neupane − UNESCO

(20mins presentation and 10mins discussion)

11.20–11.50 1. Open Access development in Africa – Tiwonge Msulira Banda – Association of African Universities

(20mins presentation and 10mins discussion)

11.50–13.05

MODERATOR:Jaco Du Toit,UNESCO

CHALLENGES TO OPENING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH

1. Scholarly Communication in Africa Project (SCAP): Michelle Willmers (15mins presentation 10mins discussion)

2. Findings of the survey into the challenges of editors and publishers in Africa: Susan Murray (15mins presentation 10mins discussion)

3. The role of the GRC in promoting open access in Africa: Daisy Selematsela (15mins presentation 10mins discussion)

APPENDIX 1: Programme of the Forum

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8:30−9:00 Registration of participants13.05–14.00 LuncH BREAk

14.00–15.30MODERATOR:GilfordHapanyengwi,ZAS

CREATING AN ENvIRONMENT FOR OPEN ACCESS (panel discussion)

• Creating enabling policies for Open Access: David Bakibinga, Makerere University• Impact of networking and collaboration using available resources: Francis Tusubira,

UbuntuNet• Standardising open science: Hermogene Nsengimana, ARSO

• UNESCO’s training courses: Bhanu Neupane, UNESCO

• Scholarly publishing and African universities: Paul Muneja, Consortium of Tanzania University and Research Libraries

• Media and Open Access for public information, Daniel Kalinaki, NMG

Questions for discussion by panelists: (a) Elaborate on examples of Open Access initiatives that have worked.(b) What constituted the regulatory frameworks under which the initiatives operated? (c) How can science-policy dialogue be facilitated through Open Access?(d) What roles can science academies play?

(Panel discussion for 60mins followed by general discussions for 30mins)

15.30–16.00 REfRESHmEnt BREAk16.00–17.30MODERATOR:Kenneth Kaduki,KNAS

A SUSTAINABLE OPEN ACCESS MODEL FOR AFRICA (Group discussion)GROUP 1: Publishing Infrastructure (costs and logistical requirements, repositories, online content management services and journal platforms, other publishing services e.g. hosting, editorial services, peer reviews).GROUP 2: Developing Policy for Open Access (institutional policies, government policies, funders and academies’ policies).GROUP 3: Training and Advocacy (existing training needs, advocacy network, concept document for Tunisia).

From18.00 GROUP DINNER – Sarova Stanley Hotel

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dAY 2: open Access Framework for Science-policy dialogue

08.30–08.40 Recap of Day 1 by Forum Rapporteur08.40–10.50MODERATOR:Asifa Nanyaro,TAAS

Case Studies/Success Stories in the Region

• Spider by eIFL – Rosemary otando

• SciELO SA by ASSAf – Susan Veldsman• iHub and youth engagement – Jessica colaço

• AJOL on Africa-wide partnership – Susan murray

• Global Open Access Portal by UNESCO – Bhanu neupane

(20mins presentation each and 30mins discussions at the end)

10.50–11.30 REfRESHmEnt BREAk

11.30–13.00MODERATOR:GilfordHapanyengwi, ZAS

Reporting Back Session From Group Discussions

Group 1: Publishing Infrastructure

Group 2: Developing policy for Open Access

Group 3: Training and Advocacy

(20mins presentation and 10mins discussion each)

13.00–14.00 LuncH BREAk

14.00–16.00MODERATOR: Robin Crewe,NASAC/ASSAf

Open-forum for general plenary discussion on pertinent issues on Open Access for Africa, preceded by group discussionsQuestions for consideration

1. How can academies add value and how can technology and options be discussed with policy-makers and the public; and

2. Who else is working on these issues and what are the opportunities for partnership to support African decision-makers and stakeholders?

3. What elements should an open access programme for Africa encompass? 4. What is the role of academies and Open Access experts? 5. Whatarethebudgetaryimplications?Howcanfinancial resources be secured

from Africa and beyond? 6. Which crucial partnerships should be pursued? 7. What timeframe is being envisioned?

16.00–16.30Jaco Du Toit,UNESCO-Nairobi

Summing up and Closing Session

• Summary of consultative forum discussions and forum’s recommendations

• Closing remarks (Robin Crewe – NASAC / Hans Chang – KNAW / Jaco du Toit – UNESCO)• Vote of thanks

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Name Country Organisation E-mailDominique Babini Argentina Latin American Council of Social

[email protected]

Tonye Emmanuel Cameroon Cameroon Academy of Sciences [email protected]

Rabab Rashwan Egypt Internationalisation of local journals andscientificpublishingprograms

[email protected]@sti.sci.eg

Masresha Fetene Ethiopia Ethiopian Academy of Sciences [email protected]

Indrajit Banerjee France UNESCO [email protected]

Bhanu R. Neupane France UNESCO [email protected]

Anaba Anankyela Alemna Ghana University of Ghana [email protected]@ug.edu.gh

Jaco du Toit Kenya UNESCO [email protected]

Rosemary Otando Kenya KNAS/ University of Nairobi [email protected]

Kenneth Kaduki Kenya KNAS/ University of Nairobi [email protected]

Jessica Colaço Kenya iHub [email protected]

Jackie Olang Kenya NASAC [email protected]

Philbert Okello Kenya NASAC [email protected]

Rahab Gitahi Kenya NASAC [email protected]

John Okande Kenya UNESCO [email protected]

Jackline Odhiambo Okinyi Kenya UNESCO [email protected]

Frederick Owino Kenya AAS [email protected]

Daniel Kalinaki Kenya Nation Media Group [email protected]

Hermogene Nsengimana Kenya African Organisation for Standardisation (ARSO)

[email protected]

Raphael Munavu Kenya Kenya National Academy of Sciences

[email protected]

Frederick A. Ochieng Otieno Kenya Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology

[email protected]; [email protected]

George G. Njoroge Kenya Kenyatta University [email protected]@hotmail.com

Noasilalaonomenjanahary Ambinintsoa Lucie

Madagascar National Focal Point African Environmental Information Network

[email protected]@gmail.com

Fiskani Ngwira Malawi Mzuzu University [email protected]

Tiwonge Msulira Banda Malawi Ubuntunet Alliance [email protected]@ubuntunet.net

Abed Peerally Mauritius Mauritius Academy of Science and Technology

[email protected]

APPENDIX 2: List of Participants

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Name Country Organisation E-mailInocente Mutumucuio Mozambique Academy of Sciences of

[email protected]

Hans Chan Netherlands KNAW [email protected]

Monica M. Mugo Kenya Kenyatta University [email protected]

Timothy Obi Nigeria AAS [email protected]

David Maina Kenya Ministry of Education, Science and Technology

[email protected]

Susan veldsman South Africa Academy of Science of South Africa [email protected]

Robin Crewe South Africa University of Pretoria [email protected]

Michelle Willmers South Africa University of Cape Town [email protected]

Susan Heather Louise Murray South Africa African Journals OnLine [email protected]

Daisy Selematsela South Africa National Research Foundation [email protected]

Ina Smith South Africa Academy of Science of South Africa [email protected]

Suad Sulaiman Sudan Sudan National Academy of Sciences

[email protected]

Francis Tusubira Tanzania UbuntuNet [email protected]

Asifa Nanyaro Tanzania Tanzania Academy of Sciences [email protected]

Paul Samwel Muneja Tanzania Consortium of Tanzania University and Research Libraries

[email protected]@gmail.com

David Bakibinga Uganda Makerere University [email protected]@law.mak.ac.ug

Gilford Hapanyengwi Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Academy of Sciences [email protected]

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GroupPhoto–OAConsultativeForumParticipants

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The Network of African Science Academies (NASAC)wasestablishedon13thDecember2001inNairobi,Kenya,undertheauspicesoftheAfricanAcademy

ofSciences(AAS)andtheInterAcademyPanel(IAP).

NASACisaconsortiumofmerit-basedscienceacademiesinAfricaandaspirestomakethe“voiceofscience”heardbypolicyanddecisionmakerswithin

Africaandworldwide.NASACisdedicatedtoenhancingthecapacityofexistingnationalscienceacademiesandchampionsthecauseforcreationofnew

academieswherenoneexist.

For more information, please visit www.nasaconline.org or contact the nASAC Secretariat on:

P.O. Box 201-00502 Karen, Nairobi, Kenya oremail address: [email protected]

AsatJune2014,NASACcomprisedofthefollowingtwenty-onemembers:

AfricanAcademyofSciences(AAS)AcadémieNationaledesSciences,ArtsetLettresduBenin(ANSALB)

AcadémieNationaledesSciencesduBurkina(ANSB)CameroonAcademyofSciences(CAS)

AcadémieNationaledesSciencesetTechnologiesduCongo,Brazzaville(ANSTC)EthiopianAcademyofSciences(EAS)

GhanaAcademyofArtsandSciences(GAAS)KenyaNationalAcademyofSciences(KNAS)

MadagascarNationalAcademyofArts,LettersandSciencesMauritiusAcademyofScienceandTechnology(MAST)HassanIIAcademyofScienceandTechnology,Morocco

AcademyofSciencesofMozambique(ASM)NigerianAcademyofScience(NAS)

AcadémieNationaledesSciencesetTechniquesduSénégal(ANSTS)AcademyofScienceofSouthAfrica(ASSAf)

SudaneseNationalAcademyofSciences(SNAS)TanzaniaAcademyofSciences(TAAS)

AcadémieNationaledesSciences,ArtsetLettresduTogo(ANSALT)UgandaNationalAcademyofSciences(UNAS)

ZambiaAcademyofSciences(ZaAS)ZimbabweAcademyofSciences(ZAS)