acids and bases everywhere every liquid you see will probably have either acidic or basic traits....
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Acids and Bases Everywhere Every liquid you see will probably have either acidic or basic traits. One exception might be distilled water. Distilled water is just water. That's it. The positive and negative ions in distilled water are in equal amounts and cancel each other out. Most water you drink has ions in it. Slide 2 Acids and Bases Everywhere Those ions in solution make something acidic or basic. In your body there are small compounds called amino acids. Those are acids. In fruits there is something called citric acid. That's an acid, too. But what about baking soda? When you put that in water, it creates a basic solution. Vinegar? Acid. Slide 3 PH Scale Scientists use something called the pH scale to measure how acidic or basic a liquid is. Although there may be many types of ions in a solution, pH focuses on concentrations of hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH-). Slide 4 PH Scale The scale goes from values very close to 0 through 14. Distilled water is 7 (right in the middle). Acids are found between a number very close to 0 and 7. Bases are from 7 to 14. Most of the liquids you find every day have a pH near 7. They are either a little below or a little above that mark. Slide 5 PH Scale When you start looking at the pH of chemicals, the numbers go to the extremes. If you ever go into a chemistry lab, you could find solutions with a pH of 1 and others with a pH of 14. There are also very strong acids with pH values below one such as battery acid. Bases with pH values near 14 include drain cleaner and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Those chemicals are very dangerous. Slide 6 Names to Know Acid: A solution that has an excess of H+ ions. It comes from the Latin word acidus that means "sharp" or "sour". Base: A solution that has an excess of OH- ions. Another word for base is alkali. Aqueous: A solution that is mainly water. Think about the word aquarium. AQUA means water. Strong Acid: An acid that has a very low pH (0-4). Strong Base: A base that has a very high pH (10-14). Slide 7 If you have an ionic compound and you put it in water, it will break apart into two ions. If one of those ions is H+, the solution is acidic. If one of the ions is OH-, the solution is basic. What really happens.. Slide 8 That pH scale we talked about is actually a measure of the number of H+ ions in a solution. If there are a lot of H+ ions, the pH is very low. If there are a lot of OH- ions, that means the number of H+ ions is very low, so the pH is high. What really happens.. Slide 9 Acid or Base? Slide 10 Acids are substances which free hydrogen ions (H+), when they are mixed with water. Bases are substances which free hydroxide ions (OH-) when they are mixed with water. Acids and Bases Slide 11 Substances with pH lower than 7 are considered acids, those with pH equal to 7 are considered neutral, and those with pH higher than 7 are considered bases.. Acids and Bases Slide 12 Litmus Paper How to Measure PH Slide 13 Litmus is a substance obtained from certain lichens. It has the property of changing its color to red with acidic substances and to blue with basic ones. On the packet of the litmus paper, there is a color scale which indicates the color assumed by the paper as a function of the pH Litmus Paper Slide 14 pH Meter The pH meter is an electronic instrument supplied with a special bulb which is sensitive to the hydrogen ions which are present in the solution being tested. The signal produced by the bulb is amplified and sent to a liquid-crystal or an analog meter display. These instruments are much more precise and convenient to use than the indicating papers Slide 15 As we have seen, acids and bases have the property of modifying the color of certain substances. This is the case with the juice of the red cabbage. This liquid has a blue-violet color, but when it comes in contact with acidic substances it becomes red, while in contact with basic substances it becomes green and even yellow. Red Cabbage Juice Slide 16 Red cabbage juice mixed with baking soda (left) and with vinegar (right). On the top, a drop of unmixed juice. Red Cabbage Juice Slide 17 Soaking cards with red cabbage juice.. Preparing red cabbage pH papers. Slide 18 Drying the cards. Preparing red cabbage pH papers. Slide 19 Cutting the strips Preparing red cabbage pH papers. Slide 20 Lemon JuiceBaking soda Preparing red cabbage pH papers. Slide 21 Color of the scale in cabbage papers Slide 22 Corrosive ('burns' your skin) Sour taste (lemons, vinegar) Contains hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water Has a pH less than 7 Turns blue litmus paper to a red color Reacts with bases to form salt and water Reacts with metals to form hydrogen gas Properties of Acids Slide 23 * Hydrochloric acid (HCl) in gastric juice * Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) * Carbonic acid in softdrink (H2CO3) * Uric acid in urine * Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) in fruit * Citric acid in oranges and lemons * Acetic acid in vinegar * Tartaric acid (in grapes) Examples of Acids Slide 24 * Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or caustic soda * Calcium hydroxide ( Ca(OH)2 ) or limewater * Ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) or ammonia water * Magnesium hydroxide ( Mg(OH)2 ) or milk of magnesia * Many bleaches, soaps, toothpastes and cleaning agents Examples of Bases Slide 25 Soapy feel Has a pH more than 7 Turns red litmus paper to a blue color Many alkalis (soluble bases) contain hydroxyl ions (OH-) Reacts with acids to form salt and water Properties of Bases Slide 26 Every team must bring the following: 1. Lemon 2. Mayonnaise 3. Mustard 4. Ketchup 5. Sprite or Coke 6. Sauce (botanera) 7. Aspirin HOMEWORK I need ONLY 1 person to bring the following: 1. Egg 2. Slice of white bread 3. Apple 4. Orange Slide 27 HOMEWORK I will bring the following: 1. Baking soda 2. Vinegar 3. Bathroom cleaner 4. Vinegar 5. Hydrochloric Acid 6. Sugar 7. Salt 8. Detergent 9. Zinc 10. Oil 11. Tums 12. Alcohol 13. Pepto Bismol 14. Sunscreen Lotion