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Active Learning - Engaging Active Learning - Engaging Students in Large Classes Active Learning in the Classroom Series 21 April 2009 Presented by: Presented by: Hokling Cheung (EDO) and Susan Gano-Phillips (VPSA) Workshop Intended Learning Outcomes 9 Identify unique challenges and opportunities created by large classes 9 Outline important criteria for effective large class teaching class teaching 9 Propose one strategy for addressing a challenge in large class teaching that you will consider implementing in a current or will consider implementing in a current or planned course Large classLarge class What can you think of? What is your emotion for teaching large class?

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  • Active Learning - EngagingActive Learning - Engaging Students in Large Classes g

    Active Learning in the Classroom Series21 April 2009

    Presented by:Presented by:

    Hokling Cheung (EDO) and Susan Gano-Phillips (VPSA)

    Workshop Intended Learning Outcomes

    Identify unique challenges and opportunities created by large classes pp y gOutline important criteria for effective large class teachingclass teaching Propose one strategy for addressing a challenge in large class teaching that you will consider implementing in a current orwill consider implementing in a current or planned course

    “Large class”Large class

    What can you think of?

    What is your emotion for teaching large class?

  • Defining Large ClassesDefining Large Classes

    • Definitions vary in the literature but usually include numbers larger than 50 or 100 students (St l & P t 2007 Chi 1989)(Stanley & Porter, 2007; Chism, 1989)

    400 500 M l• 400-500 Mega class (Cleveland 2002)

    • “A course that exceeds by 20% or more the current maximum class size approved by the Curriculum Committee.”

    (College of the Redwoods, Canada)http://inside.redwoods.edu/Curriculum/Definition%20of%20Large%20Class%20Size%20Resolution%20%20App'd%20version.pdf

    Challenges and OpportunitiesChallenges and Opportunities

    What are the challenges and opportunities of large class teaching?– Please discuss in pair with the colleague sitting near you. – Please share with the whole class your discussion.

    OpportunitiesOpportunities

    • Diversity of student backgrounds• An efficient means to disseminate factualAn efficient means to disseminate factual

    knowledgeA l l ti i f t i l i• A large population size for certain learning activities

    ChallengesChallenges

    • Personalizing the environment• Working with diverse student needs andWorking with diverse student needs and

    backgroundsM i l di ti• Managing classroom disruptions

    • Involving students actively in learningo g stude ts act e y ea g• Adapting one’s teaching style to the large

    lect re classroomlecture classroomhttp://www.cte.umd.edu/library/teachingLargeClass/guide/ch1.html

  • Students views of large classesStudents views of large classesStudents views of large classesStudents views of large classes

    boring

    isolatedunimportant

    Free video resourcesvs

    • http://www.youtube.com/edu• http://www.ted.com/ (Riveting talks by remarkable people, free to the world)• http://www videojug com/

    Lecture• http://www.videojug.com/• http://www.youku.com/ (優酷網-中國第一視頻網站,提供視頻播放,視頻發布,視頻搜索)

    Investigating the problemsInvestigating the problems

    • Ineffective practices that can be overlooked in small class teaching are magnified in large classes and can become HUGE problems(Stanley and Porter, 2007).

    • For examplesFor examples

    • Lack of clarity on classroom expectation/policies• Failure to attend to the formation of a learningFailure to attend to the formation of a learning

    community• Misalignment of intended learning outcomes and g g

    teaching & learning activities• Inefficient assessment practices

    Teaching Philosophy in Large ClassesTeaching Philosophy in Large Classes

    “Ad t hil h f t hi“Adopt a philosophy for teaching a large class that is no different than one for a small class.”

    “Do not let your teaching creativity and originality be blocked by g y yperceptual or emotional barriers.”

    (Cleveland 2002)

  • A Comprehensive Approach to Effective Large Class Teaching

    • ESTABLISH an active learning community• MANAGE behaviors space & timeMANAGE behaviors, space & time• DESIGN effective learning activities• IMPLEMENT assessment for learning• MOBILISE the teaching team• MOBILISE the teaching team • UTILISE support resources & technologies

    Is there any existing effective practice you d ti ?are adopting?

    How Collaborative is your Classroom?

    O l f 1 5 k h l fit b• On a scale of 1 - 5, rank where your classroom fits by applying the indicators below. Simply type in your rankings in the spaces provided, and update your total at the end. Please note that the purpose of this continuum is simply to generate increased awareness of one's teaching style--it is not to imply that one style is better than another.y

    1 2 3 4 5

    http://www.2learn.ca/projects/together/start/collab.html

    TeamsA group of 5 people who are of different levels of Teams

    L t’ f t t i ti t ibl t t i t

    comfort or experience of collaborative teaching.

    • Let’s form teams to investigate possible strategies to teach large classes effectively and engagingly.

    70 53 35 17

    Teams• Having formed the team

    A BC

    – learn each other’s name (introductions)– determine a name for your team

    CDEE F

    Team ProjectTeam Project♥ Mi i D i ff ti d i♥ Mission: Devise an effective and engaging

    teaching plan for a large class.

    Stage 1: Reaching consensus on goals (5-min)• identify the mission, tasks and roles• give your team a name

    Stage 2: Jigsaw classroom (30-min)g g ( )• join the respective learning communities to develop

    knowledge and skills in different aspects Time on tasks!

    Stage 3: Team Plan Construction (15-min)• construct a concrete teaching plan using information

    gathered during jigsaw activitiesg g j g• post the plan on the wall of the classroom

    Image source: http://www.linkadata.co.id/images/team_work.jpg

  • Jigsaw groups to learn the comprehensive approach to effective large class teaching

    • ESTABLISH an active learning• ESTABLISH an active learning community

    • MANAGE behaviors space & time

    Team ACollaborative learning

    • MANAGE behaviors, space & time

    • DESIGN effective learning activities

    Team BPromoting civility by creating constructive large-class environment

    • IMPLEMENT assessment for learningTeam CClassroom Assessment Techniques

    • MOBILISE the teaching team

    • UTILISE support resources & Team DAssessment & feedback pp

    technologiesTeam EUsing e-learning technologiesg g g

    Jigsaw groups to learn the comprehensive approach to effective large class teaching

    • ESTABLISH an active learning• ESTABLISH an active learning community

    • MANAGE behaviors space & time

    Team ACollaborative learning

    • MANAGE behaviors, space & time

    • DESIGN effective learning activities

    Team BPromoting civility by creating constructive large-class environment

    • IMPLEMENT assessment for learningTeam CClassroom Assessment Techniques

    • MOBILISE the teaching team

    • UTILISE support resources & Team DAssessment & feedback pp

    technologiesTeam EUsing e-learning technologiesg g g

    Forming the jigsaw groups!Forming the jigsaw groups!

    The team member ill j i th fThe team member• whose hair is the

    shortest

    will join the group ofTeam ACollaborative learningshortest

    • who can command more languages than

    Collaborative learning

    Team BP ti i ilit b timore languages than

    others• who is the oldest in

    Promoting civility by creating constructive large-class environment

    Team Cwho is the oldest in terms of the birth month

    • who lives the farthest

    Team CClassroom Assessment Techniques

    Team Dwho lives the farthest from campus

    • who has not been

    Team DAssessment & feedback

    T Ewho has not been previously selected

    Team EUsing e-learning technologies

    Team ProjectTeam ProjectMi i D i ff ti d i♥ Mission: Devise an effective and engaging teaching plan for a large class.

    Stage 1: Reaching consensus (5-min)identif the mission tasks and roles• identify the mission, tasks and roles

    Stage 2: Jigsaw classroom (30-min)• join the respective learning communities to develop

    knowledge and skills in different aspects

    Stage 3: Construction (15-min)• construct a concrete teaching plan according

    t th l th ll f th l• post the plan on the wall of the classroom

    Image source: http://www.linkadata.co.id/images/team_work.jpg

    Time on tasks!

  • Constructing the Large Class Teaching Plan

    • T hin phil ph• Teaching philosophy

    • Preparation before the semester

    • During the teaching semester– First class meeting

    – 1 month after teaching

    – Instructional strategies for active and constructive teaching and learning activitiesg g g

    – Classroom Assessment Techniques

    – Use of Technologies

    • After teaching/At the end of the semester

    The Final Stage of the Team ProjectThe Final Stage of the Team Project

    P t/ t (5 i )Peer assessment/comment (5 mins) • Look at each other’s work

    Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/sarah_rotter/3017903652/

    The comprehensive approach to effective large class teaching

    Teaching philosophy – make a

    • ESTABLISH an active learning community

    g p p ycommitment to create an active and collaborative learning community

    • MANAGE behaviors, space & time

    DESIGN effective learning activities

    y

    Promoting civility by creating constructive large-class

    • DESIGN effective learning activities

    • IMPLEMENT assessment for learningClassroom Assessment Techniques

    environment

    • MOBILISE the teaching team Assessment & feedback

    • UTILISE support resources & technologies

    Using e-learning technologiesg g g

    E i St d t i L ClEngaging Students in Large Classes:

    Whi h i t d t tWhich picture demonstrates

    l t d t t?clear student engagement?

  • ReferencesReferencesAngelo, T.A. & Cross, P.K. (1993). Classroom Assessment Techniques (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Brown G ; Bull J and Pendlebury M 1997 Assessing Student Learning in HigherBrown, G.; Bull, J. and Pendlebury, M., 1997. Assessing Student Learning in Higher Education. London: Routledge. See chapter 11 - Peer- and Self- Assessment.

    Brown, S., Rust, C. and Gibbs, G., 1994. Involving students in the assessment process, in Strategies for Diversifying Assessments in Higher Education, Oxford: Oxford Centre for Staff Development, and at Deiberations.

    Chism, N. V. (1989). Large enrollment classes: Necessary evil or not necessarily evil? Notes on Teaching, 5, 1-8. Occasional paper published by the The Center for Teaching Excellence at the Ohio State University: Columbus, OH. (ERIC document 334 875).

    Davis, B.G. (1993). Tools for Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. [WWW document] Available from: , ( ) g y [ ]http://www.ntlf.com/html/lib/bib/assess.htm

    Draper, S, (2009). Seven principles of good feedback practice. [WWW document] Available from http://www.psy.gla.ac.uk/~steve/rap/nicol7.html [April 20, 2009]

    Hannafin, Michael J.; Hill, Janette R.; Land, Susan M. "Student-centered learning and interactive multimedia: Status, issues, and implication." Contemporary Education, v. 68, n.2, Winter 1997, 94-99.

    James, R., McInnis, C. and Devlin, M (2002). Assessing Learning in Australian Universities [online] Centre for the Study of Higher Education. [WWW document] Available from

    // / / /http://www.cshe.unimelb.edu.au/assessinglearning/03/large.html [April 14, 2009]

    ReferencesReferencesJeanne, M.G. "Is this collaboration?" New Directions for Teaching and Learning, v. 59, Fall 1994, 5-14.

    Marcum Gerlach J ; Hill Janette R ; Land Susan M "Student-centered learning and interactive multimedia: StatusMarcum Gerlach, J.; Hill, Janette R.; Land, Susan M. Student centered learning and interactive multimedia: Status, issues, and implication." Contemporary Education, v. 68, n.2, Winter 1997, 94-99.

    Sorcinelli, M.D. (2002). ‘Promoting Civility in Large Classes’ in Engaging Large Classes - Strategies and Techniques for College Faculty, eds C.A. Stanley and M. E. Porter, Anker Publishing Company, Bolton, pp. 44-51

    Sorcinelli, M.D. (2003-4). ‘Encouraging Civil Behavior in Large Classes’. Essays on Teaching ExcellenceToward the Best in the AcademyVol. 15, No. 8, 2003-2004 [WWW document] http://legacy.kctcs.edu/prodev/network/Encouraging%20Civil%20Behavior%20in%20Large%20Classes.htm

    “Assessment Techniques to Engage Students in Objectives”. The Northwest Regional Professional Development q g g j g pProgram [WWW document] Available from http://www.washoe.k12.nv.us/hr/rpdp/SLF_Assessment_Resources.htm

    How Collaborative is your Classroom? Project [email protected]: Project Basics - Show Me How... [WWW document] http://www.2learn.ca/projects/together/start/collab.html

    Peer assessment InternationalStaff.org [WWW document] http://www.internationalstaff.org/peer_assessment.php

    Schreyer Institute for Teaching Excellence at Pennsylvania State University at http://www.schreyerinstitute.psu.edu/Tools/Large/ ; http://www.cte.umd.edu/library/teachingLargeClass/guide/index.html ; http://www.uwo.ca/tsc/tlc/;

    // / / / / /http://www.uoregon.edu/~tep/workshops/teachertraining/largeclasses/largeclasses.html ;

    Student Peer Assessment - Stephen Bostock. Keele University's Learning Technology web pages. (A review article that cites much of the background research literature on peer assessment.)