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  • ADPC. Regional Analysis of Socio-Economic Impacts of the December 2004 Earthquake and Indian Ocean Tsunami. Bangkok: ADPC, 2006, 43 pp.

    Copyright ADPC 2006

    All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this publication for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from ADPC provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of this publication for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission from ADPC.

    Authorship

    Execution of the study was undertaken under the direction of the Disaster Management Systems Team of ADPC, under the leadership of its Director, Mr. Aloysius Rego.

    A senior international consultant, Mr. J. Roberto Jovel, was engaged by ADPC to conduct all substantive activities for the project, including the preparation of this report. Mr. Jovel led the development of the ECLAC methodology, has had a long and extensive experience in its application in the Latin America and the Caribbean region as well as in Asia, and also led the project for the transferring of the damage and loss assessment methodology in the State of Gujarat, India, for ADPC.

    In the undertaking of project activities, Mr. Jovel was supported by a number of ADPC Staff including inter alia Mrs. Supriya Prabhu Mehta, Project Manager; Mr. Arghya Sinha Roy; and Mrs. Farzana Khan. Senior ADPC officials Messrs. Earl Kessler, Deputy Executive Director, Arjunapermal Subbiah, N.M.S.I. Arambepola and Selvaraju Ramasamy provided substantive comments. Messrs. Ricardo Zapata, Rene Hernandez and Jose Javier Gomez, of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) remotely provided valuable comments and suggestions for the preparation of this report. Comments were also received from Ms. Margaret Arnold and other World Bank officials that were very useful in preparing the final version of this report.

    Published by: Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC) P O Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, Thailand 12120 Tel: (66 2) 516 5900-10 Fax: (66 2) 524 5360 URL: http://www.adpc.net

    Lay-out and design by: Philipp Danao, Information and Knowledge Management Unit, ADPC Printed by: Do My Best Printer, Thailand

  • Regional Analysis of Socio-Economic Impacts of the December 2004 Earthquake and Indian Ocean Tsunami October 2005

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  • I. Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1 A. Background ............................................................................................................................................................................... 1 B. The project ................................................................................................................................................................................. 2 C. Methodology ............................................................................................................................................................................ 3

    II. The Natural Event and Disaster ............................................................................................................................................................... 5 A. Origin and Characteristics of the Natural Event ............................................................................................................... 5 B. The Frequency of the Event .................................................................................................................................................. 6

    III. The Impact of the Disaster ....................................................................................................................................................................... 7 A. General Comments .................................................................................................................................................................. 7 B. Population Affected .................................................................................................................................................................. 7 C. Economic Impact ...................................................................................................................................................................... 9

    IV. Risk and Vulnerabilities .......................................................................................................................................................................... 31 A. Economic Vulnerabilities and Risk .................................................................................................................................... 31 B. Financial Risk ........................................................................................................................................................................... 33 C. Production Vulnerabilities and Risk ................................................................................................................................... 34 D. Physical Infrastructure Vulnerabilities and Risk ............................................................................................................. 35 E. Social Vulnerabilities and Risk ............................................................................................................................................ 36 F. Environment Vulnerabilities and Risk ................................................................................................................................ 37

    V. Improved Management of Disaster Risk ............................................................................................................................................ 39 A. General Considerations ........................................................................................................................................................ 39 B. Financial Risk Management .................................................................................................................................................. 39 C.Other Risk Management Considerations ........................................................................................................................... 41

    Contents

    CONTENTS

  • TABLES

    Table 2.1. Geophysical Events involving Tsunamis in Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean Basin Table 3.1. Selected Social Indicators for the Affected Countries in 2003 Table 3.2. Direct Impact of the Disaster on Population Table 3.3. Death Ratios in Most Affected Provinces or Districts Table 3.4. Annual Rates of Growth of Gross Domestic Product in the Affected Countries (2000 to 2004) Table 3.5. Impact of Selected, Recent Major Disasters in the World Table 3.6. Breakdown of Total Impact between Private and Public Sectors Table 3.7. Breakdown of Damage and Losses Caused by the Indian Ocean Disaster Table 3.8. Distribution of Disaster Effects by Countries Table 3.9. Disaster Damage vis a vis Annual Rate Gross Capital Formation Table 3.10. Disaster Damage vis a vis Gross Domestic Production Table 3.11. Total Impact and Magnitude of Disaster by Province Table 3.12. Per Capita Impact of Indian Ocean Disaster in Most Affected Provinces Table 3.13. Breakdown of Damage and Losses by Main Sectors Table 3.14 Estimated Damage and Losses Caused by Tsunami in Indian Ocean Region Table 3.15. Summary of Impact of Indian Ocean Disaster by Sectors Table 3.16. Estimated IMpact of Indian Ocean Disaster on Economic Growth Table 4.1. Comparison of Size of the Economy and Economic Impact of Disaster in the Indian Ocean Region Table 4.2. Value of Damage to Assets, by Country and Most Affected Sectors Table 4.3. Value of Economic, by Country and Most Affected Sectors Table 4.4. Disaster Impact in the Productive Sectors Table 4.5. Disaster Impact in Physical Infrastructure Table 4.6. Disaster Impact in Social Sciences

    FIGURES

    Figure 2.1. Detailed number of affected people by country (estimates by ADPC) Figure 3.1. Comparison of Total Impact vis as vis Size of the National Economies (expressed by GDP%) Figure 3.2. Disaster Damage vis a vis Annual Rate of Gross Capital Formation Figure 3.3. Distribution of Total Impact by Main Sectors Figure 3.4. Percentage of Damage and Losses by Main Sectors Figure 3.5. Post-Tsunami Recovery of Tourism Arrivals in Maldives Figure 3.6. Seasonality of International Tourist Arrivals in Maldives, Sri Lanka and Thailand Figure 3.7. Post-Tsunami Recovery of Tourism Arrivals in Sri Lanka Figure 4.1. Ownership of Damage to Assets, between Public and Private Sectors

    List of Tables and Figures

    6 7 8 8 9

    10 10 11 11 12 12 13 14 15 16 28 29 31 32 32 34 35 36

    6 11 12 15 15 20 22 22 32

  • 1

    A. BACKGROUND

    The magnitude and extent of the human toll of the 26 December 2004 Earthquake and Indian Ocean Tsunami caused widespread destruction and mobilized an enormous effort for humanitarian assistance never seen in the past. The special coverage given by the international media, coupled with the unusual and infrequent type and intensity of the natural event and the presence of foreign nationals among the victims gave rise to an unprecedented sense of international solidarity.

    The severity of the human suffering was accompanied by widespread destruction of physical, social and productive infrastructure caused by the action of the earthquake and the ensuing tsunami waves that spread havoc in the shores of