alan turing: virtuoso visionary

Click here to load reader

Post on 17-Jan-2017

1.031 views

Category:

Science

2 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Alan Turing

    Prof. Jonathan P. Bowen Emeritus Professor of Computing

    London South Bank University (LSBU)

    Currently Visiting Scholar at the Institute for Advanced Studies (IIAS)

    Hebrew University of Jerusalem

    Chairman, Museophile Limited

    www.jpbowen.com

    Virtuoso Visionary

    http://www.jpbowen.com/

  • Introduction

    Subjects: Mathematics, engineering, art,

    computer science, software engineering,

    museum informatics, history of computing

    Collaboration: Archivists, historians, library scientists,

    mathematicians, museologists, philosophers, sociologists

    Academia: Imperial College (London), Oxford, Reading,

    Birmingham City, London South Bank University

    Visitor: UNU-IIST (Macau), Kings College London, Brunel,

    Westminster, Waikato (New Zealand), Pratt Institute (New

    York, USA), Institute for Advanced Studies (Jerusalem)

    Industry: Marconi, Logica, Silicon Graphics, Altran Praxis

    EVA London Conference on

    Electronic Visualisation & the Arts

    (co-chair) www.eva-london.org

    http://www.eva-london.org/http://www.eva-london.org/http://www.eva-london.org/http://eva-london.org/

  • Overview

    Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS

    (23 June 1912 7 June 1954)

    Mathematician, philosopher, codebreaker

    Founder/father of computer science

    Increasingly in the public consciousness

    Centenary meetings at Bletchley Park,

    Cambridge, Manchester, Oxford,

    etc., in 2012

    Mathematics can be visualised

    Digital archives of Turing material

  • Contributions to knowledge

    The Universal Machine (1936)

    Code-breaking (WW II)

    Computers and computing (1946)

    Artificial Intelligence (1950)

    Morphogenesis (1952)

  • Alan Turing:

    The Enigma

    Definitive biography

    by Andrew Hodges,

    Wadham College,

    Oxford.

    1st edition, 1983.

    Centenary edition,

    2012.

    http://www.amazon.com/Alan-Turing-Enigma-Centenary-Edition/dp/069115564X

  • The Scientists: An epic of discovery

    Andrew Robinson (ed.),

    Thames & Hudson, 2012

    43 scientists through history

    Includes Alan Turing

    And Einstein of course!

    How do they compare?

    http://www.amazon.co.uk/The-Scientists-An-Epic-Discovery/dp/0500251916

  • Einstein (a diversion!)

    Institute for Advanced Studies,

    Hebrew University

    Einstein Archive

    Albert Einstein Square

    Garden of the Israel Academy of

    Sciences and Humanities

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein_Square_(Jerusalem)

  • Einstein

    New 2015 sculpture on Givat Ram campus

  • Einsteins Blackboard, Oxford

    If we knew what it was we were doing, it would not be

    called research, would it?

    Albert Einstein (18791955)

    Bust in

    Birmingham

    Museum and

    Art Gallery

    Blackboard in the

    Museum of the History

    of Science, Oxford (lecture in Oxford on

    16 May 1931)

    Turing is not known to

    have visited Oxford!

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Einstein's_Blackboard

  • Turings Worlds (2324 June 2012)

    Dept. of Continuing Education, Oxford University

    Authors in The Turing Guide

    http://formalmethods.wikia.com/wiki/Turing's_Worlds

  • Cake at Oxford centenary meeting.

    Happy Birthday Alan Turing! (2012)

  • The Turing Guide

    A collected set of 42 chapters on

    Alan Turing. Co-editors:

    Jonathan Bowen (London South Bank University,

    England) computer scientist (at IIAS)

    Jack Copeland (University of Canterbury,

    New Zealand) philosopher (at IIAS)

    Mark Sprevak (University of Edinburgh, Scotland)

    philosopher

    Robin Wilson (Open University /

    Oxford University, England) mathematician

  • Table of Contents

    Foreword by Andrew Hodges

    Preface by the editors

    Eight parts

    Notes and references

    Notes on contributors

    Index

  • Table of Contents parts

    I. Biography

    II. The Universal Machine and Beyond

    III. Codebreaker

    IV. Computers after the War

    V. Artificial Intelligence and the Mind

    VI. Biological Growth

    VII. Mathematics

    VIII. Finale

  • 1. Life and work

    Jonathan P. Bowen, Jack Copeland,

    Mark Sprevak, and Robin J. Wilson

    Biography

    Born at Colonnade Hotel

    Maida Vale, London, 1912

    Died at home in Wilmslow,

    Cheshire, 1954

  • Southampton to Sherborne

    Arrival at new school: Bicycle ride during

    the General Strike, 1926 (aged 14)

    Stayed at the Crown Hotel, Blandford Forum

    Inspired by school

    friend Christopher

    Morcom (died

    February 1930)

    when Turing was 17

    Turing read and

    understood

    Einstein aged 16

    http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=07_ckaHY-2QC&pg=PA24&lpg=PA24

  • Turing at Princeton

    Enrolled

    29 September 1936

    Dissertation accepted

    18 May 1938

    https://blogs.princeton.edu/mudd/2014/11/alan-turings-princeton-university-file-available-online/

  • Turing at Princeton Turings record

    of study

    Studied the

    Theory of

    Relativity

    under

    Howard P.

    Robertson

    (19031961)

    Robertson met

    Einstein, Hilbert,

    etc., in Gttingen,

    Germany

    http://www.princeton.edu/mudd/finding_aids/mathoral/pmcxrobertson.htm

  • 2. The man with the terrible trousers

    Sir John Dermot Turing

    nephew of Alan Turing

    A person view

    Author of Prof: Alan Turing Decoded

    (September 2015) At an exhibition on Alan Turing

    at Bletchley Park, 2012

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-beds-bucks-herts-17262062

  • 5. A century of Turing

    Stephen Wolfram

    Wolfram Research

    Mathematica

    birthday (23 June 1988)

    Based on a blog

    Personal view

    Turing Machine

    visualisation

    Mathematica program:

    ArrayPlot [Function

    [u, MapAt [Red &,

    u[[2]], u[[1, 2]]]] /

    @TuringMachine

    [2506,{1, {{}, 0}, 50]]

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Wolfram

  • 6. Turings great invention:

    The computing machine

    Jack Copeland the Turing machine

    An implementation of a Turing machine

  • 9. At

    Bletchley Park

    Jack Copeland

    Enigma, etc.

    Cottages in the

    stable yard where

    Turing did early

    work on Enigma

    Hut 8

    used

    by

    Turing

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bletchley_Park

  • 10. The Enigma machine

    Joel Greenberg

    Guide at Bletchey Park

    Author of Gordon Welchman:

    Bletchley Park's Architect of

    Ultra Intelligence biography

    (2014)

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enigma_machine

  • 12. Bombes Jack Copeland, with Jean Valentine and

    Catherine Caughey

    Electromechanical deciphering device

    Design by Turing et al. (1939)

    Bombe reconstruction at Bletchley Park

    Jean Valentine, Bombe operator, latterly a guide at Bletchley Park

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Valentine_(bombe_operator)

  • Banburismus and Turingery

    Banburismus: a cryptographic method

    developed by Turing for Enigma (Bombe

    pre-processing)

    Turingery (aka Turing's Method and

    Turingismus) for breaking the Lorenz

    cipher

    Cf.

    BlackBerry

    today

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lorenz_cipher

  • 20. Saving Bletchley Park

    Simon Greenish and Jonathan Bowen

    Former Director

    Recent history of Bletchley Park

    Now safe (National Lottery funding)

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bletchley_Park

  • 21. Turing, Lovelace, and

    Babbage: congruent worlds

    Doron Swade, formerly computing

    curator at the Science Museum, London

    Comparing Turings achievement with

    Charles Babbage and Ada Lovelace

    Analytical Engine

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Babbagehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ada_Lovelacehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analytical_Engine

  • Ada Lovelace (18151852)

    First programmer 200th anniversary of

    Ada Lovelaces birth, 10 December 2015

    Died aged 36 (cf. Turing at 41)

    Symposium in Oxford, 1011 December 2015

    Exhibitions at Weston Library, Oxford

    & Science Museum, London

    Letters in Bodleian Library, Oxford

    Digitisation project

    in progress at the

    Bodleian

    https://blogs.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/adalovelace/symposium/

  • The ACE computer

    Turing at National Physical Laboratory, 194547

    Automatic Computing Engine (ACE),

    originally designed by Turing, 1946

    Smaller Pilot ACE finally implemented, 1950

    Now in the Science

    Museum, London

  • 23. The Manchester Baby

    Jack Copeland

    Manchester Mark I

    computer, June 1948

    Turing appointed Reader worked on software

    Alan Turing on

    the right standing

    at the console of

    the Manchester

    Ferranti

    computer.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_Mark_1

  • 24. Computer music

    Jack Copeland and Jason Long

    Foreseen by Ada Lovelace

    First recorded computer music

    (God

View more