all about poetry (elements and types of poetry)
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PoetrySentasasZuluetaGrade 7- Fermi
Manila Science High School 2016
What is poetry?
literary work in which special intensity is given to the expression of feelings and ideas by the use of distinctive style and rhythm; poems collectively or as a genre of literature. (Oxford Dictionaries)literature that evokes a concentrated imaginative awareness of experience or a specific emotional response through language chosen and arranged for its meaning, sound, and rhythm. (Britannica.com)
The language of imagination expressed in verse. (Websters Dictionary)It can be defined as literature in metrical form or a compostition forming rhythmic lines.A poem follows a particular flow of rhythm and meter.
Compared to prose, where there is no such restriction, and the content of a piece flows according to story, a poem may or may not have a story, but definitely has a structured method of writing.
Elements of poetry
Elements of poetryElements of poetry can be defined as a set of instruments used to create a poem. Many of these were created thousands of years ago and have been linked to ancient story tellings. They help bring imagery and emotion to poetry, stories, and dramas.
StanzaA unit of lines grouped together.Similar to a paragraph in prose. A Stanza consists of two or more lines of poetry that together form one of the divisions of a poem. The stanzas of a poem are usually of the same length and follow the same pattern of meter and rhyme and are used like paragraphs in a story.
StanzaSome different types of stanzas are as follows:Couplets- stanzas of only two lines which usually rhyme.
Whether or not we find what we are seekingis idle, biologically speaking. Edna St. Vincent Millay (at the end of a sonnet)
StanzaTercets - stanzas of three lines. The three lines may or may not have the same end rhyme. If all three lines rhyme, this type of tercet is called a triplet.Quatrain- stanzas of four lines which can be written in any rhyme scheme.
Come, fill the Cup, and in the fire of SpringYour Winter garment of Repentance fling: The Bird of Time has but a little wayTo flutter--and the Bird is on the Wing.
*Rhyme SchemeThe pattern in which end rhyme occurs.Rhymes are types of poems which have the the repetition of the same or similar sounds at the end of two or more words most often at the ends of lines. This technique makes the poem easy to remember and is therefore often used in Nursery Rhymes. Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall,Humpty Dumpty had a great fall.All the King's horses, And all the King's menCouldn't put Humpty together again!
StanzaTypes of Quatrains
Alternating Quatrain- a four line stanza rhyming "abab." From W.H. Auden's "Leap Before You Look
Envelope Stanza- a quatrain with the rhyme scheme "abba", such that lines 2 and 3 are enclosed between the rhymes of lines 1 and 4. Two of these stanzas make up the Italian Octave used in the Italian sonnet. This is from Auden's "Look Before You Leap"
The sense of danger must not disappear: aThe way is certainly both short and steep, bHowever gradual it looks from here; aLook if you like, but you will have to leap. bThe worried efforts of the busy heap, aThe dirt, the imprecision, and the beer b Produce a few smart wisecracks every year; bLaugh if you can, but you will have to leap. a
RhythmThe pattern of beats orstresses in a poem.Poets use patterns of stressed and unstressedsyllables to create a regular rhythm.She was a child and I was a child,In this kingdom by the sea;But we loved with a love that wasmore than love I and my Annabel Lee;
RhymeThe repetition of the same or similar sounds,usually in stressed syllables at the ends of lines, but sometimes within a line.There are strange things done in themidnight sunBy the men who moil for gold;
The repetition of consonant sounds at the beginnings of words.Peter Piper pick a peck of pickled peppers.
OnomatopoeiaWords that are used to represent particular sounds.
ImageryRepresentation of the five senses: sight, taste, touch, sound, and smell.Creates mental images about a poems subject
ImageryVisual imagery: visual descriptions so vivid they seem to come to life in the reader's mind's when they are read, as in the description of a very old fish in Elizabeth Bishop's poem titled "The Fish":
Here and therehis brown skin hung in stripslike ancient wall-paper,and its pattern of darker brownwas like wall-paper: shapes like full-blown roses strained and lost through age
ImageryAuditory imagery: descriptions of sound so vivid the reader seems almost to hear them while reading the poem. For example, Alexander Pope contrasts the gentle sounds of a whispering wind and a soft-running stream with the harsher sound of waves crashing on the shore in "Sound and Sense":
The sound must seem an echo to the sense:Soft is the strain when Zephyr gently bows,And the smooth stream in smoother numbers flow;But when the loud surges lash the sounding shore,The hoarse, rough verse should like the torrent roar. (365-69)
ImageryImages of smell (olfactory imagery): descriptions of smells so vivid they seem almost to stimulate the reader's own sense of smell while reading, as in the poem, "Root Cellar," by Theodore Roethke:
And what a congress of stinks!Roots ripe as old bait,Pulpy stems, rank, silo-rich,Leaf-mold, manure, lime, piled against slippery planks.Nothing would give up life:Even the dirt kept breathing a small breath. (5-11)
ImageryTactile or "physical" imagery: descriptions conveying a strong, vivid sense of touch or physical sensation that the reader can almost feel himself or herself while reading, as in Robert Frost's description of standing on a ladder in "After Apple Picking. Or in the sensation of touch (and possibly taste) in the fourth stanza of Helen Chasin's poem, "The Word Plum":
My instep arch not only keeps the ache, It keeps the pressure of a ladder-round. I feel the ladder sway as the boughs bend" (21-23).The word plum is delicious
pout and push, luxury ofself-love, and savoring murmur
full in the mouth and fallinglike fruit
taut skinpierced, bitten, provoked into juice, and tart flesh. (1-8).
Figures of Speech
Figures of speech are a special kind of imagery.They create pictures by making comparisons.
A comparison using like or as.Talk of your cold! through the parkasfold it stabbed like a driven nail.
MetaphorDescribes one thing as if it were another.The moon was a ghostly galleontossed upon cloudy seas.
PersonificationGives human characteristics to something non-human.and the stars oerheadwere dancing heel and toe
Tone or Moodrefers to the writer's attitude towards the subject of a literary work as indicated in the work itself. One way to think about tone in poetry is to consider the speaker's literal "tone of voice": just as with tone of voice, a poem's tone may indicate an attitude of joy, sadness, solemnity, silliness, frustration, anger, puzzlement, etc.
RefrainThe repetition of one or more phrases or lines at certain intervals, usually at the end of each stanza.Similar to the chorus in a song.The word 'Refrain' derives from the Old French word refraindre meaning to repeat.
RepetitionA word or phrase repeated within a line or stanza.Sometimes, repetition reinforces or even substitutes for meter (the beat), the other chief controlling factor of poetry.
ThemeThe theme of the poem talks about the central idea, the thought behind what the poet wants to convey. A theme can be anything from a description about a person or thing, a thought or even a story. In short a theme stands for whatever the poem is about.
SymbolismA poem often conveys feelings, thoughts and ideas using symbols, this technique is known as symbolism.poetry has developed over hundreds of years, certain symbolic meanings have attached themselves to such things as colors, places, times, and animals. You cannot merely plug these meanings into a poem and expect to understand the poem completely. Your own knowledge, associations, and experience are what will lead you to a deep and personal connection to any poem.
SymbolismExamples:Sleep is often related to death. Dreams are linked to the future or fate. Seasons often represent ages: spring--youth, summer--prime of life, autumn--middle age, winter--old age or death. Water is sometimes linked to the idea of birth or purification. Colors are often linked to emotions: red--anger, blue--happiness, green--jealousy. They are also used to represent states of being: black--death or evil, white--purity or innocence, green--growth. Forests are often places of testing or challenge. Light--as the sun, the moon, stars, candles--often symbolizes good, hope, freedom. Darkness is associated with evil, magic or the unknown. The moon has several associations. It is sometimes a feminine symbol, sometimes associated with madness, sometimes with resurrection.
Types of Poetry
DLyricalNarrativeDramaticSpecial typesTYPES OF POETRY
SonnetElegyOdeEpicBalladSocial Dramatic MonologueSoliloquyCharacter sketchOrationHaikuCinquainLimeckName poem
Lyrical PoetryExpresses Personal thoughts and emotions.is a short poem which has the characteristics of a songIt pertains to a single mood or feeling and is more personal in nature.Sonnet, Elegy, and Ode are types of Lyrical Poetry.
Sonnet The Name sonnet derives from Italian word sonneto which means little song.is a relatively short poem consisting of merely fourteen lines. It is known to follow a strict pattern of rhyme. Classified into Petrarchan, Shakespearean, Spenserian and Miltonic sonnets.
Sonnet 116by William Shakespeare
Let me not to the marriage of true mindsAdmit impediments.Love is not love which alters when it alteration finds,Or bends with the remover to remove:O no! it is an ever-fixed markThat looks on tempests and is never shaken;It is the star to every wandering bark,Whose worth's unknown, although his height be taken.Love's not time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeksWithin his bending sickle's compass come:Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks,But bears it out even to the edge of doomIf this be error and upon me proved,I never writ, nor no man ever loved.
ElegyThis is a lyric poem which expresses lament and mourning of the dead, feeling of grief and melancholy. The theme of this poem is death.
Lycidas By John Milton
Yet once more, O ye Laurels, and once moreYe Myrtles brown, with Ivy never-sear,I com to pluck your Berries harsh and crude,And with forc'd fingers rude,Shatter your leaves before the mellowing year.Bitter constraint, and sad occasion dear,Compels me to disturb your season due:For Lycidas is dead, dead ere his prime.
Ode This is a poem of nobeling feeling, expressed with dignity and praises for some persons, objects, events or ideas.It is exalted in tone and formal in structure and content.
Ode on a Grecian Urn By John Keats
Thou still unravish'd bride of quietness,Thou foster-child of silence and slow time,Sylvan historian, who canst thus expressA flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme:What leaf-fring'd legend haunts about thy shapeOf deities or mortals, or of both,In Tempe or the dales of Arcady?What men or gods are these? What maidens loth?What mad pursuit? What struggle to escape?What pipes and timbrels? What wild ecstasy?
NarrativePoetryTypes of poet that narrates a story through the use of poetic diction either real or imaginary.Narrative poem has special appeal.This form of poetry describes events in a vivid way, using some of the elements as short stories, plot characters and dialogue.
EpicThis is a long and narrative poem that normally tells a story about a hero or an adventure.Epics can be oral stories or can be poems in written form.Popular or ancient poetry is usually without definite author and slow in the development. Modern epic poetry has a definite author.
5 Greatest examples of epic poemBeowulf by Anonymous - This is an Old English language heroic epic poem of anonymous authorship, dating as recorded in the Nowell Codex manuscript from between the 8th to the 11th century and relates events described as having occurred in what is now Denmark and Sweden.Metamorphoses by Ovid - This is a narrative poem in fifteen books that describes the creation and history of the world.The Odyssey by Homer - The poem is, in part, a sequel to Homers Iliad and mainly centers on the Greek hero Odysseus and his long journey home to Ithaca following the fall of Troy.Epic of Gilgamesh by Anonymous - This is an epic poem from Ancient Mesopotamia and is among the earliest known works of literary fiction.The Iliad by Homer - oldest extant work of literature in the ancient Greek language, making it the first work of European literature.
BalladIt also tell a story, like epic poems however, ballad poetry is often based on a legend or a folk tale. Most ballads are written in four-six stanzas and has a regular rhythms and rhyme schemes.A ballad often features a refrain-a regular repeated line or group of lines.
The Mermaidby Unknown author
Oh the ocean waves may roll,And the stormy winds may blow,While we poor sailors go skipping aloftAnd the land lubbers lay down below, below, belowAnd the land lubbers lay down below.
Social poemThis is either purely comic or tragic and pictures the life of today.It may aim to bring changes in social conditions.
Dramatic Poetry Has elements related closely to the drama. It uses a dramatic technique and may unfold a story.It emphasize the character rather than the narrative.
Dramatic monologueThis is a combination of drama and poetry.
It presents some line or speech of single character in a particular but complicated situation and sometimes in a dilemma
SolilouyThe speaker of the poem or the character in a play delivers a passage.The thoughts and emotions are heard by the author and the audience as well.
OrationThis Is a formal address elevated in tone and usually delivered on some notable occasion.
Character SketchThis is a poem which the writeris concerned less with the elements of story. He presents his observations and comments to a particular individual.
Special Types of poems
HaikuSpecial type of poetry which originated from Japan.
Its the shortest type of poem and, often, the most difficult to understand.
It consists of three lines that generally do not rhyme. The lines should have five, seven, and five syllables in them.
The best-known Japanese haikuisBash's "old pond":
fu-ru-i-ke ya (5)ka-wa-zu to-bi-ko-mu (7)mi-zu no o-to (5)
(Translated)old pond . . .a frog leaps inwaters sound
Cinquain This is five-line poem which also originated in Japan.There are many different variations of cinquain including American Cinquains, didactic cinquains, reverse cinquains, butterfly cinquains and crown cinquains.
Snowby Adelaide Crapsey
Look upFrom bleakening hillsBloww!s down the light, first breathOf wintry windlook up, and scentThe snow
Free Verse A loosest type of poem. It can consists as many lines as the writer wants and either rhyme or not and has no fixed metrical pattern.This type of poem openly called as Poem with no rules.
Feelings, Now by Katherine Foreman
Some kind of attraction that is neitherAnimal, vegetable, nor mineral, a power notSolar, fusion, or magneticAnd it is all in my head thatI could see into hisAnd find myself sitting there.
Name poemA special type of poetry belong to descriptive poetry that use an adjective to describe a person that begins with each letter of that person's name.
Taylor likes each sentiment to beAppropriate to its own time and place.Years may roll like waves across her shore,Leaving none of what there was before,Obliterating every sign of grace.Reason not, says Taylor, with the sea!Zulueta 2016