american political history key presidential elections and related history

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American Political History Key Presidential Elections And Related History

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American Political History Key Presidential Elections And Related History Slide 2 Evolution of American Party Democracy Federalists and Anti-Federalists NOT political parties Then what are they? Hamilton and Jefferson Jeffersons group preferred a federal system with more powerful states, although this belief changes a bit when they are in power. Hamiltons group preferred strong central government. Slide 3 Party Eras in American History 1796-1824: The First Party System Madison warned of factions Federalist 10 Washingtons warning parties and ??? First party were the Federalists (Hamilton) Largely in New England Opposed by the Democrat-Republicans (Jefferson) Largely in the South How did they develop? What did they believe? Slide 4 First Party System Federalists found most in NE, along coast Rule by elites Loose interpretation of the Constitution Strong central government, supportive of business, national bank Protective tariff, pro-British Democrat-Republicans South and SW Rule by informed masses Strict interpretation of the Constitution Weak central government, prefer agriculture Pro-French, encourage state banks Slide 5 Election of 1796 Candidates John Adams Federalist Thomas Jefferson Democrat-Republican Issues All the differences that began our two party system (handout) Essential Information Washington retires, warns about political parties, but here they are anyway Results the electoral system works! Adams wins, Jefferson is VP (awkward!!!) Note the regional support for each candidate Slide 6 Election of 1796 Electoral Map Slide 7 Election of 1800 The Revolution of 1800 Why a revolution? Candidates Adams (Fed) vs. Jefferson (D-R), again Issues Alien and Sedition Act, France Essential Information Tie in the Electoral College between Jefferson and Burr Why? Results Jefferson wins in the House (although Burr tries to steal election) 12 th Amendment What does it change? Slide 8 Election of 1800 Electoral Map Where does Jefferson gain support? (Compared to 1796) Slide 9 The Early Parties Fade Federalists faded Why? James Monroes presidency Era of Good Feelings - 1817-1825 Party politics suspended at national level Expansion of democracy States moved to choose presidential electors through popular elections. (Only SC did not by 1832) Universal male suffrage Party membership broadened. National conventions/ first third party (when?) Emergence of Jacksonian Democrats and opposition party of the Whigs (related to Federalists) Slide 10 Slide 11 Election of 1824 End of the Era of Good Feelings Corrupt Bargain Candidates Andrew Jackson-TN, John Quincy Adams-MA (Monroes Sec of State), Henry Clay-KY, William Crawford-GA Issues Essential Information Jackson wins popular vote, but no electoral majority Decided in the House for JQ Adams Results Adams wins after gaining Clays support Clay becomes Sec of State Jackson, and his supporters, are furious Democrat-Republican Party begins to split Slide 12 Election of 1824 Electoral Map Slide 13 Party Eras in American History 1828-1856: The Second Party System: Jackson and the Democrats versus the Whigs Modern party founded by Jackson Whigs formed mainly in opposition to Jackson Slide 14 Second Party System 1828-1856 Democrats Followers of Andrew Jackson Wanted federal restraint, states rights Significant immigrant support Whigs Followers of Henry Clay, or just anti-Jackson Wanted national bank, protective tariff, internal improvements (Clays American System), later supportive of moral reforms Slide 15 Election of 1828 The Common Man Candidates Adams vs. Jackson, part two Issues Essential Information Political conventions begin to replace caucuses by 1832, making the nomination of candidates more democratic Results Jackson wins easily, lots of new voters (map) Wild inaugural Slide 16 Election of 1828 Electoral Map Slide 17 More Political Change Initial Third Party in 1832, the Anti- Masonic Party Slavery split the Whig support across sectional lines. Replaced by the Republican Party John C. Fremont lost in 1856. Lincoln won in 1860; fragmented vote. South went solidly for Democrats. North went for Republicans. After Reconstruction, not a single southern state voted for a Republican president until 1920 Slide 18 Election of 1860 Candidates Abraham Lincoln (R), Stephen Douglas (D-N), John Bell (Constitutional Union), John Breckinridge (D-S) Issues Slavery, preservation of the union Essential Information The Whig Party breaks up over the issue of slavery replaced by the Republicans (Democrats also divide) Results Lincolns election triggers secession, starting with South Carolina Lincoln wins no southern states, but captures a majority of electoral votes Slide 19 Election of 1860 Electoral Map Slide 20 Election of 1876 Candidates Rutherford Hayes (R), Samuel Tilden (D) Issues Corruption, Reconstruction Essential Information Disputed electoral votes, commission created Results Hayes wins all the disputed electoral votes, becomes President Compromise of 1877 (End of Reconstruction) Slide 21 Election of 1876 Electoral Map Slide 22 Party Eras in American History 1860-1928: The Two Republican Eras Republicans arose as the antislavery party 1896 election revolved around the gold standard Republicans are the party of big business Only Democratic presidents in this era are Grover Cleveland and Woodrow Wilson. Both are elected due to Republican splits remember the Mugwumps in 1884? Slide 23 Party Eras in American History 1860-1896: Patronage - the lifeblood of politics Republicans Big business, northern protestants, Midwest, rural and small-town Northeast, GAR (veterans), freedmen Democrats Solid South, northern industrial cities (think Tammany Hall), immigrants Slide 24 Election of 1896 Candidates William McKinley (R), William Jennings Bryan (D) Issues Gold standard, silver vs. gold (16:1), role of government towards business Essential Information Bryans Cross of Gold speech Results McKinley wins, raising 16 times as much money as Bryan Highlights the changes taking place in America, as the country moves from an agrarian nation to an urban nation Slide 25 Election of 1896 Electoral Map Slide 26 Election of 1912 Candidates Woodrow Wilson (D), William Howard Taft (R), Theodore Roosevelt (Progressive, or Bull Moose) Issues Progressive issues Essential Information TR takes on Taft Third Party Socialists Eugene V. Debs Results Republican split gives the election to Wilson Slide 27 Election of 1912 Electoral Map Slide 28 Party Eras in American History 1932-1964: The New Deal Coalition Forged by the Democrats - relied upon urban working class, ethnic groups (blacks), Catholics and Jews, the poor, Southerners (Solid South) Slide 29 Election of 1932 Candidates Herbert Hoover (R), Franklin Delano Roosevelt (D) Issues The Great Depression, of course Essential Information New Deal Coalition - South, labor unions, urban dwellers, poor, African Americans Results FDR wins in a landslide Ends era of Republican White House dominance Slide 30 Election of 1932 Electoral Map Slide 31 Party Eras in American History 1968-Present: The Era of Divided Party Government Define: Divided Government Party dealignment - disengagement of people from parties Party neutrality - people are indifferent towards the two parties Slide 32 Election of 1968 Candidates Richard Nixon (R), Hubert Humphrey (D), George Wallace (American Independent Party) Issues Vietnam, Violence at home Essential Information Solid South no longer voting Democrat Why? Chaos in Chicago at the Democratic convention Results Nixon wins, begins era of divided government Slide 33 Election of 1968 Electoral Map Slide 34 Election of 2000 Candidates George W. Bush (R), Al Gore (D), Ralph Nader (Green Party) Issues Essential Information Naders party siphons votes mostly from Democrats Results Disputed results in Florida (Butterfly ballot, chads?) Supreme Court rules in Bush v. Gore Gore wins popular vote, Bush wins electoral vote with 271, so Bush become president Slide 35 Which is the real ballot for Palm Beach County? Butterfly Ballot How did it get its name? Slide 36 Election of 2000 Electoral Map Slide 37 Electoral Evolution since 1840 atelevel.html atelevel.html Slide 38 Realignments a Final Look 1860: slavery issue fixed new loyalties in the popular mind 1896: economic issues shifted loyalties to East/West, city/farm split 1932: economic depression triggered new coalition for Democrats 1980: Could not have been a traditional realignment, because Congress was left in the hands of the Democrats Slide 39 Slide 40 Third Parties, or Minor Parties 2000 election Green Party nominee Ralph Nader Cost Al Gore the election in 2000 Won just 2.86 million voters (2.72 % nationwide) Third parties make electoral progress in direct proportion to the failure of the two major parties. To incorporate new ideas (Know-Nothing) To incorporate alienated groups (Populists, 1892) To nominate attractive standard-bearers (Progressive, 1912) Other Historical Examples Free Soil, 1848 Dixiecrats, 1948 Reform Party, 1992 Slide 41 American Party History at a Glance Slide 42 Party Eras in American History Party Eras Historical periods in which a majority of votes cling to the party in power. Critical Election An electoral earthquake where new issues and new coalitions emerge. Party Realignment The displacement of the majority party by the minority party, usually during a critical election. Slide 43 Party Realignment Critical or realigning periods: periods when a sharp, lasting shift occurs in the popular coalition supporting one or both parties Two kinds of realignments A major party is defeated so badly that it disappears and a new party emerges Two existing parties continue but voters shift their loyalty from one to another Examples?