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  • An Introduction to Digital Cameras and Digital Photography

    December 14, 2016

    • Getting started, picking a camera

    • Photography in the “Digital Age”

    • Understanding the big picture of how digital cameras are designed (demystification)

    • How to set up and use a digital camera to do “Digital Age” photography

    • A simple approach to processing digital images

    • Appendix – cropping and downsizing images, getting digital images into your computer and organizing them

    Fountain Hills Photo Club Information Series

    ©BBoyce 2016 1

  • Introduction to Digital Cameras

    We’re here to face the reality that

    • Digital cameras are computers with a lens • Digital Camera complexity needs to be dealt with

    • Modes, settings, controls Camera companies are really bad at communication

    We will strive to explain and demystify the complexity

    • There is a simple explanation for how digital cameras are designed; it’s all about control

    • Point and shoot cameras are at one extreme • Cameras in totally manual mode are the other extreme • In between is where we live

    We will go over key photography basics and show you how to set up and use your camera accordingly (no matter what brand)

    • Talk will be interspersed with a few “Tech Facts” 2

  • A Little History

    • Ansel Adams spent his career developing his manual exposure technique and darkroom printing of B&W pictures

    • Color film became popular in the 1950’s • In 2000’s, digital sensors replaced film • Photoshop has largely replaced the darkroom • All digital cameras now have Auto Exposure & Auto Focus

    1950’s

    2000’s

    sensor

    3

  • What’s Changed In Today’s “Digital Age” Photography

    • Auto Exposure and Auto Focus frees up a lot of time

    • You don’t have to worry about the cost of film

    • You don’t have to wait hours or weeks to see your images

    There is a powerful way to instantly review your images when you take them

    There is a convenient and powerful way to immediately correct camera settings and retake each sub-standard image

    • No time spent in the darkroom to see final results (limited by chemistry)

    Digital post-processing is rapid and powerful, and opens the creativity door wide open (beware of the danger of being able to do many things many different ways)

    • Requires a physically-based approach, not a random trial and error process development

    Key Driving “Digital Age” Developments 4

  • Something You Probably Already Know

    • Digital picture size is specified by the number of pixels

    • Pixel = Picture Element

    • Number of pixels also drives the storage required on your computer for storing a picture, measured in Megabytes (MB)

    • An example : a 24 Megapixel image with an aspect ratio of 3:2 is 6,000 pixels wide x 4,000 pixels high [that’s 24 million pixels]

    5

  • The GeoEye-1 Satellite Camera – A True Digital Camera

    • Orbital Sciences had contract to build satellite, integrate camera • Assembly of camera/spacecraft in Satellite Factory in Gilbert, AZ

    • One of two main sources of Google Earth pictures for the last 8 years

    Launched on September 6, 2008

    6

  • GeoEye Satellite Camera Pictures

    The very first picture taken by the GeoEye Camera

    •Note the tennis players on the bottom court

    • From 425 miles altitude 7

  • GeoEye Satellite Camera Pictures

    • Presidential Inauguration January 2009

    • Yes, those dots are over a million people 8

  • GeoEye Satellite Camera Pictures

    • GeoEye camera cost $84 Million dollars • D90 was about $900 in 2009

    Consumer Reports Review*

    Metric Geoeye-1 Nikon D90 Notes

    Mpixels/image 2,100 12.2 for 24x36mm format

    Type of images Pan + 4 colors Color both have B&W, RGB color

    Size of picure frame needed 187.6" x 125" 14.3" x 9.5" At 300 dpi

    Time to fill up 500GB HD [min] 4.1 101.2 D90 at 4.5 fps 12 bit jpeg

    Camera weight 1,200 lbs (1) 1.6 lbs

    Filter size 1,100mm 72mm 200mm Nikon VR lens

    Automatic exposure control No (2) Yes

    Automatic focus No (3) Yes

    Stability req'd (1 pixel smear) 0.1246 arcsec (1) 5.77 arcsec 200mm Nikon VR lens

    Cost of leather case $210,500 (Gucci) $69.95 (Nikon)

    Video capability No Yes

    Stereo capability Yes No

    GPS capability (geolocation) Yes (included) Yes ($125 option)

    Operator image preview No Yes (optical+Liveview)

    Cost of replacement battery $2.1M $42

    Battery life [hrs] 1.8 17 (4) GE-1 contin./D90 100 images/hr

    (1) - hand held use not recommended - use tripod or equivalent

    (2) - set Geoeye camera TDI value (Time Delay Integration), based on sun angle & scene angle

    (3) - preset camera using focus algorithm

    (4) - no flash

    * not really

    9

  • How To Select A Digital Camera

    To select a camera, start by asking yourself these questions;

    1. How are you going to use the camera? • Just around home, family, people • Travel/landscape photography (quality is key) • Sports, kids on the fly, wildlife (speed is key) • Safaris, wet, dusty, cold, humid environments

    2. What will you do with the pictures? • Facebook, email, website, small prints (up to ≈ 8”) • Books, wall art • Large format prints (Fine Art)

    3. What is your tolerance for carrying around heavy equipment?

    • Camera, Multiple lenses, high quality tripod, filters, etc.

    4. What is your growth path as a photographer? 10

  • Digital Camera Types

    Point and shoot (P&S) cameras (including phones)

    • P&S Cameras do all the settings • Most have heavy duty in-camera processing • Suitable for email, web, small-medium sized prints & books

    Pro/Serious Enthusiast (P/SE) Interchangeable Lens Cameras (ILCs)

    • ILC is either DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex) or mirrorless • Typically heavy (especially with multiple lenses & tripod) • User does camera settings • Pictures usually need at least some post-processing

    High quality compacts* (Sony RX100) are becoming a P/SE substitute

    Bridge Cameras are an interesting intermediate category

    • Small lightweight cameras with built in powerful zoom lens • Great for travel, hiking Some now approach quality and flexibility of P/SE cameras

    11

  • Power of 30x Zoom Lens

    25mm focal length

    750mm focal length

    Panasonic ZS50 at 30x

    Panasonic ZS50 at 1x

    • Both images were hand held • Camera has optical

    stabilization to eliminate blurring from camera movement

    • 8 oz • 30x zoom • 10Mpx • Shoots Raw • EVF • P/SE capable

    • New ZS100 • 11 oz • 10x zoom • 20Mpx

    12

  • Power of 30x Zoom Lens

    750mm focal length

    13

  • MP Format Im Ht Min f/no EFL eq Zoom IQ-W IQ-T C.S. Raw1 Video EVF2 Env. Wt.

    Canon G3 X 20 1" 3651 2.8 - 5.6 24 - 600 25x 1:1 1:1 - 14Yes MPAV No 90%H↓ 1.62 $899

    Nikon DL24-500 20 1" 3651 2.8 - 5.6 24 - 500 20.8x 1:1 1:1 s,A Yes 4K Yes 85% H 1.72 $996

    Panasonic FZ1000 20 1" 3651 2.8 - 4.0 25 - 400 16x 1:1 1:1 - Yes 4K Yes - 1.83 $697

    Sony RX10 20 1" 3651 2.8 24 - 200 8.3x 1:1 1:1 s,A Yes 4K Yes DMR↓ 1.79 $898

    Sony RX10 II 20 1" 3651 2.8 24 - 200 8.3x 1:1 1:1 s,A Yes 4K Yes DMR↓ 1.79 $1,298

    Sony RX10 III 20 1" 3651 2.4 - 4 24 - 600 25x 1:1 1:1 s,A Yes 4K Yes Wsealed 2.40 $1,498

    Olympus Stylus 1s 12 1/1.7" 3000 2.8 28 - 300 10.7x 1:1 1:1 s,A 12Yes MOV* Yes 90%H↓ 0.89 $549

    Panasonic FZ200 12 1/2.3" 3000 2.8 25 - 600 24x 1:1 1:1 - Yes MPAV Yes - 1.18 $297

    Panasonic FZ300 12 1/2.3" 3000 2.8 25 - 600 24x 1:1 1:1 - Yes 4K Yes DSP 1.52 $497

    Canon SX530 HS 16 1/2.3" 3465 3.4 - 6.5 24 - 1200 50x 2:1 3:1 - No MPAV No 90%H 0.98 $249

    Canon SX60 HS 16 1/2.3" 3465 3.4 - 6.5 21 - 1365 65x 2:1 3:1 - 12Yes MP4 Yes 90%H↓ 1.43 $449

    Fuji FinePix S9900W 16 1/2.3" 3465 2.9 - 6.5 24 - 1200 50x 1:1 3:1 - No MOV* Yes 80%H 1.47 $199

    Nikon Coolpix B500 16 1/2.3" 3465 3.0 - 6.5 22.5 - 900 40x 1:1 3:1 - No MP4 No - 1.19 $296

    Nikon Coolpix B700 20 1/2.3" 3873 3.3 - 6.5 24 - 1440 60x 2:1 3:1 - Yes 4K Yes 85%H 1.24 $496

    Nikon Coolpix L840 16 1/2.3" 3465 3.0 - 6.5 22.5 - 855 38x 1:1 3:1 - No MOV No ↓ 1.18 $196

    Nikon Coolpix P610 16 1/2.3" 3465 3.3 - 6.5 24 - 1440 60x 1:1 3:1 - No MOV Yes - 1.24 $359

    Nikon Coolpix P900 16 1/2.3" 3465 2.8 - 6.5 24 - 2000 83x 1:1 3:1 - No MOV Yes - 1.98 $596

    Nikon P530 16 1/2.3" 3465 3.0 - 5.9 24 - 1000 42x 1:1 3:1 - No MOV Yes - 1.09 $279 U

    Sony HX400V 16 1/2.3" 3465 2.8 - 6.3 24 - 1200 50x 1:1 3:1 s No MP4* Yes - 1.46 $498

    Canon SX420 IS 20 1/2.3" 3873 3.5 - 6.6 24 - 1008 42x 2:1 3:1 - No MPAV No 90%H 0.72 $299

    Canon SX720 HS 20 1/2.3" 3873 3.3 - 6.9 24 - 960 40x 2:1 3:1 - No NTSC No 90%H 0.60 $379

    Nikon S9900 16 1/2.3" 3465 3.7 - 6.4 25 - 750 30x 2:1 3:1 - No MOV* No - 0.64 $272

    Panasonic ZS50 12 1/2.3" 3000 3.3 - 6.4 24 - 720 30x 1:1 2:1 - Yes MPAV Yes - 0.53 $397

    Panasonic ZS60 18 1/2.3" 3675 3.3 - 6.4 24 - 720 30x 2:1 3:1 - Yes 4K Yes - 0.62 $449

    Panasonic ZS100 20 1" 3651 2.8 - 5.9 25 - 250 10x 1:1 1:1 - Yes 4K Yes - 0.69 $697

    Sony HX90V 18 1/2.3" 3675 3.5 - 6.4 24 - 720 30x 2:1 3:1 - No 1080p Yes - 0.54 $428

    [ Mpx] [pxl] built-in [mm ff] = No visible blur 1 - Prefix is Raw # bits

    = Moderate blur 2 - Electronic View Finder

    = Significant blur ↓ - Not waterproof (stated)

    n:n = recommended downsize DMR - dust & moisture resistant

    All cameras have a built-in flash DSP = dust & splash proof

    * and MPEG-4 AVC

    C.S. = Color space

    s,A = sRGB, Adobe RGB

    SensorName Price

    Optics HandlingImage Quality

    The “Full” List of Currently Available Bridge Cameras*

    * Using B&H Photo and DPR websites

    = New

    = Consider = Added 041216

    14

  • Size of Sensor Is Significant Driver Of Image Quality

    APS-C 4/3 1” 1/1.7 1/2.3 Full Frame

    Sensor Sizes (to

    scale)

    Better low light performance (less image noise)

    Smaller, lighter weight camera

    P&S

    SE ILC

    Pro ILC

    Bridge Camera

    High Quality Compact

    1/3.2

    Phones

    ILC = Interchangeable Lens Camera (both DSLR or mirrorless)

    • You can rely on camera reviews to assess camera strengths and weaknesses, such as impact of size of sensor used

    15

  • So, If You Are Starting Out In Photography ...

    Choice of First camera : Bridge camera, or Interchangeable Lens Camera (ILC) with walk-around zoom kit lens

    • DSLR or mirrorless ILC can be starter (Nikon D3300), or intermediate (Nikon D5500), or serious (Nikon D7200), or Pro (D500); Sony P6500, or Canon, or ...), based on features

    ILC growth plan : • Add lenses (wide angle zoom, long FL zoom, ...)

    • Added lenses will tend to be better & more expensive • Add very good (and expensive) tripod (spend the money!)

    Bridge Camera growth plan :

    Start with P/SE- like Bridge camera, then buy ILC (or not)

    Web resources (reviews of cameras and lenses)

    • DPReview https://www.dpreview.com/ • Imaging-Resource http://www.imaging-resource.com/

    16

  • What Makes a Good Picture?

    Subject, Lighting, Composition

    • The traditional big 3

    Focus Control

    • Main feature should be in focus (especially the eyes)

    • Often, you want the background blurred out (bokeh)

    Exposure Control

    • Capture bright and dark scene elements (camera settings)

    • Optimize the contrast (usually done in post-processing)

    Mobility, Luck

    • Get out there and find opportunities - catch that special moment when the lion looks right at you ...

    Plan Ahead

    • Envision a photograph, make it happen

    Creativity

    • Path to establishing YOU as a photographer 17

  • These Are The Digital Camera Factors

    Subject, Lighting, Composition

    • The traditional big 3

    Focus Control

    • Main feature should be in focus (especially the eyes)

    • Often, you want the background blurred out (bokeh)

    Exposure Control

    • Capture bright and dark scene elements (camera settings)

    • Optimize the contrast (usually done in post-processing)

    Mobility, Luck

    • Get out there and find opportunities - catch that special moment when the lion looks right at you ...

    Plan Ahead

    • Envision a photograph, make it happen

    Creativity

    • Path to establishing YOU as a photographer 18

  • Result of a critique of 60 or so images taken by a diverse group of photographers

    • Purpose of any critique is to indicate where pictures can be improved • No judgments – not a matter of liking a picture • Purely a technical assessment of the techniques of

    image capture and processing

    Where Are The Challenges In Digital Photography?

    Rank #

    1 21 highlights & shadows

    2 14 Composition/cropping

    3 10 brightness

    4 8 Overall sharpness

    Most recurring "Needs work" critique

    Critique

    /contrast

    Exposure Control

    Focus

    Exposure Control dominates; Let’s address Focus first 19

  • Focus Control (Poor)

    Collman – Changing of the Guard in Copenhagen

    20

  • Focus Control (Prizewinning)

    Collman – Changing of the Guard in Copenhagen

    21

  • 1. f/no selection

    • Low : blur/isolate background (bokeh) • Mid : optimize quality (typically ~2 stops above base f/no) • High : increase depth of field

    2. Hyperfocal distance calculations (4 parameters are involved)

    • Overly complicated; internet calculators are outdated

    3. Focus stacking (go to FHPC/Events and Information page, look at Hand Held Focus Stack report under Misc. Information)

    • Tripod (many images) • Hand held (2 images)

    Techniques for Controlling Focus

    22

  • Hand Held Focus Stacks

    When you want both your foreground and background to be in focus in a single picture, and you don’t ... a) have your beloved tripod handy (or you hate tripods), b) have a supercomputer to do hyperfocal calculations

    Approach in a Nutshell • Take 2 pictures, one focused on the foreground, and one

    focused on the background, stack them in Photoshop

    + =

    B.Boyce 6/9/16 (updated) 23

  • Hand Held Focus Stack Example

    24

  • Example of Poor Exposure Control

    • Blown out scene elements is a very common, often difficult problem to deal with 25

  • Example of Good Exposure Control

    • Good Exposure Control is a combination of camera settings, processing, and image file type 26

  • Meet the Histogram – Your New Best Friend

    Think of each pixel in your camera’s sensor as a very small light bucket collecting particles of light (photons)

    • A histogram shows the distribution of the amount of light (Luminance) in all the buckets (i.e., pixels)

    # or % of

    pixels Good histogram !

    Bad histogram !

    0 255 brighter pixels

    0 255

    Basic Principle; when shooting pictures, capture entire histogram

    Bad histogram !

    Blown out (saturated) pixels are white pixels

    Totally black pixels

    Pixel values =

    MOST IMPORTANT

    CHART

    27

  • Bad histogram ! Bad histogram !

    Histogram Tells You When You Have The Proper Exposure

    Good histogram !

    Automatic Camera

    Exposure Setting

    (stick with default setting)

    (Default)

    vs.

    28

  • Set camera to show histogram when picture you take is displayed

    Critical - For each picture, look at the histogram on camera LCD

    • Histogram will tell you if you have captured a good image • If not, adjust Exposure Compensation*, retake picture • Particularly important with sunlit clouds in landscapes

    Histogram is much easier to see on LCD in bright sunlight than the picture itself (white on black) – you can trust the histogram!

    Why The Histogram Is So Important

    Nikon 3300 Panasonic ZS50 Sony RX100M3

    * A control unique to digital cameras – much more on this later 29

  • More About Your Best Friend the Histogram

    For color images, there are actually 3 numbers in each pixel, for each of the 3 primary (Red, Green & Blue, aka RGB) colors

    • Two kinds of histograms – RGB and luminance (total light)

    # or % of

    pixels

    0 255 brighter pixels

    Red, Green & Blue (RGB) Histogram

    Luminance Histogram

    • Picture too blue? You can selectively process each color • Bright red flowers saturating? You can desaturate the red

    This is the one you will likely see on your

    camera LCD

    30

  • Introduction to Black & White Photography

    • You can easily make black & white images from color images using Photoshop

    Red Green Blue 31

  • Introduction to Black & White Photography

    32

  • The amount of light collected by each pixel is proportional to

    • Shutter exposure time texp • Electronic sensitivity (ISO) (essentially like a dimmable lamp) • f/no of the lens : f/no = focal length / aperture diameter • Exposure Compensation factor ΔEV [key camera adjustment] • Manual adjustment to camera’s auto exposure determination

    Critical definition – the “stop”

    • A “stop” is a factor of 2 change in brightness of an image • Increasing the shutter integration time by factor of 2 (“one

    stop”) doubles the collected light • Note that a decrease in f/no by a factor of 1.4 (“one stop”)

    doubles the collected light • Exposure Compensation factor of +1 (“one stop”) doubles the

    collected light

    Four Camera Parameters Determine the Exposure

    MOST IMPORTANT

    BULLET

    33

  • An Example of Correcting an Improper Exposure

    Picture Retake Exposure Compensation ΔEV = +2

    First Picture Exposure Compensation ΔEV = 0

    1 stop

    If you see this, you need to increase Exposure Compensation and retake the picture

    Result

    34

  • Jpeg Picture Right Out of the Camera

    35

  • Jpeg Picture After Some Very Simple Processing

    36

  • Before and After Processing Histograms

    Directly out of camera

    After some simple processing 37

  • Processing Can Be Viewed As Histogram Manipulation !

    Directly out of camera

    After some simple processing 38

  • Answer : Shoot Raw

    • Jpeg images (8 bit) contain 256 discrete levels of each of the primary colors (R, G, B) in every pixel

    • A properly exposed Jpeg image looks fine, but • There are severe limits to recovering problem images

    • Raw images (12-14 bit) contain 4,096 to 16,384 discrete levels of each primary color (R, G, B) in each pixel

    • 16x to 64x more data allows you to recover dark shadows and blown-out highlights quickly (simplifies processing)

    • Raw files are much bigger files (2x to 8x bigger, depending on jpeg quality you are comparing to)

    • You can set camera to record Raw & Jpeg (L, M, H quality) files for every picture

    You should still use the Histogram/Exposure Compensation method for good histograms when shooting Raw

    How Else Can We Make It Easier To Get A Good Histogram?

    39

  • -3EV -5EV -1EV

    +1EV +5EV +3EV

    • Take an exposure bracket set of 6 Raw images • Now let’s look at the corresponding histograms for these

    images

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) Image Example (>10 stops)

    What do you do when you can’t get a “Good” histogram?

    40

  • Histograms Clearly Show No One Histogram is “Good”

    -3EV -5EV -1EV

    +1EV +3EV +5EV

    41

  • Put Them Together, You Can Recover The Image

    • Requires Dedicated HDR Program

    42

  • So Far, we’ve learned that in digital photography, ... • Exposure control is the toughest photographic challenge • Exposure is determined by f/no, ISO, texp and ΔEV • The Histogram is key “quality control” tool for correcting

    camera auto exposure calculations to get better images • Exposure compensation (ΔEV) is the key camera setting for

    adjusting the camera to get good histograms • Shooting Raw will help (easier to get good histograms in

    high contrast situations, makes processing much simpler) • Not required, but most serious photographers shoot

    Raw pretty much 100% of the time

    After the Break : Using the camera to take good pictures

    • Camera Mode selection • Camera Key Settings • A simple processing recipe (histogram manipulation) • Saving pictures to your computer

    Break Time

    43

  • Exp

    osu

    re C

    om

    pe

    nsa

    tio

    n

    Raw files

    Step Up To Great Exposure Control !

    44

  • Camera Modes – What Are They, really?

    Record Mode Dial

    Zoom lever (W to T) Movie

    Shutter Release Nikon D3300

    Panasonic ZS50

    Sony RX100 M3

    • All 3 cameras have Auto, SCN, P, A, S and M Modes

    • All 3 cameras come from different companies

    • All 3 cameras have complex menus for setting up the camera

    • But all 3 cameras allow you to set important parameters w/o going through the complex menus 45

  • Warning !

    The Next 2 Charts Should Be Consumed Very Carefully; Do Not Try This At Home, Or If You

    Are Prone To Dizziness

    The Next Page Shows You 3 Tables On How To Set All Exposure Parameter Values For Each Of

    The 3 Cameras To Operate In Each Of The Cameras’ Modes

    You Will Notice That The Overall Tables Are

    Very Similar, But Not Identical

    We Need To Determine What Modes Can Be Used To Execute The Exposure Control

    Process We’ve Been Talking About

    46

  • Digital Camera Rosetta Stone

    • Selected Mode determines how much control you have Camera is in control

    User is in control

    Record

    Mode

    iA

    (intelligent Auto)

    SCN

    (Scene)

    P

    (Auto Exposure)

    A

    (Aperture priority)

    S

    (Shutter priority)

    M

    (Manual)

    What does the User

    have control of?

    Fully Point & Shoot –

    camera does the settings

    Point & Shoot for selected

    scene types

    User sets ISO, ΔEV, camera

    picks f/no and texp

    User sets f/no, ISO,

    ΔEV, camera

    picks texp

    User sets texp , ISO,

    ΔEV, camera

    picks f/no

    User sets all the

    settings

    Why select Mode?

    Ease of shooting

    under normal &

    tough conditions

    not demanding

    max quality

    Ease of shooting

    under specific

    and varied scene

    conditions

    Transition Mode : Enable

    Exposure Compen-

    sation, Raw filetype

    (A,S,M also)

    Pick f/no to

    maximize image

    quality, isolate scene

    features, increase depth of

    field

    Pick shutter texp to

    Minimize blur of moving water,

    objects, people or animals

    Macro imaging, night or studio

    photog-raphy, other

    specialized imaging

    47

  • How To Set Exposure Parameters On 3 Different Cameras

    • The green settings are accessed through the shortcut menus, buttons, dials & wheels on the specific cameras!!

    • The blue settings are accessed through the main Menu

    iA SCN P A S M

    Histogram default default default default default default

    ΔEV back i-menu* back i-menu* back i-menu* xtexp x x wheel wheel

    ISO back i-menu* back i-menu* back i-menu* back i-menu*

    f/no x wheel x ΔEV & wheel

    Raw files yes yes yes yes yes yes

    * or Fn & ΔEV & wheel

    Histogram Setup 4 Setup 4 Setup 4 Setup 4 Setup 4

    ΔEV wheel ↑ wheel ↑ wheel ↑ wheel ↑ xtexp x x wheel wheel

    ISO Q menu Q menu Q menu Q menu

    f/no x ring x ring

    Raw files yes yes yes yes

    Histogram default default default default default default

    ΔEV wheel ↓ wheel ↓ wheel ↓ estimatetexp x x wheel w↓, w

    ISO ring ring ring ring

    f/no wheel wheel x w↓, w

    Raw files yes yes yes yes yes yes

    x denotes camera calculation = F/no, texp texp f/no # stops

    Nikon

    D3300

    Panasonic

    ZS50

    Sony

    RX100

    48

  • How To Set Exposure Parameters On 3 Different Cameras

    • The green settings are accessed through the shortcut menus, buttons, dials & wheels on the specific cameras!!

    • The blue settings are accessed through the main Menu

    4 sets of settings can be saved

    4 sets of settings can be saved

    0 sets of settings can be saved

    iA SCN P A S M

    Histogram default default default default default default

    ΔEV back i-menu* back i-menu* back i-menu* xtexp x x wheel wheel

    ISO back i-menu* back i-menu* back i-menu* back i-menu*

    f/no x wheel x ΔEV & wheel

    Raw files yes yes yes yes yes yes

    * or Fn & ΔEV & wheel

    Histogram Setup 4 Setup 4 Setup 4 Setup 4 Setup 4

    ΔEV wheel ↑ wheel ↑ wheel ↑ wheel ↑ xtexp x x wheel wheel

    ISO Q menu Q menu Q menu Q menu

    f/no x ring x ring

    Raw files yes yes yes yes

    Histogram default default default default default default

    ΔEV wheel ↓ wheel ↓ wheel ↓ estimatetexp x x wheel w↓, w

    ISO ring ring ring ring

    f/no wheel wheel x w↓, w

    Raw files yes yes yes yes yes yes

    x denotes camera calculation = F/no, texp texp f/no # stops

    Nikon

    D3300

    Panasonic

    ZS50

    Sony

    RX100

    49

  • Modes Available For “Digital Age” Photography

    • The green settings are accessed through the shortcut menus, buttons, dials & wheels on the specific cameras!!

    • The blue settings are accessed through the main Menu

    4 sets of settings can be saved

    4 sets of settings can be saved

    0 sets of settings can be saved

    iA SCN P A S M

    Histogram default default default default default default

    ΔEV back i-menu* back i-menu* back i-menu* xtexp x x wheel wheel

    ISO back i-menu* back i-menu* back i-menu* back i-menu*

    f/no x wheel x ΔEV & wheel

    Raw files yes yes yes yes yes yes

    * or Fn & ΔEV & wheel

    Histogram Setup 4 Setup 4 Setup 4 Setup 4 Setup 4

    ΔEV wheel ↑ wheel ↑ wheel ↑ wheel ↑ xtexp x x wheel wheel

    ISO Q menu Q menu Q menu Q menu

    f/no x ring x ring

    Raw files yes yes yes yes

    Histogram default default default default default default

    ΔEV wheel ↓ wheel ↓ wheel ↓ estimatetexp x x wheel w↓, w

    ISO ring ring ring ring

    f/no wheel wheel x w↓, w

    Raw files yes yes yes yes yes yes

    x denotes camera calculation = F/no, texp texp f/no # stops

    Nikon

    D3300

    Panasonic

    ZS50

    Sony

    RX100

    P,A,S,M

    P,A,S,M

    SCN, P,A,S,M

    50

  • p. 222 p. 231

    Nikon Manual For D3300 (392 pages)

    51

  • Pgs. 118-119

    Exposure Compensation

    Flash Compensation

    See Pgs. 120-121

    Set Aperture (f/no)

    Pg. 107

    Pg. 105 Pg. 105

    Pg. 95

    Nikon Manual For D3300 (392 pages)

    52

  • Panasonic Manual For ZS50 Advanced Features (305 pages)

    53

  • Toggle between Record and Playback Modes (you can turn the camera on without using the ON/OFF button by holding this button for a few seconds)

    Programmable buttons : (Fn2 factory default toggles display between Auto, Monitor and LVF; Auto shows display on LVF when eye is placed there, otherwise Monitor is used)

    ERASE displayed image; also functions as access to Quick Menu (Q.MENU) when camera is in Record mode; also functions as “CANCEL” DISP toggles through 3 or 4 different

    image displays on Monitor & LVF

    MENU/SET Button to enter Menus and confirm selections

    CONTROL DIAL (rotates)

    CURSOR BUTTON (can press in 4 positions - top, bottom, left, right)

    Monitor

    LVF = eLectronic ViewFinder (top left of back of camera; has a diopter adjustment wheel)

    Q.MENU/

    Many controls have different functions for Record & Playback Modes

    Panasonic Manual For Advanced Features (305 pages)

    54

  • Sony RX-100 III (193 Page manual)

    Ring (customizable)

    Wheel

    Histogram default default default default default default

    ΔEV wheel ↓ wheel ↓ wheel ↓ xtexp x x wheel w↓, w

    ISO ring ring ring ring

    f/no wheel wheel x w↓, w

    Raw files yes yes yes yes yes yes

    Sony

    RX100

    55

  • Next – A Recipe For Histogram Manipulation !

    Directly out of camera

    After some simple processing 56

  • Processing Programs

    57

  • Photoshop • Opens Jpeg files • Image Processing

    Bridge • File management • File viewing

    Camera Raw • Opens Raw files • Image Processing

    Lightroom • File Organization • Image Processing

    How Adobe Photoshop Is Structured

    You can move freely between

    these two parts !

    • The Recipe uses both Camera Raw and Photoshop • Works for both Jpeg and Raw files • The basic operations are also in other Processing

    programs, so this recipe is largely S/W independent

    Supports all 3 programs

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  • • To open an image, open Photoshop, click ‘File/Open’, then browse to folder containing the file, and double click the file

    • If it’s a Jpeg file, it will open in Photoshop

    • If it’s a Raw file, it will open in Camera Raw*

    How to open a Jpeg or Raw File

    * You can also open a Raw file by going to the folder holding the image file, and double clicking the file – file will open in Camera Raw.

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  • Moving From Photoshop Into Camera Raw

    60

  • This is the Camera Raw Screen

    Click ‘Open Image’ or ‘OK’ to go back to Photoshop 61

  • This is the Camera Raw Screen with Larger, Readable Slider Labels

    • Nothing has been done – sliders are at zero 62

  • • Highlights to -100, Shadows to +100, Exposure to center the histogram (check to be sure picture looks good)

    1. Using Camera Raw Highlights, Shadows and Exposure Sliders

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  • Repeat : Think We Can Do Much With This Image?

    This Panasonic ZS50 Image is a Raw file

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  • Using Camera Raw Highlights, Shadows & Exposure Sliders

    Slider settings Highlights* -100% Shadows* +100%

    Exposure = +2

    • This shows that with a ‘Good’ histogram you can recover image

    * Actually went into Camera Raw 2 times for this image

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  • 2a. In Photoshop, Using Auto Contrast to Improve an Image

    • Try it – sometimes it works well

    • If not, click ‘Edit’, then click ‘Undo’, or another command that has the same meaning

    • Then go to chart 68 for an alternative more powerful command

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  • 2a. In Photoshop, This Is What Auto Contrast Gives You

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  • With your cursor, you can drag these points around; try

    it and see what happens to the

    image darker darks

    brighter brights

    2b. In Photoshop, Using Curves to Improve the Contrast of an Image

    68

  • • Improved contrast reflected in wider histogram

    2. In Photoshop, Using Curves to Improve the Contrast of an Image

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  • Out Of Camera image (properly exposed to get ‘Good’ histogram)

    After taking care of Highlights, Shadows &

    Exposure in Camera Raw

    After optimizing Contrast & Exposure in Photoshop using Curves

    How The Processing Recipe Affects The Histogram

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  • Monument Valley - Before

    71

  • Monument Valley - After

    72

  • Monument Valley - Before

    73

  • Monument Valley - After

    74

  • 75

  • How to Crop An Image

    76

  • How to Downsize An Image

    • Width of 600 to 1000 pixels is good for many purposes (web, emails, etc.)

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  • 2. Go to Windows Explorer (Finder on a Mac) and find the camera (to the camera, it looks like a Removable Disk); open up camera file structure

    3. Look for DCIM folder; picture files will be in subfolder; copy files you want to download, then paste them into destination folder on your PC

    Downloading Pictures From Camera to Computer - 1

    • Every camera company supplies S/W to organize your pictures and download them from the camera Do not use that software (personal opinion) !

    • Instead, download pictures to your computer directly

    1. Plug the USB cable into your computer, then plug the cable into the camera (when it’s OFF), then turn on the camera

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  • Downloading Pictures From Camera to Computer - 2

    4. Suggestion; If you don’t have one already, build a file structure for your photographs on your computer – here’s what mine looks like

    • There are more powerful file handling systems out there, like Adobe Lightroom, but this will get you started

    • Each time you go shooting, consider giving that shoot its own folder or subfolder, with subject and date in the folder name so you can find the pictures later

    5. Use Monitor on camera back when you get home, in dim light look at all pictures and delete any obviously bad files before downloading the keepers

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  • What we’ve learned about “Digital Age” photography, ... • The Histogram is key “quality control” tool identifying need to

    correct camera auto exposure calculations • Exposure compensation (ΔEV) is the key camera setting for

    adjusting the camera to get proper histograms • Shooting Raw will make it easier to capture good histograms

    Set up your digital camera to execute “Digital Age” photography • Use Mode that gives you histograms and Exposure Compensation • Learn how to adjust all exposure parameters quickly on camera

    Taking pictures technique – for each picture, • Check histogram for acceptability; if not centered, adjust

    Exposure Compensation, retake picture Simple approach for post-processing images (histogram manipulation)

    • Use camera Raw Highlights, Shadows & Exposure sliders to manipulate histogram (many programs have these sliders)

    • Use Curves to improve contrast

    Summary

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