an island economy : ierapetra and crete in the roman empire

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An island economy: Ierapetra and Crete in the Roman Empireby Gallimore, Scott Charles, Ph.D., STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT BUFFALO, 2011, 695 pagesAdviser J. Theodore PenaSchool STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT BUFFALOSource DAI/A 72-09, p. , Jul 2011Source Type DissertationSubjects Archaeology; Classical studies; Ancient historyPublication Number 3460751

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AN ISLAND ECONOMY: IERAPETRA AND CRETE IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE

by Scott Charles Gallimore April 22, 2011

A dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University at Buffalo, State University of New York in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

Department of Classics

UMI Number: 3460751

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent on the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

UMI 3460751 Copyright 2011 by ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This edition of the work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code.

ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, MI 48106 - 1346

Copyright by Scott Charles Gallimore 2011

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For Mom, Dad, Neil, Andrew, and Lindy. Your support over the years has been a source of inspiration

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThere are numerous individuals and institutions that I must thank for their support and encouragement over the past few years. First and foremost, I express my gratitude to the members of my dissertation committee, J. Theodore Pea, L. Vance Watrous, Stephen L. Dyson, and Bradley A. Ault, for their continual enthusiasm as I progressed from formulating a topic to completing the final manuscript. My committee chair, J.T. Pea, has been instrumental in helping me push to produce the highest quality work possible, and has pointed out numerous ways in which I could improve upon my arguments and organization. Vance Watrous introduced me to Crete in the summer of 2005 and offered regular guidance as I came to focus my research more and more on the islands Roman period history. Stephen Dysons insight and advice has been of great help as I have tried to organize my thoughts and research in the course of writing my dissertation. Last, but not least, Brad Ault always kept his door open for all of those times I needed advice about the dissertation or any other topic. I would also like to thank John Dugan, who was a mentor and friend during my time in Buffalo. He was always willing to lend a friendly ear when questions or troubles arose, and offered sage advice whenever I was in need of it. In addition, Neil Coffee has been of great help these past few months as I have tried to deal with several bureaucratic and scheduling issues that arose as I reached the end of the dissertating process. My time at the University at Buffalo was financially supported by regular teaching assistantships, as well as a series of College Fellowships. Financial support also came from the American School of Classical Studies in Athens. First as the John Williams White Fellow, and then as the Edwards Capps Fellow, I was able to complete a large proportion of my research and writing during a two year tenure in Athens. While at the American School, I received iv

encouragement from several individuals, and would like to thank Guy Sanders, Margie Miles, Denver Graninger, Sherry Fox, Natalia Vogeikoff-Brogan, and Jack Davis for all of the support and advice they provided. My ability to complete the dissertation is owed in large part to a year spent as the Crake Doctoral Fellow at Mount Allison University, and I express my gratitude to the Crake Foundation and Bruce Robertson for the opportunity to make that final push to complete my thesis. I must also thank Vili Apostolakou of the KD Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities in East Crete, whose support made this study possible. Vili permitted me to study several ceramic assemblages from her rescue excavations in and around Ierapetra, and has accommodated my research at every turn. My analysis of these ceramics took place at the INSTAP Study Center for East Crete in Pacheia Ammos, Crete in July 2007 and SeptemberOctober 2009. I thank Tom Brogan, director of the Study Center, for permitting to use these facilities and for always making the extra effort to ensure I had everything I needed to complete my analyses in a timely fashion. In addition, I must thank Eleanor Huffman for answering every question I had while at the Study Center, and Kathy Hall for conserving a number of the vessels I analyzed. Throughout my time as a graduate student there have also been numerous other individuals who have offered their support, advice, criticism, and friendship, including Sabine Beckmann, Matthew Buell, Alicia Carter, Kostas Chalikias, Benjamin Costello, Yuki Furuya, Mark Hammond, Jason Harris, Kapua Iao, Sarah James, Jenny Muslin, Yota Pantou, Cathy Person, Benjamin Sullivan, and Martin Wells. This is by no means a complete list and I am grateful to everyone who has offered encouragement over the years.

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Finally, I must thank my parents, Chuck and Lorrie Gallimore, for all of the support they have provided over the years, and my wife, Lindy, whose enthusiasm for my work has never wavered. It is because of their encouragement that I was able to bring this project to completion.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................................ iv List of Tables and Illustrations .................................................................................................... xiii Abstract ......................................................................................................................................... xx CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 1 CHAPTER 2: DEFINING ROMAN CRETE ................................................................................ 6 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 6 Crete and Rome...................................................................................................................... 7 Hellenistic Crete ........................................................................................................... 7 The Creation of Roman Crete ..................................................................................... 10 Crete at the End of the Republic ................................................................................. 16 Crete under the Romans.............................................................................................. 25 The End of Roman Crete ............................................................................................. 30 A Chronological Scheme for Roman Crete ......................................................................... 32 Conclusions .......................................................................................................................... 40 CHAPTER 3: THE STUDY OF ROMAN CRETE .................................................................... 42 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 42 Sources of Evidence for Roman Crete ................................................................................. 43 Travelers Accounts .................................................................................................... 43 Archaeological Data ................................................................................................... 49 Literary Sources .......................................................................................................... 67 Epigraphic Texts ......................................................................................................... 72 Numismatic Finds ....................................................................................................... 77 Secondary Literature on Roman Crete ................................................................................. 80 Conclusions .......................................................................................................................... 86

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CHAPTER 4: THE POLIS OF IERAPETRA ............................................................................. 87 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 87 Modern Ierapetra and Local Geography .............................................................................. 88 The Disappearance of Ierapetra ........................................................................................... 92 Earliest History .................................................................................................................... 97 Hellenistic Ierapetra ........................................................................................................... 104 Topography ............................................................................................................... 107 Territorial Expansion................................................................................................ 108 Political Structures ................................................................................................... 117 Religion ..................................................................................................................... 118 Economy .................................................................................................................... 119 Roman Ierapetra ................................................................................................................. 128 Topography .................................................................