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The theft-dispersal and disposal of art works belonging to Jewish citizens in countries invaded by Germany in the Second World War.
2|Page Secondary Sources. Texts.
Spotts, Federic. Hitler and the Power of Aesthetics. Woodstock: The Overlook Press, 2002. Print.
The book Hitler and the power of aesthetics looks in to the life of Adolf Hitler and the vision that his political effort should be an artistic achievement and his conviction to create the ultimate cultured state of all time. The author uses an extensive range of sources to cover a number of topics in relation to Hitler and his artistic visions for Germany. This article is useful to my research topic as it covers a lot of information about the goals Hitler had for German in artistic cultured sense and how he went about to achieve this as a reality, which touches on the theft of Jewish artworks. The main limitation of this book is its main focus on Hitler and his visions for the Third Reich, not quite covering in any detail the topic of stolen, dispersed and disposed of Jewish art. This book will not form the basis of my argument but will be useful for supplementary information relating to why these art crimes occurred.
Soltes, Z. Politics, Ethics, and Memory: Nazi Art Plunder and Holocaust Art Restitution. Ethics and the Visual Arts. Ed. Elaine A. King and Gail Levin. New York: Allworth Press, 2006: 65-88. Print.
In this article Soltes informs of a short history of ancient wartime plundering of art, concentrating on the period of the Nazis. Beginning with why the Nazis looted art, what they did with it, including the preservation museum of an extinct race, right through to the end of the war when the Allies and Soviets came through and took artworks what they wanted. Soltes talks about the ethics of the Americans, how they sought to distinguish themselves from the Nazi looters but were also looters themselves. Towards the end of the article it is discussed why there was not much concern directly after the war to find these looted Jewish artworks, and the landmark film that sparked interest in the subject called The rape of Europa. Finalizing the argument, Soltes discusses the role museums took upon themselves to deal with artworks held that had provenance issues, and how they avoided handing back works. This article seems very useful in my research area; it provides a wide scope on the ethics the art world came across during and after the Holocaust.
Chamberlin, R. Loot! The Heritage of Plunder. Japan: Dai Nippon, 1983. Print.
Chamberlins chapter titled Adolf Hitler reviews a broad range of lootings that happened over the course of World War II. Mentioned is the recovery of art treasures buried in the Alt Aussee saltmine in Austria, and the resistance movement created to save the treasures. Mentioned is also how Jewish property fell forfeit to the state. Chamberlin points out the size comparison of looted German art collections against the collections from the rest of the world. In discussions of post war, Chamberlin makes reference to an organization entitled the Art Looting Investigation Unit by the US and how it was considered of high political importance. Other relevant sections in this chapter found was the problems with tracking down the Nazi loots, and also mention of certain laws in Austria over items that, if remained unclaimed by 1970, would then become state property. Although this chapter has some interesting topics, not enough detail is given, in any case it was useful to use as a base for further research.
Sandholtz, Wayne. Repercussions of Nazi Plunder: Internationalizing International Norms. Prohibiting Plunder: How Norms Change. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.
The chapter Repercussions of Nazi Plunder covers topics which deal with plundered artworks during World War II including conflicts of state-to-state relations, private claims, national responses, museums and Holocaust claims. While this source is not focused on Jewish artefacts, there is a detailed outline to the conflict between Germany and Russia over trophy brigades. A case mentioned is that of the Gold Train where a train carrying the valuables including artworks belonging to Hungarian Jewish families, was intercepted and confiscated by American army officers. This source is potentially a valuable asset to my essay because of its dedication to changing national restitution policies and the evolution of international norms when dealing with plundered art.
6|Page Journal Articles.
Burris, Donald. Scgoenberg, E. Randol. Reflections on Litigating Holocaust Stolen Art Cases. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 38, 2005: 1041-1049. Print.
This article reflects two major cases in the returning of stolen art during the Holocaust. The first case is of an 89-year-old woman who vividly remembers the specific location in her uncle and aunts residence. The second case concerns a Picasso painting, and it is this case, that shows many steps and court procedures appealing all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court. Included in my essay, this article can provide information on court proceedings relevant to Holocaust art that is caught in endless debates over jurisdiction.
7|Page Journal Articles.
Turner, Michelle I. Innocent Buyer of Art Looted During World War II Venderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 32, 1999: 1511-1548. QxResearch; ProQuest Central. Web. 10 Apr 2012.
This article by Turner focuses on a wide variety of topics concerned with buyers of loot art from World War II. Included in this article are discussions on different types of scenarios such as looted art in the possession of museums, public institutions, thieves, knowledgeable buyers, and the innocent buyers. The main emphasis of this paper is of disputes involving innocent buyers, and introduces different case studies. Provided also is some of the legal frameworks that is involved in the case of an innocent buyer. This topic of the innocent buyer will be a good argument to provide in my chosen essay area.
8|Page Journal Articles.
Grimsted, Patricia K. The Post war fate of Esnsatzatab Reichsleiter Rosenburg Archival and Library Plunder, and the dispersal of ERR Records. Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 20.2, 2006: 278308. Web 10 Apr. 2012. http://hgs.oxfordjournals.org/content/20/2/278.full.pdf
The article dispersal of ERR records, provides a meticulous and detailed account in to the dispersal of books and records that were plundered property during World War Two. While this article focuses on the dispersal and recovery of plundered archives and books, it highlights the value these records hold in terms of artwork restitution. The ERR and its records are an important source for provenance research used by museums and law suits for missing art. This article will be of high importance in my essay because it gives a detailed account of recovered archives and importance they hold to plundered artwork and provenance information.
9|Page Journal Articles.
Ben-Cavid, Calev. The Great Art Treasure Hunt. The Jerusalem Report Oct 31, 1996: 51. OxResearch; ProQuest Central. Web 10 Apr. 2012.
The article by Ben-Cavid discusses the resistance shown by countries such as Russia, France, Holland and even Germany when it comes to returning looted Jewish artworks from the Second World War. Highlighted in Ban-Cavids argument, the landmark charity auction held in Vienna, where a fraction of the vast amount of Jewish owned artwork seized by Nazis will be sold off and the proceedings going to the Federation of Austrian Jewish Communities, which includes compensation for Holocaust survivors. This information on the resistance countries displayed when faced with returning looted art will be important to note throughout my essay.
10 | P a g e Journal Articles.
Morris, Nomi. On the Trail of Looted Art. Macleans 111 1998: 48. OxResearch; Proquest Central. Web. 10 Apr 2012.
The article by Morris discusses the controversy that continues to plague the great works plundered by the Nazis and how museum directors today are trying to come up with policies to deal with their holdings of looted art. Included in the article is the subject on how major galleries are deliberately deciding not to delve too deeply when investigating the provenance of art works they hold. Mentioned in Morriss article is the argument of opening a Pandoras Box when it comes to dealing with ownerships of objects that have been collected from the entire world. This article will assist in my research area as it delves in to how museums are dealing with the touchy subject of looted art.
11 | P a g e Journal Articles.
Aspen, Peter. Catalogue Lists Art Looted by Nazis. The Financial Times Limited, 2011: n/a. OxResearch; ProQuest Central. Web. 10 Apr. 2012.
This article by Aspen announces the online international catalogue records of art looted by the Nazis before and during the Second World War. Discussions in the article include how it will be much easier for researchers to locate stolen art works through online records between 1939-61 listing perpetrators, artists and names of victims. While this article is only a small piece, its information on the progress that has been made in todays world concerning looted artefacts and may well be something to add in my essay argument.
12 | P a g e Newspapers.
Pash, B. Art of the Matter: Willy Kortes mission to recover Jewish- owned artworks looted by the Nazis during World War Two. Baltimore Jewish Times, 234.14 (1997): 30. Web. 10 Apr. 2012. http://searchproquest.com/docview/22282475?accountid=36155.
In this article Pash discusses briefly the investigations Willy Korte had made into the recovery of looted art during World War II. Korte, a lawyer and historian whose focus is on stolen artworks, finds himself on a trail that gets rather cold; investigations delve into Art Museums in Paris to Banks of Switzerland. The article is useful to my research because it gives information as to where Jewish looted artworks ended up, illustrating the hurdles one may come across to recovery them. While it is great for outlining one persons mission, it will not be used in great length for my research assignment.
13 | P a g e Primary Sources. Magazine Articles.
Robinson, Walter V. Jewish Group Says Looted Artwork May Number 1700. Boston Globe: A.1. OxResearch; ProQuest Central. Dec 03 1998. Web. 11 Apr 2012.
The article written by Robinson is a report into a three day conference on Holocausts assets with representatives from forty four nations present. This article became interesting to me because of the general hostility and accusations that were brought up throughout the conference, including accusations that the French government was hiding records that would reveal the identities of Jewish persons whose looted artworks where currently displayed in French museums. The conference organizers were scolded by the chairman of Holocaust Art restitution Project, for talking about the rights or art claimants but refusing to invite along the victims of looting, or listening to their concerns. Included in this report is the proposal to the forty four nations to open their archives and seek to match claimants with their missing artworks. Though out this article there seems to be an array of heated topics that may put an interesting spin on my essay argument.
14 | P a g e Magazine Articles.
Leibel, Aaron. Museum Pays $19 Million for Nazi-Looted Painting. Washington Jewish Week: 9. OxResearch; Proquest Central. Jul 29 2010. Web. 10 April. 2012.
This article by Leibel, reports of a museum in Austria that paid nineteen million dollars to the estate of a Jewish Austrian woman named Bondi Jaray. Bondi reported the painting titled Portrait of Wally stolen back in 1939. According to the report, the painting was seized in 1999 by U.S officials while it was on loan in New Yorks Museum of Modern Art, and after a decade long court case it was found that the Leopold Museum was to pay Bondi Jarays estate. This article I found interesting and perhaps useful for my research topic as it is the end result of one Jewish womans plight to recover her stolen painting.
15 | P a g e Transcripts.
Gov. Schwarzenegger Returns Holocaust-Era Artworks to Heirs of Jewish Family. US Fed News Service, Including US State News: n/a. OxResearch, ProQuest Central May 26 2009. Web. 11 Apr. 2012.
This documented record of the presentation speech that was given to the public at Leland Stanford Historic Park presents a positive outcome for the returning of stolen artworks to the Jewish Oppenheimer Heirs. The speech tells of the journey the painting took before they were property of the state of California in 1972 then returned to their rightful owners. Also discussed is the legal journey the investigators took when dealing with problems such as which countries laws would apply to the artwork. This transcript is a happy ending for one Jewish family regarding their lost property, this may useful to add to my essay when making conclusions on returned property.
16 | P a g e Transcripts.
Ferris, William R. On the Trail of Lost Art. Humanities 2001: 4-9. OxResearch; ProQuest Central. Web. 11 Apr 2012.
This source is the printed interview William Ferris gives to Historian Nicholas Lynn discussing the disappearance of artwork during the Second World War and the ramifications caused in the art world today. The interest in this interview is because historian Nicholas Lynn is the author of the well-known book The Rape of Europa. The range of topics that are covered throughout the dialogue including Nicholas knowledge about Max Friedlander, a Jewish art historian used by Goering, Russians as looters, the ownership case of Landscape with Smokestacks, why was Nazi looting different to that of loots done by Napoleon or Lord Elgin, and also discussions on cultural property and national patrimony. Nicholass academic opinion and knowledge will be a good perspective to look upon when researching the ramifications to the art world after World War Two.