anupriya , manager, safer cities prpgramme , jagori june 20, 2013

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Gender, Security and Sanitation: Action Research on Women’s Rights and Access to Water and Sanitation (2009 – 2011). Jagori and Women in Cities International(WICI),in partnership with Action India and Centre for Budget and Governance Accountability (CBGA) With support from IDRC. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Gender, Security and Sanitation: Action Research on Womens Rights and Access to Water and Sanitation (2009 2011) Jagori and Women in Cities International(WICI),in partnership with Action India and Centre for Budget and Governance Accountability (CBGA)With support from IDRCAnupriya, Manager, Safer Cities Prpgramme, Jagori June 20, 2013

12Assessing Gender service gaps!How inadequate provisioning affects women and marginal groups in accessing WAT-SAN servicesHow gender sensitive are the governance frameworks and can the women safety audits create a model of addressing security and safety issues, inevitably left out of such agendas How can women negotiate their voice in local governance on all key aspects of public provisioning and infrastructure development and address gender service gaps

-Gender Service Gap- Increase in working day, difficult access/differential quality, more time for social reproduction role like caring, management of meagre resources-burden on women, loss of potential savings, loss of leisure time or opportunities to access education, careerBackground - Evictions and resettlements in Delhi - Impact on women, especially in terms of safety and security - Jagoris larger work on safety of women in urban public spaces -

3SITE Bawana Resettlement Colony

North west Delhi; Relocated in 2004; about 14,000 plots with estimated population of 130,000

SITE Bhalaswa Resettlement Colony

North east Delhi (adjacent to the Delhi landfill); Relocated in 2000; approx. 2600 plots with estimated population of 22,000 Designed as camps for internally displaced people: Residents have no land tenure/licenseInadequate infrastructure: largely communal and not household Limited government services/structuresFragmented governance, architecture, accountability issues and lack of citizenship rights

13.78 million population in Delhi, (2001 census)

By 2005, 9.3 million people in 52 resettlement colonies, over 1000 slum clusters, over 1500 un-authorised colonies & 216 urban villages. (Water Aid, 2005)WALLED CITY - WORLD CLASS CITY SLUM FREE CITYYamuna pushta. North and east delhi- landfill surrounded by sewage pondsLack of clarity of tenure 99 year lease to 5 year lisence12 or 18 square yardsMarginalised service. No HH with piped water supply. Womens leadership Nigrani samiti/ women panchayat. Colearning and exchange

3Strategies and approaches4Preparatory phaseAdvisory Committee & Core Team of actors community women and youthIdentifying gender service gaps - Conducting research and generating knowledgeCapacity building on issues, rights and tools to access quality essential servicesGenerating awareness and demand for accountabilityCommunity monitoring systems to track changes in services and relationsNetworking and advocacy with government officials and other womens groups in India Policy & Media Advocacy focused for intensive outreach Findings and learning's adaptedNigrani samiti - RTI- Public hearing 2008developing documents, tools, identifying and engaging partners & stakeholders, selecting sites, etc communications and consultations with communityCommunity radio programmes45ACTION-RESEARCH TOOLSLiterature review- PoliciesRapid Situational Assessment (RSA)mapping of existing infrastructure, facilities & services in select blocksOpportunity cost analysis (study of 50 families)Focus Group Discussions Interviews with key informants In-depth interviews with womenWomens Safety Audits Tracking WATSAN schemes and corresponding budget outlays (2009-10) and expenditures

Principles informing methodology:

Engaging the community on rights based issues

participation of women and youth ensured throughout Ananalysis has been done toidentify water and sanitation related schemes, corresponding budget outlays and expenditures to assess the adequacy of the same.The study has also included a quantitative assessment of womens special needs and disadvantages to calculate the time spent in water collection and provisioning.(Right to food campaign, PDS, VAW, responding to damages due to fire break-outs, evictions, womens health etc.) Vegetable MarketOpen spacesSchoolHospitalMarketResidential colonyMilk boothdustbinsReligious placeResidential colonyParkshopLiquor shop

Closed shopBarber shopStreet foodClosed shopMilk boothClosed shop

Open spacesCTCdustbinsCigarette shopsCTCCTCCTCPhone boothResidential colonyCigarette shopsStreet food

6Red- day womenOrange- men dayPurple women nightBlue- men nightMale dominatedSocial identities and PSTime and access/ usabilityPurpose of using a PSWhen woman face violence in public spaces it is analyzed on groups of preconceived cultural norms, rather than looking at the dysfunctional infrastructure or services. Like locking toilets in public spaces at night time reflects the norm that women do not/should not exist in public spaces post dark!

6Gender lens on WAT-SAN servicesWomen with special needs, like elderly, pregnant and/or disabled, have a double disadvantage Due to inadequate services and their maintenance, sustenance of households has consumed the lives of women and girls, reducing time for education, livelihood opportunities or leisure

There is no drain to outlet water. I take water out by using mugs from the walking path.- woman D block, bawana7Women often carry water from over 3 15 kns

The garbage disposal person doesnt come for days. Even if he does, he only picks the garbage from some points only a Nigrani samiti women member shared

When I fill and carry water home, I feel like drinking it all myselfand not share it with anyone else at home. Woman on carrying water from distant places in BhalswaThe burden increases womens time load to this fundamental activity and results in their lack of time for other equally important work and leisure time - physically disabled women, pregnant women, and even single women

Gender lens cont

Constant fear while accessing toilets and walking on the streets to collect water, mud and disposing garbage on streets or open spacesWomen use open fields to defecate, only in dark and hence avoid drinking water and holding urine leading to health complications. Quality of water also impacts health the CTCs are so dirty that I feel nauseous. Dont feel like eating once I am home- young girl in E block we always go in group. Once three girls were defecating in open space, a boy came and tried to assault one of them. I am scared! 15 years, girl from bawana

8There are no dustbins in the CTC. To throw sanitary cloth we at times go far away at dark . Says a 30 year women from BawanaIf I didnt have to wait in queue for water and defecation I would have had so much time to spare to cook food and wouldnt have to go to school empty stomach - School going girl, 14 years

KEY findings: safety and security issuesInadequate and gender insensitive infrastructure and servicesInadequate number and maintenance of toilets, water taps and garbage disposal systemsNo dustbins for menstrual waste anywhere!Drains next to houses and water taps- water contaminations risks highHome based toilets in select cases cause shame, issues of privacy/pollution/maintenance costs, etc.

Gender-based urban violence due to extreme poverty, discrimination, exclusionConstant fear while accessing toilets and walking on the streets due to the water, mud and garbage on streetsIncidences of sexual harassment is common while accessing such servicesWomen forced to use open fields

Compromised womens rights to equality, dignity, autonomy and bodily integrity

9Women most vul.Dw water from employee house9Gender Implications of insensitive service provisionCosts of time increased due to long queues for toilets, potable water, irregular supply of water, fetching water, etc.Increased stress waiting for darkness to relieve themselves in open spacesHigh incidences of health problems Higher demands on household work more time in social reproduction rolesRight to equality of access to options/ opportunities for leisure, study, generate income, explore opportunitiesHousehold chores spill over into the streets and drains public-private spheres mergeImpediments to movement in the narrow lanes - compromised dignity, privacy & safetyRight to life challenged with the everyday fear of harassment and shame, negotiating with bodily needs, no time control!A pucca road has been constructed there. Men keep coming and going. Oneis embarrassed to defecate there. I dare not go alone or send my daughteralone there. One feels scared.-Interview with Sunita, Bawana, 60 years old

No control on body and time! Questions: What is the social and economic cost of fear?What is the social and economic cost of health?

10School dropout- menstrual waster, drinking waterNo control over timeeating and drinking less to avoid the need to relieve themselves at night10Budget Analysis

11 Outlays for Sectors in 11th Five Year Plan for Delhi (in %): CBGA study

12Budgeting for JJ clusters in Delhi 2010-11Up gradations environmental improvement and providing additional facilities 61%, sanitation 28% water supply 11%Water and sanitation constitutes approx 17% of the total Plan outlays in the 11th Five Year Plan (2007-12) WAT-SAN budget of Delhi has gone down since 2007-08 - The Government only spent Rs.880/- ($20) per person in 2011-12 on water and sanitation facilities in Delhi in comparision to rs.930/-, in 2009.1213reflections of privatisation of sector and retreat of state in the essential services. Delhi government spends a mere Rs. 30 ($ 0.66) on water supply and Rs. 80 ($ 1.78) on sanitation per JJ colony resident in 2011-12, inadequate funds for these areas is surely a cause of concern. Only negligible Rs. 90 million ($2million) has been spent i