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    Kingdom PlantaeKingdom Plantae

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    All plants are eukaryoticAll plants are eukaryoticautotrophs making food fromautotrophs making food from

    sunlight through photosynthesis.sunlight through photosynthesis.

    There are, however, a few speciesThere are, however, a few species

    that are both autotrophs andthat are both autotrophs andheterotrophs.heterotrophs.

    Plants have cell walls made ofPlants have cell walls made ofcellulose.cellulose.

    Primary consumers eat onlyPrimary consumers eat only

    plants.plants.

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    Land plants evolved from green algaeLand plants evolved from green algae

    Researchers have identified green algaeResearchers have identified green algaecalled charophyceans as the closestcalled charophyceans as the closest

    relatives of land plantsrelatives of land plants

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    Adaptations Enabling the Move to Land

    In charophyceans

    A layer of a durable polymer called

    sporopollenin prevents exposed zygotes from

    drying out

    The accumulation of traits that facilitated

    survival on land

    May have opened the way to its colonizationby plants

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    T r r f r k tr its t t l l ts s r

    l it c r c s

    R s -s c l s f r c ll l s

    s t sis

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    Copyright 2005 earson ducation, Inc. publishing as en amin Cummings

    Per is e enz es

    Str ct r e f fl ell ted s er

    F r ti n f r l st

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    Derived Traits of Plants

    ive key traits appear in nearly all land plants

    but are absent in the charophyceans

    Apical meristems

    Alternation of generations

    Walled spores produced in sporangia

    Multicellular gametangia

    Multicellular dependent embryos

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    CuticleCuticle a protective waxy coatingthat prevents H2O in plant tissuesfrom evaporating into theatmosphere.

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    Within theWithin the cuticlecuticle areare stomatastomata that

    allow exchange of gases.

    Guard cells open and close pores in

    the stomata to release O2 into the

    atmosphere and take in CO2.

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    AAleafleafis abroad flat organ thatis abroad flat organ that

    traps light energy fortraps light energy for

    photosynthesis and exchangesphotosynthesis and exchangesgases through stomata.gases through stomata.

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    Root a plant

    organ thatanchors the

    plant in soil

    and absorbs

    H2O and

    minerals from

    soil

    transportingthem to the

    stem.

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    A root cells

    job is to takewater and

    nutrients from

    the soil andsend them up

    to the part of

    the plant

    above the

    ground.

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    TheThe stemstem is the plants structuralis the plants structural

    support for upright growthsupport for upright growthcontaining tissues to transportcontaining tissues to transport

    HH22O, minerals, and nutrients fromO, minerals, and nutrients from

    one part of the plant to another.one part of the plant to another.

    Stems may also store food.may also store food.

    Green stemsGreen stems carry oncarry on

    photosynthesis.photosynthesis.

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    AP Biology April 30AP Biology April 30

    Plants PP continuedPlants PP continued

    Private Life of PlantsPrivate Life of Plants

    Animal practicalAnimal practicalComing up.Coming up.-- Plant Test May 4Plant Test May 4-- Chapter 47 objectivesChapter 47 objectives-- Animal systems and structureAnimal systems and structure-- Abstract ?Abstract ?

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    Growing root includes 3 regions:Growing root includes 3 regions:-- root tiproot tip-- elongation regionelongation region-- maturation regionmaturation region

    Root tip and elongation region are sites ofRoot tip and elongation region are sites of

    primary growth through apical meristemprimary growth through apical meristemtissuetissue

    Maturation zone, vascular tissue formsMaturation zone, vascular tissue forms

    primary xylem and phloem which formsprimary xylem and phloem which formsstele (the inner concentric cylinder)stele (the inner concentric cylinder)

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    Plant Vascular TissuesPlant Vascular Tissues

    XylemXylem made up of a series ofdead tubular cells that transportH2O and dissolved minerals

    upward from roots to leaves.

    Phloem made up of a series of

    living tubular cells that transportsugars from leaves to all parts ofthe plant.

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    Two types of xylem cells:Two types of xylem cells:

    -- tracheids which are are long and thintracheids which are are long and thin-- vessel elements which are short and thickvessel elements which are short and thick

    Phloem cells are made up ofPhloem cells are made up of-- sieve tube elements (carry nutrients)sieve tube elements (carry nutrients)

    -- companion cells (support sieve tubecompanion cells (support sieve tube

    elementselements

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    When there is no water in the soil for the plant, it

    looses turgor pressure (wilts).

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    Leaf cellLeaf cell

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    Animal CellAnimal Cell

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    Chlorophyll absorbs energy from

    sunlight and passes that energy into thestroma.

    Stroma contain enzymes that turn light

    energy into sugar and oxygen from water

    and carbon dioxide.

    SUNLIGHT + 6CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2

    Grana are stacks light trapping

    chlorophyll.

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    When we burn wood, basically the

    photosynthesis formula is reversed.

    We're breaking down the

    carbohydrate and producing carbondioxide gas and water, plus energy,

    which, like sunlight, feels hot and

    looks bright.

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    Alternation of GenerationsAlternation of Generations

    Sexual reproductionSexual reproductioninvolves the two alternatinginvolves the two alternatingprocesses ofprocesses of meiosismeiosis andandfertilizationfertilization..

    InIn meiosismeiosis, the chromosome, the chromosomenumber is reduced from thenumber is reduced from thediploiddiploid to theto the haploidhaploid number.number.

    In fertilization, the nucleiIn fertilization, the nucleiof two gametes fuse, raisingof two gametes fuse, raisingthe chromosome number fromthe chromosome number from

    haploid to diploid.haploid to diploid.

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    In mostIn most plantsplants meiosis and fertilizationmeiosis and fertilizationdivide the life of the organism into twodivide the life of the organism into two

    distinct phases or "generations".distinct phases or "generations".

    TheThe gametophyte generationgametophyte generation beginsbegins

    with awith a sporespore produced by meiosis. Theproduced by meiosis. Thespore is haploid, and all the cellsspore is haploid, and all the cellsderived from it (by mitosis) are alsoderived from it (by mitosis) are also

    haploid.In due course, thishaploid.In due course, thismulticellular structure producesmulticellular structure produces

    gametesgametes byby mitosismitosis and sexualand sexualreproduction then produces the diploidreproduction then produces the diploid

    sporophyte generationsporophyte generation..

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    In fact, the gametophyte generation is theIn fact, the gametophyte generation is the

    major stage in the life ofmajor stage in the life of mossesmosses and anand anindependent plant inindependent plant in fernsferns..

    However, the gametophyte is only an

    However, the gametophyte is only aninconspicuous structure in angiosperms andinconspicuous structure in angiosperms and

    other "higher" plants.other "higher" plants.

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    The sporophyte generationThe sporophyte generationproduces spores (diploid) whichproduces spores (diploid) whichdevelop into the gametophytedevelop into the gametophyte

    generation.generation.

    The gametophyte generationThe gametophyte generation

    produces gametes (haploid).produces gametes (haploid).

    In vascular plants, the sporophyteIn vascular plants, the sporophytegeneration is dominant.generation is dominant.

    In nonIn non--vascular plants, thevascular plants, thegametophyte is larger and moregametophyte is larger and more

    conspicuous than the sporophyte.conspicuous than the sporophyte.

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    Plant TropismsPlant Tropisms

    PhototrophismPhototrophism -- growth toward lightgrowth toward light

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    Plant TropismsPlant Tropisms

    GravitropismGravitropism downward growth of rootsdownward growth of roots

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    Plant TropismsPlant Tropisms

    -- ThigmotropismThigmotropism

    plants responseplants response

    when it comeswhen it comes

    into contact withinto contact with

    a solid object.a solid object.

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    Vegetative Reproduction.Vegetative Reproduction.

    is asexual

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    Plant Growth

    Meristematic tissue is made up of activelydividing cells

    Primarygrowth occurs via apicalmeristems in the tips of roots and stems

    Secondarygrowth is carried out by lateralmeristems increasing the girth of the plant

    - two types of cells: vascular cambiumcork cambium

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    Vascular cambium

    produces secondary xylem andphloem secondary which replacesprimary xylem and primary phloem

    Cork cambium produces the tissues of theouter bark

    Plants also have lenticels which allow for gasexchange through bark

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    Bryophytes vs Tracheophyteswhats the difference?

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    Division BryophytaDivision Bryophyta mosses,mosses,liverworts, hornworts. All areliverworts, hornworts. All are nonnon--vascularvascularandand nonnon--seedseed..

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    Bryophyte gametophytesBryophyte gametophytes

    Produce flagellated sperm in antheridiaProduce flagellated sperm in antheridia Produce ova in archegoniaProduce ova in archegonia

    Generally form groundGenerally form ground--hugging carpetshugging carpets

    and are at most only a few cells thickand are at most only a few cells thick Some mossesSome mosses

    Have conducting tissues in the centerHave conducting tissues in the center

    of their stems and may growof their stems and may growverticallyvertically

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    Bryo yte S oro ytes

    Br te s r tes

    Gr t f rc egoni

    re t e s llest nd si lest of ll ext nt

    l nt groups

    Consist of foot, set , nd spor ngium

    Hornwort ndmoss sporophytes H e stomata

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    Concept 29.4: Ferns andother seedless

    ascularplants formed the first forests

    Bryophytes and ryophyte-likeplants

    ere theprevalent vegetationduring the first100 millionyears ofplant evolution

    Vascularplants

    Began toevolveduring the Car oniferous

    period

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    DivisionDivision LycophytaLycophyta --Club MossesClub Mosses

    vascularvascularandand nonnon--seedseed..

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    DivisionDivision PterophytaPterophytawhisk ferns, horsetails, and fernswhisk ferns, horsetails, and ferns

    vascularvascularandand nonnon--seedseed..

    S d B i Pl tS d B i Pl t

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    Seed Bearing PlantsSeed Bearing Plants

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    GymnospermsGymnospermsarearevascularvascular

    plants thatplants that

    produceproduceseedsseeds

    onscales ofonscales ofwoody strobiliwoody strobili

    called cones.called cones.

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    In other words, they haveIn other words, they have

    naked seedsnaked seeds -- seedsseeds notnotenclosed in a fruit.enclosed in a fruit.

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    The four divisions ofThe four divisions of

    GymnospermsGymnosperms are:are:

    CycadophytaCycadophyta

    GinkgophytaGinkgophyta

    GnetophytaGnetophyta

    ConiferophytaConiferophyta

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    CycadsCycads have a terminal rosette ofhave a terminal rosette ofleaves andbear seeds in cones.leaves andbear seeds in cones.

    AllAll cycadscycads have separate male andhave separate male andfemale plants.female plants.

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    DivisionDivision

    GinkgophytaGinkgophytahas

    only on livingspecies Ginkgo

    biloba..

    The leaves arelobed.

    Like Cycads,Ginkgos have

    separate male

    and female trees.

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    DivisionDivision GnetophytaGnetophyta has 3 genera:has 3 genera:

    GnetumGnetum

    EphedraEphedra

    WelwitschiaWelwitschia

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    ConiferophytaConiferophyta is the largest and mostis the largest and most

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    ConiferophytaConiferophyta is the largest and mostis the largest and most

    diversedivisionofthegymnosperms.diversedivisionofthegymnosperms.

    Most areMost areevergreenevergreen keeping theirkeeping their

    leaves yearleaves year--round.round.

    A very few areA very few aredeciduousdeciduous droppingdropping

    allofthe

    i

    r leaves atallofthe

    i

    r leaves atthesame timethesame time

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    A iA i

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    AngiospermsAngiosperms includeonedivisionincludeonedivision --

    AnthophytaAnthophyta

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    Though there is only one divisionThough there is only one division

    ofofangiospermsangiosperms,, AnthophytaAnthophyta ..

    It is the largest and most diverseIt is the largest and most diverse

    group of seed plants on Earth.group of seed plants on Earth.

    AnthophytesAnthophytes produce flowers,produce flowers,

    then seeds enclosed in a fruitthen seeds enclosed in a fruit..

    AnthophytesAnthophytes can becan be annualsannuals,,

    biennialsbiennials, or, orperennialsperennials..

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    What is anWhat is an annualannual??

    What is aWhat is a biennialbiennial??

    What is aWhat is a perennialperennial??

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    AP Biology: May 2AP Biology: May 2

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    AP Biology: May 2AP Biology: May 2 Kingdom Plantae continuedKingdom Plantae continued

    Kingdom PracticalKingdom Practical

    Presentations ? Private Life of Plants ?Presentations ? Private Life of Plants ?

    Coming up:Coming up:-- Parade of Kingdoms Test corrections dueParade of Kingdoms Test corrections due

    5/45/4-- Kingdom Plantae test ?Kingdom Plantae test ?-- Continue readingContinue reading chapter 47 due May 4chapter 47 due May 4

    -- 6th Abstract6th Abstract duedue May 8May 8 plants or systemsplants or systems

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    MaleMale

    GametophyteGametophyte

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    FemaleFemale

    Gametophyte

    Gametophyte

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    What is the purpose of fruit?

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    Seeds can be dispersed in aSeeds can be dispersed in avariety of ways:variety of ways:

    WindWind

    Passing through an animalsPassing through an animalsdigestive systemdigestive system

    Catching on fur or skinCatching on fur or skin

    Floating on waterFloating on water

    Division Anthophyta has twoDivision Anthophyta has two

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    Division Anthophyta has twoDivision Anthophyta has two

    classes of angiosperms .classes of angiosperms .

    Monocots and DicotsMonocots and Dicots

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    Possible Advantages to

    Alternation ofGenerations

    Amplification of the sexual product

    because it produces many spores.

    Possibly useful in an environment

    where limited water availability for

    successful fertilization limits the

    number of successfulzygotes.

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    Adaptations to S rvival in the

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    Adaptations to S rvival in theTerrestrial Environment

    Separation ofabsorbtive or ans(roots) andphotosynthetic or ans

    (leaves)

    Waterproof c ticle Stomata

    Vasc lartiss es (xylem andphloem)

    Str ctural supporttissues(celluloseandli nin)

    Species dispersal (spores and seeds)

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    Adaptations to Survival in theAdaptations to Survival in the

    Terrestrial EnvironmentTerrestrial Environment

    Protection of ametes in ametan iaProtection of ametes in ametan ia

    Fertilization in theabsence of freeFertilization in theabsence of freewater (pollen tubes instead ofwater (pollen tubes instead ofswimmin sperm)swimmin sperm)

    Zy oteand sporophyteembryoZy oteand sporophyteembryoprotectedand nurturedby ametophyteprotectedand nurturedby ametophyte

    FungiFungi

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    FungiFungi

    ConiferophytaConiferophyta

    AnthophytaAnthophyta BryophytaBryophyta

    LichenLichen

    GinkgophytaGinkgophyta Primative seedless vascular plantsPrimative seedless vascular plants

    AlgaeAlgae

    E l h d tE l h d t

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    Early chordatesEarly chordates

    Recent chordatesRecent chordates

    MolluscaMollusca AnnelidaAnnelida

    CnidariaCnidaria

    ArthropodaArthropoda InsectaInsecta

    PoriferaPorifera

    Platyhelmenthes and NematodaPlatyhelmenthes and Nematoda

    ArthropodaArthropoda Arachnida, Mesostomata,Arachnida, Mesostomata,

    Crustacea, MyriapodaCrustacea, Myriapoda

    EchinodermataE

    chinodermata

    1.1. Why were adaptations necessary forWhy were adaptations necessary for

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    y p yy p yplants to become terrestrial ?plants to become terrestrial ?

    22 What were the adaptations?What were the adaptations?

    3.3. What is the general term for growthWhat is the general term for growth

    tissue of plants?tissue of plants?

    4.4. Describe the difference(s) betweenDescribe the difference(s) between

    gymnosperms and angiosperms.gymnosperms and angiosperms.

    5.5. Describe the two patterns of growthDescribe the two patterns of growthin seed plants?in seed plants?

    1.1. Plants were no longer surrounded by water whenPlants were no longer surrounded by water when

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    g yg y

    they became terrestrial. They needed to getthey became terrestrial. They needed to get

    water, stay upright, reproduce withoutwater, stay upright, reproduce without

    surrounding water.surrounding water.

    2.2. Specialized root tissue, waterproof cuticle,Specialized root tissue, waterproof cuticle,

    specialized stem tissue with vascular tissue,specialized stem tissue with vascular tissue,leaf tissue, spores, seeds.leaf tissue, spores, seeds.

    3.3. Meristematic tissue.Meristematic tissue.

    4.4. Gymnosperms are either Cycadophyta,Gymnosperms are either Cycadophyta,

    Ginkgophy

    ta, Gnetophy

    ta, or Coniferophy

    ta.Ginkgophy

    ta, Gnetophy

    ta, or Coniferophy

    ta.

    4 Cont4 Cont They reproduce using strobilliThey reproduce using strobilli

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    4. Cont.4. Cont. They reproduce using strobilliThey reproduce using strobilli naked cones. Angiosperms belong tonaked cones. Angiosperms belong to

    phylum Anthophyta and include allphylum Anthophyta and include allflowering plants. The flower is aflowering plants. The flower is aspecialized reproductive structure thatspecialized reproductive structure that

    produces seeds (zygote) covered byproduces seeds (zygote) covered byfruit.fruit.

    5. The two patterns of growth in5. The two patterns of growth inangiosperms are monocots and dicots.angiosperms are monocots and dicots.

    Division Anthophyta has two classes ofDivision Anthophyta has two classes of

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    s o t op yta as t o c asses os o t op yta as t o c asses o

    angiosperms .angiosperms .

    Monocots and DicotsMonocots and Dicots

    1.1. Describe the two types of vascularDescribe the two types of vascular

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    ypyp

    tissue and the cells that make them?tissue and the cells that make them?