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Applying Policy Governance ® in Faith-Based Organizations Policy Governance ® is a registered trademark of John Carver www.governancecoach.com www.broadbaker.com

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Applying Policy Governance in Faith-Based Organizations Policy Governance is a registered trademark of John Carver www.governancecoach.com www.broadbaker.com Slide 2 First, Whos the Owner? Organizations have human owners (real, legal, moral, and/or spiritual) Do faith-based organizations also have a divine Owner*? What are the criteria for ownership? The owners are the source of the boards legitimacy, i.e., the Board has a moral obligation to them Board governs on their behalf, Board is able to have dialogue with owners primarily related to Ends issues. *The presenters experience is with Christian organizations, so our examples assume a belief in a personal God with which one can communicate, and this presentation will use examples from a Christian perspective throughout. Slide 3 Ownership Linkage Policy Example Wycliffe Canada [WC] The Sovereign Owner of Wycliffe Canada is God. The human owners, operating under God's authority, are members of the Canadian Church who demonstrate passion for and participation in the Ends of Wycliffe Canada, including voting members and all other Wycliffe Canada personnel. Slide 4 Ownership Example Avant Ministries [AV] Avant Ministries International is not a member- based organization and the board determined that the human spiritual owners are those who contribute/invest in some manner, including missionaries. Slide 5 Experiences in Ownership Linkage Wycliffe Canada [WC] Experience in moving from the view of members as sole owners to the church as owners Experience in linkage with God as Sovereign owner Work in progress to become a community of discernment Avant Ministries [AM] (Not a membership org.) Missionaries, supporters, and churches (participating in some form as a partner) Slide 6 Servant-Leadership More than just words on paper While servant-leadership is increasingly espoused in the business and secular communities, for Christian organizations it is closely linked to faith Whoever would be great among you must be the servant of all (Jesus Christ) Slide 7 Characteristics of the Servant- Leader (Greenleaf) Stewardship Listening Receptively Empathy Healing Persuasion Awareness Conceptualization Foresight Commitment to Growth of People Building Community Slide 8 Intentionality How can a board be intentional about translating the faith-based values of its owners, including faith-based values - Biblical values, denominational values - in policies and governance practices? How does a board assure doctrinal adherence? Slide 9 Intentionality in Protecting Doctrine The board must thoroughly understand the doctrinal positions of the organization, why they are considered important, and the risks of departing from them. This generally means that the board will need expert grounding, especially if it is an academic organization. Seek outside expert input from like-minded people. Board homework regarding the doctrinal position of a potential CEO is crucial. Ensure board policies re: doctrine are in sufficient detail that any reasonable interpretation will be acceptable to the board. Slide 10 Doctrine - Monitoring and Vigilance Stringent monitoring. For a college, make sure that, when values of owners are included/translated in policies, monitoring is about assessing that these policies are met in the organization (e.g. in the classroom and intellectual products if that is where proof is expected to be found).Facultys willingness to sign a doctrinal statement is not necessarily adequate. Avoid too short board member terms, to ensure board memory. Be sure that key values are in policies. Place doctrinal statements in Bylaws rather than policies can make harder to amend. Consider using a like-minded Board of Reference or board of advisors. Slide 11 Servant-Leadership and Intentionality Related to Ends Greenleafs Test of Servant-Leadership: Those served, while being served, grow as persons become healthier, wiser, freer, more autonomous, and more likely themselves to become servants Ends focus on the effect of the organizations efforts on people how will they change, grow as described by Greenleaf Slide 12 An Ends Example [WC] The necessary personnel with appropriate attitudes, skills, and knowledge, are available at the right time to enable Operating Partners to fulfil their part in Bible translation and related ministries. * 1. Personnel are equipped to build intercultural communities of trust. 2. Personnel are servant-leaders, team players and capacity builders. 3. Personnel have the necessary skills to fulfill their roles, including language-related and support roles. 4. Personnel demonstrate a commitment to life-long learning in spiritual, professional and cultural domains. 5.Personnel are prepared to adopt an appropriate Biblical lifestyle. *Note: This is a second-level End. The Global End contains all 3 elements of Ends, including what cost. Slide 13 Ends Policies [Example: Grace International School (GIS)] GIS students will demonstrate Christ-like character, and every aspect of their lives will be suffused with a Biblical worldview. * Accordingly, students will: 1. Pursue a genuine relationship with God; 2. Know essential biblical truths and concepts; 3. Understand our personal identity from Gods perspective; 4.Critically assess issues and world-views in terms of biblical truths; 5. Impact their world by applying biblical truth; 6. Serve others compassionately and advocate for the oppressed; and 7. Exhibit genuine respect and cultural sensitivity. *This End is missing the at what cost statement. Slide 14 Ends Policies [Example: Avant Ministries] 1.0 Because of Avant there will be Developing Churches Where There Is No Church. 1.1 Churches will be developed where most needed. 1.1.1. Peoples or areas with no available church will receive the highest priority for service. 1.1.2 The primary geographic concentration of ministry will be outside the United States and Canada. 1.1.3 Peoples of different cultures and languages will receive priority of emphasis. 1.2 Churches will be Biblically healthy, defined as or when: 1.2.1 Unsaved people are brought to Christ 1.2.2 Believers are discipled toward maturity 1.2.3 No longer being dependent on the mission or missionaries 1.2.4 There is inter-dependence & partnering with other churches 1.2.5 Missionaries are sent out cross-culturally Slide 15 Servant-Leadership and Intentionality Related to Executive Limitations If servant-leadership is a value, the board would find it unethical for people (those served, employees) to be treated in ways inconsistent with that value. Executive Limitations can be used to restrict behaviour that is unethical. Slide 16 Limitations Policies [Examples Global EL Policy] The Superintendent shall not allow any organizational circumstance that is either unlawful, imprudent, or in violation of Christian principles and professional ethics, jeopardize Thai, ACSI and WASC accreditation, or violate the Bylaws. [GIS] The President shall not cause or allow any activity, decision, or organizational circumstance that is unlawful or imprudent, that violates Wycliffe Canada by-laws, Scriptural imperatives, or commonly accepted business and professional ethics. [WC] Slide 17 Possible Language for the Global EL If You Operate Internationally The CEO shall not cause or allow any practice, activity, decision, or organizational circumstance which is unbiblical, imprudent, unethical, in violation of commonly accepted business and professional ethics and practices (or of the agreed values and policies of Xxxxxxxx), unlawful in the United States or Canada, or unlawful in any other country, (except insofar that specific Biblical authority is to the contrary; e.g., Acts 5:29). Slide 18 Treatment of People - Examples With respect to current or potential students, families and member organizations, the Superintendent shall not allow conditions which are unsafe, unbiblical, undignified or unfair, or are harmful to an organizational culture of excellence. With respect to current or prospective staff members and employees, the Superintendent shall not allow conditions which are unsafe, unbiblical, undignified, disorganized or unfair [GIS] [Discussion point: is unbiblical necessary could a reasonable interpretation of the global statement be made that was unbiblical?] Slide 19 Servant-Leadership and Intentionality Related to Board-Management Delegation Using standard principles of Policy Governance is consistent with: Commitment to the growth of people, Real, not bogus empowerment, A mentality of leading leaders, Tolerance for reasonable risk, Fostering personal & professional growth of everyone in the organization. Slide 20 Intentionality in Recruiting New CEO Research the candidates past education, papers, articles, talks, theses, and books, etc., besides the performance and references of the candidate. Be sure those conducting the search are equally informed. Interview carefully. From the prior policy regarding protecting doctrine The board must thoroughly understand the doctrinal positions of the organization, why they are considered important, and the risks concerning them. This generally means that the board will need expert grounding, especially if it is an academic organization. Seek outside expert input from like-minded people. Board homework regarding the doctrinal position of a potential CEO is crucial. Ensure board policies re doctrine are in sufficient detail that any reasonable interpretation will be acceptable to the board. And Slide 21 Servant-Leadership and Intentionality Related to Governance Process Board sees itself as a steward Board is obsessed with purpose. No board meeting should go by without debate or presentation on some facet of the Ends development process Slide 22 Culture of Accountability Kingdom accountability demands excellence of itself. Board culture is a climate of trust and candor have clear policies and expect them to be followed. Board holds its members accountable. Slide 23 Development of Wisdom Board strives to follow Biblical principles re: development of wisdom Humble receptivity Teach-ability Concern for sustaining virtue Values excellence & diligence Sensitivity to the Holy Spirit Board seeks foresight in decision-making Board accepts others and has empathy Frames questions from a place of not knowing all the answers Asks questions from a place of interest in and affection for others Board allots sufficient time for development of wisdom Board works to build community Board includes spiritual input and development as part of discernment Slide 24 Listening and Understanding Board is a receptive listener Board is aware doesnt settle for only academic knowledge --obtains experiential knowledge of those who are affected and served [WC example of board member field trips] Slide 25 Conceptualization and Foresight Board can conceptualize the bigger picture Board exercises foresight Failure to foresee is an ethical failure (Robert Greenleaf). Slide 26 Governance Process Policies Governance commitment example - GIS Operating under the Lordship of Jesus Christ, the purpose of the Grace International School Board, on behalf of its legal owner, Grace International School Educational Foundation, and its moral owners is to assure that Grace International School achieves the Ends for which it was established and avoids unacceptable actions and situations. Slide 27 Governance Commitment - WC The purpose of the Board, on behalf of the owners, is to see to it that Wycliffe Canada (1) achieves appropriate results for appropriate persons at an appropriate cost and (2) avoids unacceptable actions and situations. In fulfilling these governance functions, the Boards paramount desire is to glorify our Sovereign Triune God. Slide 28 Governing Style and Values [GIS] Board governance shall be marked by biblically- based integrity, outward vision..., collective decision making through prayer and listening to God for His wisdom. If a majority of the board determines an impending decision is of major consequence, extended corporate prayer time will be scheduled. Slide 29 Guarding Against Defection from Core Beliefs Board Commitment Policy requiring the Board to assess every new policy against core values. Before vote, it must be verified that it does not contradict values/beliefs (GIS) Vigilant monitoring Another possibility: make it difficult to change certain policies: e.g. 2/3 majority plus 1, change requires two convened meetings, etc. Slide 30 Ownership Linkage [WC] The Board recognizes the necessity of corporately and individually communicating with God, Wycliffe Canada's sovereign owner. The Board will set aside planned times, including an annual retreat, for corporately listening to God and seeking his direction regarding Board issues through Bible study, prayer and personalized fasting. Individually, members will pray regularly about Board concerns at a minimum the first Monday of each month. Spontaneous times of prayer will be encouraged during Board meetings. Slide 31 Agenda Planning [GIS] To do its job effectively, the Board will follow an annual agenda that completes a re- exploration of Ends policies and Executive Limitations and continually improves board performance through board education and enriched input and deliberation. The agenda will reflect the spiritual dimension of our school. Effective leadership comes at the price of waiting on and listening to God. In order to ensure this takes place, the annual agenda will include a half day of prayer during the annual retreat. Slide 32 Addressing Conflicts Between Policy and Ministry Beliefs or Values Potential conflicts between national law and Biblical values, particularly International missions where laws of the country may conflict with values of the organization (see prior example: unlawful in the United States or Canada, or unlawful in any other country, except insofar that specific Biblical authority is to the contrary; e.g., Acts 5:29. Slide 33 Induction of New Board Members [WC] New board members attend the meeting prior to their officially taking office as observers. At the end of that meeting, there is a short induction ceremony in which they formally make a commitment to serve, believing that God has called them to this ministry. They make this pledge, which is then followed by the whole board making a commitment to support them, and praying together with them. Slide 34 What does Success Look Like? Using Avant Metrics as an Example of the Development of Results or Ends Metrics Slide 35 The challenge for Management in any ministry is measuring the apparently subjective The Development of Results/Ends Metrics and their Display Slide 36 Recall: As part of the Ends, the Board of Avant had further interpreted five characteristics that must be present in a cross-culturally healthy church : 1.2.1 Unsaved people are brought to Christ 1.2.2 Believers are discipled toward maturity 1.2.3 No longer being dependent on the mission or missionaries 1.2.4 There is inter-dependence & partnering with other churches 1.2.5 Missionaries are sent out cross-culturally Slide 37 1.2 Churches will be Biblically healthy, defined as or when: 1.2.1 Unsaved people are brought to Christ 1.2.2 Believers are discipled toward maturity 1.2.3 No longer being dependent on the mission or missionaries 1.2.3.1 Self-governing 1.2.3.2 Self-supporting 1.2.3.3 Self-propagating 1.2.4 There is inter-dependence & partnering with other churches 1.2.5 Missionaries are sent out cross-culturally Avant International Board Policy Manual - Ends Policies Slide 38 Avant management developed a measurement process to assess those components, identifying 13 underlying Biblically irreducible metrics. Developed a standardized survey instrument for on-location missionaries and local church leaders Scoring cascaded up to a synthesized score for a given local church - both for the 13 irreducibles and the final five ends elements. They then created radar charts from those scores as the graph of choice for presenting the data. (Radar charts are good for presenting entity characteristics, but little else. Entities can be then compared by pattern.) Slide 39 Example - Ends Metrics - Avant (A fairly young church) Slide 40 Slide 41 (A mature church) Slide 42 Slide 43 The patterns are very revealing (the advantage of the radar chart) and churches can be compared and good questions asked - leading to increasing strategic understanding and guiding strategy going forward. Test yourself on the following churches. What further questions would you ask and want answered? Slide 44 60 years old 6 Months old Slide 45 Maturing (Using the 13 measures) New Struggling 10 y/o church (re leadership) Time to move on Seeing patterns in the radar charts for the 13 indicators Slide 46 Belize Association Over 3 Years Slide 47 Time for praise A Mature Church in Belgium Mature Standard Slide 48 From the endeavor to develop metrics to provide ends monitoring data, Management is learning about the stages of church development, what methods works, what churches are delayed or stagnant in development, and in what areas, how missionary leadership affects church development, and much more. Field Council leadership minutes reflect an increasing focus on strategic issues. Management comments: Slide 49 We thank the Board for going to Policy Governance and that it compels monitoring. It is transformational. The development of metrics has had a tremendous focusing effectit drives self examination, both by missionaries and the indigenous church leadersLeadership, both missionary and indigenous church, is compelled to think strategically We know for the first time where to focus. Slide 50 The radar scale is grade A Christian School Slide 51 First Grade Academic Performance Compared to Association Averages Slide 52 2004-05 Academic Performance by Grade - Reading Sometimes a pattern can be seen with a line added Slide 53 Other Issues More Likely to Occur with International Ministry Organizations Multinational governance structural issues and complexity - can become complex & self-referential Members (self-referential governance) vs. independent board HR - special vigilance required with foreign located mission schools (molestation, etc.) Special vigilance re: foreign located single women Accountability across oceans: Financial, Operational and use of resources. Sustaining virtue - the importance of independent monitoring (we sometimes trust too much) Slide 54 Board Education Examples from Wycliffe Corporate reading (board assignments) and discussion Cultural orientation Spiritual retreats Task force preparing in depth materials on key issues (e.g., priority- setting criteria for Ends, theology of risk) Understanding the nature of the wider context in which organization operates (joint meeting with leaders of Wycliffe Global Alliance) Board member field trips to areas where partners work Slide 55 Board Education Examples from Avant, use of experts Dr. David Garrison on Church Planting Movements Jean Cunningham on value stream cost accounting (author on lean accounting) (to address the issue of At what cost?) Dr. Keith Small on reaching Muslims An expert on mergers - their dangers & analysis Studies in wisdom from Proverbs Board retreats. Slide 56 Board Succession Planning Avant - (multi-national; each national board is responsible, but agree on criteria) Wycliffe experience Work in progress Identify Best Fit criteria for potential board members Nominating Committee process Slide 57 PG as a Platform to Enable Mission Growing pains Danger of becoming mired in mechanics Keeping things in perspective not doing the model, but using the model to enable governing well so that mission is set and achieved Optimizing the balance between mechanics and mission Slide 58 Making the Most of Board Time Examples from WC Meet only twice a year face-to-face [cost of bringing people together from international locations] One video conference call More committees than usual importance of including entire board in key discussions so that they are not rubber-stamping committee work most committee work via email and conference call/Skype Board decisions on routine items by email Slide 59 Policy Governance Board Example of Time Use Slide 60 Policy Governance a Good Fit with Faith- Based Organizations Policy Governance principles are consistent with Biblical principles: Servant-leadership Accountability Empowerment with constraint Clarity of values Requires board integrity and excellence Ends consistent with a purpose outside of oneself Words count! Board is expected to keep its word (consistent with covenants) Slide 61 Contact Information Jannice Moore President, The Governance Coach [email protected] [email protected] Board Chair, Wycliffe Canada www.wycliffe.cawww.wycliffe.ca Dr. Richard Biery President, The Broadbaker Group [email protected] [email protected] Board Chair, Avant Ministries www.avantministries.orgwww.avantministries.org Jurrian van der Straaten Board Chair, Grace International School www.gisthailand.org [email protected] [email protected]