are you motivated? you don’t look motivated! clark c. barrett

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  • Slide 1
  • Are you Motivated? You Dont Look Motivated! Clark C. Barrett
  • Slide 2
  • Driven 2 Motivation Motive, impulse, incentive, inducement, spur, goad, prod Prime mover
  • Slide 3
  • Driven 3 Outline Motivation Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic Theories Non-theory Need-Motive-Value Theories Cognitive Choice Theories Thomas Model Origins The Model Taking Action Paradigm Shifts The Leadership Connection Sources
  • Slide 4
  • Driven 4 Motivation The force that drives people to behave in a way that energizes, directs, and sustains behavior Individual variability in behavior not due solely to: a) Individual differences in ability b) Environmental demands 3 major dependent variables 1. Direction of behavior 2. Intensity of action 3. Persistence of behavior
  • Slide 5
  • Driven 5 General Model of Performance Ability Situational Constraints Motivation BehaviorPerformance
  • Slide 6
  • Driven 6 Motivation Extrinsic means external to a thing, its essential nature, or its original character; applies to what is distinctly outside the thing in question or is not contained in or derived from its essential nature Motivators Reinforcers, Punishers & Incentives Like money, gold stars, treats, prizes, grades and praise OR Better jobs, promotions, salary increase, and the like Intrinsic belonging to the essential nature or constitution of a thing; originating or due to causes within a body, organ, or part Motivators Comes from doing the thing itself Desire for increased self- esteem, quality of life, responsibility, job satisfaction, and the like
  • Slide 7
  • Driven 7 Theories of Work Motivation A. Non-Theories of Motivation 1. Reinforcement Theory (Skinner et. al) Three key concepts: 1. Stimulus 2. Response 3. Reward Evaluation of Reinforcement Theory Principles of reinforcement theory do work Theory is still an incomplete picture of human motivation
  • Slide 8
  • Driven 8 Theories of Work Motivation B. Need-Motive-Value Theories Emphasize the role of personality traits and stable needs and values 1. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory 2. Alderfers ERG Theory (Not addressed) 3. Herzbergs Two Factor Theory 4. Job Characteristics Theory 5. Cognitive Evaluation Theory
  • Slide 9
  • Driven 9 Theories of Motivation 1. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory TYPE OF NEED Generic definitions PHYSIOLOGICAL Salaries and wages Safe and pleasant working conditions SECURITY Pension and health care plans. Job tenure. Emphasis on career paths within the organization PHYSIOLOGICAL Basic to survival of organism and includes food, water, rest, shelter, air, etc. SECURITY Concerned with providing a safe and secure environment, free from threats to ones existence Deficit (d-) Needs SOCIAL Work organization that permits interaction with colleagues Social and sports events. Office and factory parties and outings BELONGING Deal with the need for friendship, affection, affiliation, sometimes referred to as social needs EGO Creation of jobs with scope of achievement, autonomy, responsibility, and personal control. Work enhancing personal identity Feedback and recognition for good performance (e.g. promotions, employee of the month awards) ESTEEM Concerned with the desire of people to have a stable, high evaluation of themselves and to have respect from other people SELF-ACTUALIZING Encouragement of complete employee commitment Job a major expressive dimension of employees life SELF-ACTUALIZATION Refers to the desire to achieve self-fulfillment, to develop ones potential to the fullest, to become everything that one is capable of becoming, and to achieve fulfillment of one's life goals TYPE OF NEED Workplace examples EXTRINSICINTRINSIC
  • Slide 10
  • Driven 10 Theories of Motivation 3. Herzbergs Two Factor Theory Hygiene Factors vs. Motivator Factors EXTRINSICINTRINSIC Dissatisfaction No Dissatisfaction No Satisfaction Satisfaction Hygiene Factors Motivator Factors Zero Level Overlap
  • Slide 11
  • Driven 11 Theories of Motivation 4. Job Characteristics Theory (Hackman & Oldham, 1976) Five core job dimensions Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Task feedback Motivational Potential Score (MPS)
  • Slide 12
  • Driven 12 Theories of Motivation 4. Job Characteristics Theory (cont.) (Hackman & Oldham, 1976) 3 critical psychological states Experienced meaningfulness of the work Experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work Knowledge of actual results of the work This theory replaced Herzbergs theory for organizational settings. Focuses on task outcomes only, does not account for activity-related awards. Knowledge of results and experienced responsibility are only rewarding when results are positive.
  • Slide 13
  • Driven 13 Theories of Motivation 5. Cognitive Evaluation Theory (Deci, 1971) Motivation is a function of the desire to fulfill higher order needs Need for competence Need for self-determination Use of extrinsic rewards only satisfies lower order needs Intrinsic motivation undermined by organizations focus on extrinsic rewards (?) External events have controlling aspect and information aspect Deci presents the importance of autonomy and authenticity Focuses on task activities, (i.e. choice), but not task purposes (i.e. meaningfulness)
  • Slide 14
  • Driven 14 The Overjustification Effect Individuals offered extrinsic rewards for continued performance of an interesting task show decreases in intrinsic motivation Perceived decrease in self-determination Rewards seen as controlling Goals shift from learning/mastery to gains in terms of rewards Persistence only lasts until extrinsic motivator is gained Extrinsic motivators may not always exist Extrinsic motivators may not inoculate against feelings of discouragement May begin seeking out easy goals Other controlling factors: Task deadlines Limited choice Contingent rewards Negative feedback Evaluation by others Competition
  • Slide 15
  • Driven 15 Punished By Rewards Kohn explains that rewards fail for five reasons: 1. Rewards punish 2. Rewards rupture relationships 3. Rewards ignore reasons 4. Rewards discourage risk-taking 5. Rewards destroy intrinsic motivation for the things we do Fundamentally Kohn; and many other advocates against extrinsic motivators, view the use of rewards (or punishments) as Do this and youll get that!
  • Slide 16
  • Driven 16 Punished By Rewards Kohn suggests six methods to reduce the impact of rewards: 1. Get rewards out of people faces. 2. Offer rewards [only] after the fact as a surprise. 3. Never turn the quest for rewards into a contest. 4. Make rewards as similar as possible to the task. 5. Give people as much choice as possible re: use of rewards. 6. Try to immunize individuals against the motivation-killing effects of awards. KOHNS FACTORS TO BUILD INTRINSIC MOTIVATION Collaboration requires that the members of the group or classroom rally around the true concept of working together for the success of the group. Content requires that the task, job, or learning experience cover a fulfilling and rewarding role. (this might be called Meaningfulness) People must be afforded the maximum amount of Choice in what and how they perform their tasks or work. This facilitates buy-in and participation.
  • Slide 17
  • Driven 17 Meta-analytic Reviews A. Cameron & Pierce (1994) Found no evidence of harmful effects of rewards on intrinsic motivation Remember Deci? B. Cameron & Eisenberger (1996) Found that rewards may enhance intrinsic motivation C. Eisenberger, Pierce & Cameron (1999) Found no support for negative impact of rewards on feelings of self-determination.
  • Slide 18
  • Driven 18 Theories of Motivation B. Cognitive Choice Theories 1. Equity Theory (Adams, 1965) This theory is based on the principle of social comparison Equity considerations Input/output ratio for self and others 2 types of inequity 1. Underpayment 2. Overpayment Inequity = Tension
  • Slide 19
  • Driven 19 Theories of Motivation 2. Expectancy Theory (Vroom, 1964) A cognitive theory that assumes that all people are completely rational decision makers People expend effort on activities that will lead to desired outcomes or rewards 5 major components to the theory Job outcomes Valence (V) Instrumentality (I) Expectancy (E) Force (F)
  • Slide 20
  • Driven 20 Theories of Work Motivation VIE Model F = E ( VI) Example: Increasing job performance Assume that there are two valued outcomes associated with increased job performance Pay increase 8.3.80 Promotion 6.4 OutcomeVIE F = E ( VI) F = (.80) [(8 x.3) + (6 x.4)] F = 3.84
  • Slide 21
  • Driven 21 Intrinsic Motivation Is that how you get motivated? With a calculator in hand? With purely rational thinking? Most of these models fail in one way or another.
  • Slide 22
  • Driven 22 Theories of Motivation C. Self-Regulation Theories 1. Goal-setting Theory (Locke & Latham, 1991) A persons actions and motivation are governed by goals that the person is trying to attain Goals serve as a motivational basis for task performance in that: 1. They motivate people to exert effort in line with the demands of their goal 2. They lead individuals to persist in their activities until they reach their goal 3. They direct attention to relevant behaviors or outcomes
  • Slide 23