are you motivated? you don’t look motivated!

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Are you Motivated? You Don’t Look Motivated!. Clark C. Barrett. Motivation. Motive, impulse, incentive, inducement, spur, goad, prod Prime mover. Outline. Motivation Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic Theories Non-theory Need-Motive-Value Theories Cognitive Choice Theories Thomas’ Model - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Are you Motivated?You Dont Look Motivated!Clark C. Barrett

  • MotivationMotive, impulse, incentive, inducement, spur, goad, prod

    Prime mover

  • OutlineMotivationExtrinsic vs. IntrinsicTheoriesNon-theoryNeed-Motive-Value TheoriesCognitive Choice TheoriesThomas ModelOriginsThe ModelTaking ActionParadigm ShiftsThe Leadership ConnectionSources

  • MotivationThe force that drives people to behave in a way that energizes, directs, and sustains behaviorIndividual variability in behavior not due solely to:a) Individual differences in abilityb) Environmental demands

    3 major dependent variables 1. Direction of behavior 2. Intensity of action 3. Persistence of behavior

  • General Model of Performance

    AbilitySituational ConstraintsMotivationBehaviorPerformance

  • MotivationExtrinsicmeans external to a thing, its essential nature, or its original character; applies to what is distinctly outside the thing in question or is not contained in or derived from its essential natureMotivatorsReinforcers, Punishers & IncentivesLike money, gold stars, treats, prizes, grades and praiseORBetter jobs, promotions, salary increase, and the like

    Intrinsicbelonging to the essential nature or constitution of a thing; originating or due to causes within a body, organ, or part

    Motivators Comes from doing the thing itselfDesire for increased self-esteem, quality of life, responsibility, job satisfaction, and the like

  • Theories of Work Motivation

    A. Non-Theories of Motivation1. Reinforcement Theory (Skinner et. al)

    Three key concepts: 1. Stimulus 2. Response 3. RewardEvaluation of Reinforcement TheoryPrinciples of reinforcement theory do work Theory is still an incomplete picture of human motivation

  • Theories of Work Motivation

    B. Need-Motive-Value Theories

    Emphasize the role of personality traits and stable needs and values 1. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory2. Alderfers ERG Theory (Not addressed)3. Herzbergs Two Factor Theory4. Job Characteristics Theory5. Cognitive Evaluation Theory

  • Theories of Motivation

    1. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory TYPE OF NEEDGeneric definitionsSELF-ACTUALIZING Encouragement of complete employee commitment Job a major expressive dimension of employees lifeSELF-ACTUALIZATIONRefers to the desire to achieve self-fulfillment, to develop ones potential to the fullest, to become everything that one is capable of becoming, and to achieve fulfillment of one's life goalsTYPE OF NEEDWorkplace examplesEXTRINSICINTRINSIC

  • Theories of Motivation

    3. Herzbergs Two Factor TheoryHygiene Factors vs. Motivator Factors EXTRINSICINTRINSIC

  • Theories of Motivation

    4. Job Characteristics Theory (Hackman & Oldham, 1976)

    Five core job dimensions Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Task feedback

    Motivational Potential Score (MPS)

  • Theories of Motivation

    4. Job Characteristics Theory (cont.)(Hackman & Oldham, 1976)

    3 critical psychological states Experienced meaningfulness of the work Experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work Knowledge of actual results of the work

    This theory replaced Herzbergs theory for organizational settings.Focuses on task outcomes only, does not account for activity-related awards. Knowledge of results and experiencedresponsibility are only rewarding when results are positive.

  • Theories of Motivation

    5. Cognitive Evaluation Theory (Deci, 1971)

    Motivation is a function of the desire to fulfill higher order needs Need for competence Need for self-determination

    Use of extrinsic rewards only satisfies lower order needsIntrinsic motivation undermined by organizations focus on extrinsic rewards (?)External events have controlling aspect and information aspectDeci presents the importance of autonomy and authenticityFocuses on task activities, (i.e. choice), but not task purposes (i.e. meaningfulness)

  • The Overjustification Effect

    Individuals offered extrinsic rewards for continued performance of an interesting task show decreases in intrinsic motivation Perceived decrease in self-determination Rewards seen as controlling Goals shift from learning/mastery to gains in terms of rewards Persistence only lasts until extrinsic motivator is gained Extrinsic motivators may not always exist Extrinsic motivators may not inoculate against feelings of discouragement May begin seeking out easy goalsOther controlling factors: Task deadlines Limited choice Contingent rewards Negative feedback Evaluation by others Competition

  • Punished By RewardsKohn explains that rewards fail for five reasons: 1. Rewards punish 2. Rewards rupture relationships 3. Rewards ignore reasons 4. Rewards discourage risk-taking 5. Rewards destroy intrinsic motivation for the things we do

    Fundamentally Kohn; and many other advocates against extrinsic motivators, view the use of rewards (or punishments) as Do this and youll get that!

  • Punished By RewardsKohn suggests six methods to reduce the impact of rewards: 1. Get rewards out of people faces. 2. Offer rewards [only] after the fact as a surprise. 3. Never turn the quest for rewards into a contest. 4. Make rewards as similar as possible to the task. 5. Give people as much choice as possible re: use of rewards. 6. Try to immunize individuals against the motivation-killing effects of awards. KOHNS FACTORS TO BUILD INTRINSIC MOTIVATION

    Collaboration requires that the members of the group or classroom rally around the true concept of working together for the success of the group.

    Content requires that the task, job, or learning experience cover a fulfilling and rewarding role. (this might be called Meaningfulness)

    People must be afforded the maximum amount of Choice in what and how they perform their tasks or work. This facilitates buy-in and participation.

  • Meta-analytic Reviews

    A. Cameron & Pierce (1994) Found no evidence of harmful effects of rewards on intrinsic motivationRemember Deci?B. Cameron & Eisenberger (1996) Found that rewards may enhance intrinsic motivationC. Eisenberger, Pierce & Cameron (1999) Found no support for negative impact of rewards on feelings of self-determination.

  • Theories of Motivation

    B. Cognitive Choice Theories 1. Equity Theory (Adams, 1965)

    This theory is based on the principle of social comparison

    Equity considerations Input/output ratio for self and others

    2 types of inequity 1. Underpayment 2. Overpayment

    Inequity = Tension

  • Theories of Motivation

    2. Expectancy Theory (Vroom, 1964)

    A cognitive theory that assumes that all people are completely rational decision makersPeople expend effort on activities that will lead to desired outcomes or rewards5 major components to the theory Job outcomes Valence (V) Instrumentality (I) Expectancy (E) Force (F)

  • Theories of Work Motivation

    VIE ModelF = E ( VI)

    Example: Increasing job performanceAssume that there are two valued outcomes associated with increased job performanceF = E ( VI)F = (.80) [(8 x .3) + (6 x .4)]F = 3.84

  • Intrinsic MotivationIs that how you get motivated?

    With a calculator in hand? With purely rational thinking?

    Most of these models fail in one way or another.

  • Theories of Motivation

    C. Self-Regulation Theories1. Goal-setting Theory(Locke & Latham, 1991)A persons actions and motivation are governed by goals that the person is trying to attainGoals serve as a motivational basis for task performance in that: 1. They motivate people to exert effort in line with the demands of their goal 2. They lead individuals to persist in their activities until they reach their goal 3. They direct attention to relevant behaviors or outcomes

  • Theories of Motivation

    1. The Goal Setting Theory Effect (cont.)Specific, difficult goals lead to higher performance levels than vague, easy, or do-your-best goalsDifficult, specific goals: 1. Lead to more effort expenditure 2. Lead to higher levels of persistence 3. Direct attention better 4. Require higher performance for the individual to be satisfied 5. Are typically associated with valued outcomes

  • Theories of Motivation

    2. General model of self-regulation (Bandura, 1986; Carver & Scheier, 1981)Three major activities in self-regulation:A. Self-observationB. Self-evaluation Goal-performance discrepancies (GPD)Positive GPD = performance > goal(meet or exceed goal)Negative GPD = performance < goal (fail to meet goal)

    C. Self-reaction Self-dissatisfaction Goal abandonment or revision

  • Thomas ModelBuilds on these previous theories of Intrinsic Motivation

  • Thomas Model

    Intrinsic Task RewardsTASK-RELATEDRewardsPSYCHOLOGICALRewards(Intrinsic to Person)INTRINSICNONTASKREWARDS(Psychological Rewards From Membership - Power, Affiliation, Pride in Organization)INTRINSICTASKREWARDS(Psychological Rewards From Task)

    EXTRINSICTASKREWARDS(Task Rewardsfrom Others: Pay,Recognition)intrinsic motivation involves psychological rewards that individuals derive directly from a task

  • Intrinsic Motivation

    Interpretive Model of EmpowermentACCOMPLISHMENTRewardsOPPORTUNITYRewardsFrom TaskACTIVITIESFrom TaskPURPOSE

  • Intrinsic Motivation

    Interpretive Model of Empowerment

    Choice is the opportunity you feel to select task activities that make sense to you and perform them in ways that seem appropriate. The feeling o