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    FM 3-19.4(Formerly FM 19-4)

    MILITARY POLICE LEADERSHANDBOOK

    HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

    DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release;

    distr ibution is un limit ed.

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    *FM 3-19.4Change 1 C1Field Manual Headquarters

    No. 3-19.4 Department of the Army

    Washington, DC, 2 August 2002

    Military PoliceLeaders' Handbook

    1. Change FM 3-19.4, 4 March 2002 as follows:

    Remove Old Pages Insert New Pages

    G-7 through G-12 G-7 through G-12

    G-15 G-15

    2. A bar ( ) marks new or changed material.

    3. File this transmittal in front of the publication.

    DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release;

    distribution is unlimited.

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    FM 3-19.4

    C1

    2 AUGUST 2002

    By Order of the Secretary of the Army:

    ERIC K. SHINSEKI

    General, United States ArmyChief of Staff

    Official:

    JOEL B. HUDSON

    Administrative Assistant to theSecretary of the Army

    0216902

    DISTRIBUTION:

    Active Army, Army National Guard, and US Army Reserve: To

    be distributed in accordance with the initial distribution

    number 111047, requirements for FM 3-19.4

    This publication is available on the

    General Dennis J. Reimer Training

    And Doctrine Digital Library at

    www.adtdl.army.mil

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    FM 3-19.4 (FM 19-4)

    F ield Ma nua l H ea dq ua r t er s

    No. 3-19.4 D epa r t m en t of t he Ar m y

    Wa shington, D C, 4 March 2002

    Military Police Leaders

    HandbookContents

    Page

    PREFACE ................................................................ vii

    Chapter 1 MILITARY POLICE OVERVIEW ........................... 1-1

    Introduction ............................................................ 1-1

    Military Police Functional Areas ............................. 1-2

    Threat..................................................................... 1-6

    Military Police Platoon Organization

    and Leadership................................................ 1-7

    Force Protection (FP) Measures .......................... 1-12Military Police Platoon Mission,

    Capabilities, and Limitations.......................... 1-13

    Peacetime Training .............................................. 1-15

    Chapter 2 BATTLE COMMAND ............................................. 2-1

    Overview ................................................................ 2-1Military Decision-Making Process (MDMP)............ 2-2

    Troop-Leading Procedures .................................. 2-11

    Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release; distribution is

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    FM 3-19.4

    Page

    Orders and Reports .............................................. 2-20

    Rules of Engagement and Rules of

    Interaction (ROI)............................................. 2-21Situational Awareness .......................................... 2-22

    Command Post Operations .................................. 2-26

    Chapter 3 SHOOT, MOVE, AND COMMUNICATE ................ 3-1

    Shoot ...................................................................... 3-1

    Move ..................................................................... 3-40

    Communicate........................................................ 3-58

    Chapter 4 COMBAT OPERATIONS ....................................... 4-1

    Prepare for Combat ................................................ 4-1

    Construct Fighting and Survivability Positions...... 4-24

    Defend a Site ........................................................ 4-41

    Patrols................................................................... 4-46Clearing Techniques............................................. 4-52

    Chapter 5 MANEUVER AND MOBILITY SUPPORT .............. 5-1

    Maneuver Support .................................................. 5-1

    Mobility Support .................................................... 5-19

    Chapter 6 AREA SECURITY .................................................. 6-1

    Reconnaissance Operations................................... 6-1Area Damage Control ........................................... 6-14

    Base Defense ....................................................... 6-17Air Base Defense .................................................. 6-21

    Enemy Delay ........................................................ 6-49

    Battle Handover to a Tactical Combat Force........ 6-56

    Critical Site, Asset, and High-Risk

    Personnel Security ......................................... 6-64

    Chapter 7 INTERNMENT AND RESETTLEMENT.................. 7-1

    Overview................................................................. 7-1Enemy Prisoners of War and Civilian Internee 7-2

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    FM 3-19.4

    Page

    United States Military Prisoner

    Handling (Field Detention Facilities) .............. 7-21

    Populace and Resource Control (PRC) ............... 7-25Dislocated Civilian Resettlement.......................... 7-27

    Evacuation Operations ......................................... 7-29

    Chapter 8 LAW AND ORDER ................................................ 8-1

    Overview ................................................................ 8-1

    Law and Order Augmentation Detachment ............ 8-3

    Company and Platoon Level Law and

    Order Operations ............................................. 8-6United States Customs Support ........................... 8-14Multinational Law and Order Operations.............. 8-17

    Chapter 9 POLICE INTELLIGENCE OPERATIONS.............. 9-1

    Overview ................................................................ 9-1

    Police Information Assessment

    Process ............................................................ 9-2

    Police Information................................................... 9-3Responsibilities ...................................................... 9-7

    Appendix A METRIC CONVERSION CHART........................... A-1

    Appendix B MEDIA RELATIONS .............................................. B-1

    Overview ................................................................ B-1

    Media Interaction.................................................... B-1

    Appendix C TRAINING EXECUTION MODEL .......................... C-1

    Overview ................................................................ C-1

    Task Identification .................................................. C-1

    Appendix D ORDERS AND REPORTS ..................................... D-1

    Orders .................................................................... D-1

    Reports................................................................... D-4

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    FM 3-19.4

    Page

    Appendix E PRECOMBAT INSPECTIONS .............................. E-1

    Modified Precombat Inspection Checklist .............. E-1

    Precombat Inspection Checklist ............................ E-3

    Appendix F FRATRICIDE AVOIDANCE.................................... F-1

    Fratricide................................................................. F-1

    Fratricide Effects ..................................................... F-2

    Fratricide Causes.................................................... F-2

    Fratricide Risk Assessment .................................... F-3

    Preventive Measures .............................................. F-5Friendly Fire Incidents ............................................ F-7

    Leader Responsibilities........................................... F-9

    Appendix G MK19 QUALIFICATION TABLES......................... G-1

    Primary Gunner, MK19 Qualification and

    Zero/Practice Tables ....................................... G-1

    Assistant Gunner, MK19 Firing Table, Mounted.. G-10

    MK19 Scorecard .................................................. G-15

    Appendix H COUNTERMINE OPERATIONS ........................... H-1

    Overview................................................................ H-1

    Detect .................................................................... H-2

    Report .................................................................... H-6

    Mark....................................................................... H-6

    Appendix I ROUTE CLASSIFICATION AND SIGNINGSYSTEM .................................................................. I-1

    Overview.................................................................. I-1Route Classification Formula ................................... I-2

    Calculations ........................................................... I-15

    Temporary Route Signing ...................................... I-23

    Main Supply Route Signs ...................................... I-37

    Portable Sign-Making Kit ....................................... I-41

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    FM 3-19.4

    Page

    Appendix J NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL, CHEMICALDEFENSE .............................................................. J-1

    Overview ................................................................ J-1Hazard Detection and Reporting ............................ J-2

    Contamination Marking .......................................... J-4Radiological Contamination Detection

    and Monitoring ............................................... J-11

    Chemical Agent Detection.................................... J-14

    Biological Agent Detection ................................... J-16

    Self-Defense Measures........................................ J-17

    Military Police Leaders' Responsibilities............... J-22Mission-Oriented Protection

    Posture Levels, Alarms, and Signals ............. J-23

    Biological Defense................................................ J-24

    Nuclear Attack Defense........................................ J-26

    Chemical Attack Defense ..................................... J-29

    Symptoms and Treatment of Casualties .............. J-30

    Unmasking Procedures ........................................ J-31

    Appendix K CIVIL-DISTURBANCE MEASURES ..................... K-1

    Overview ................................................................ K-1

    Civil Disturbances on Department of

    Defense Installations Outside the

    Continental United States ................................ K-2

    Crowd Behavior...................................................... K-3Crowd Tactics......................................................... K-4

    Company Level Operations.................................... K-7Nonlethal Munitions................................................ K-9

    Appendix L WEAPONS AND EQUIPMENT.............................. L-1

    Friendly Vehicles .................................................... L-1

    Friendly Weapons .................................................. L-4

    Friendly Nonlethal Equipment and Munitions......... L-6

    Friendly Communication, Single-Channel,Ground-to-Air Radio System (SINCGARS).... L-24

    Threat Weapons and Equipment L 25

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    FM 3-19.4

    Page

    GLOSSARY .............................................. Glossary-1

    INDEX .............................................................. Index-1

    BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................. Bibliography-1

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    Preface

    Thi s f i el d m a nu a l (F M ) a d d r e s s e s mi l it a r y p ol ice (M P ) ma ne u v e r

    a n d m o b il it y s u p p or t (M M S ), a r e a s e cu r i t y (AS ), i n t e r n m e n t a n d

    r e s e t t l e me nt (I /R ), l a w a nd or d e r (L &O ), a n d p o li ce i nt e l l ig e n c e

    op e r a t i on s (P I O ) a c r o s s t h e f u l l s p e ct r u m o f A r m y o pe r a t i on s .

    Although this manual includes a discussion of corps and division MP

    elements, it primarily focuses on the principles of platoon operations

    a nd t he t a ctics, t echn iques, a nd procedures (TTP ) t he plat oon uses

    to accomplish its mission.Th i s F M p r o v i d e s t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s a n d o r g a n i z a t i on o f t h e M P ,

    d emo ns t r a t e s t h e f lex ib ili t y a nd d i v er s i t y o f MP i n a d a p t i ng t o a n y

    m i s s i on t h r ou g h o u t t h e f u l l s p ect r u m of A r m y op er a t i o n s , a n d

    ch a r a ct e r i z e s t h e M P a s a com b a t -f or c e m u l t i p li er . Ad d i t i on a l ly ,

    t h i s m a n u a l i d e n t i f ie s t h e f a ct t h a t t h e Ar m y w i l l n ot co n d u c t

    opera t ions a lone a nd defines t he role of th e MP in support of joint ,

    multina tiona l , a nd intera gency operat ions.

    The MP TTP a re orga nized by t he MP funct ions of MMS , AS , I/R,

    L O , a nd P I O w i t h s u p p or t i ng t a s k s , bot h i nd iv i du a l a nd c ol le ct i v e,

    to help illustra te t he functions.

    NOTE: United States (US) policy regarding the use andemployment of antipersonnel land mines (APLs) outlined inthis FM is subject to the convention on certain conventionalweapons and executive orders (EOs). Current US policy

    limits the use of non-self-destructing APL s to (1) defendingthe US and its allies from armed aggression across theKorean demilitarized zone and (2) training personnelengaged in demining and countermine operations. The useof the M18A1 claymore in the command-detonation mode isnot restricted under international law or EO.

    A p p en d i x A complies wit h current Army directives w hich sta t e tha t

    t h e m e t r i c s y s t e m w i l l b e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a l l n e w p u b l i c a t i o n s .Appendix B dea ls w ith media relat ions.

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    FM 3-19.4

    Th e p r op on e n t of t h i s p u b li ca t i o n i s H e a d q u a r t e r s (H Q ) U n i t e d

    S t a t e s Ar m y Tr a i n in g a n d D oct r i n e C o m m a n d (TR AD O C ). S e n d

    comm e nt s a nd r e comme nd a t i ons o n D e pa r t me nt of t h e Ar my (D A)

    F o r m 2 02 8 d i r e c t l y t o C o m m a n d a n t , U S Ar m y M i l i t a r y P ol i ceS chool, ATTN: ATS J -MP -TD , 401 MANS C E N Loop, S uit e 2060, F ort

    Leon a r d Wood, Miss ouri 65473-8926.

    U n l e s s t h i s p u b li ca t i o n s t a t e s ot h e r w i s e, m a s cu l in e n o u n s a n d

    pronouns do not refer exclusively to men.

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    Chapter 1

    Military Police Overview

    T h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t h o w

    M P a r e or g a n i z e d , e q u i p p ed , a n d t r a i n e d t o

    p r o v i d e c om b a t s u p p o r t (C S ) a c r o s s t h e f u l l

    spectrum of Army operations.

    INTRODUCTION

    1 -1 . As a f l e x i b l e e co no my -o f -f o r c e o r g a n i z a t i on , M P

    provide a wide range of diverse support because of their

    a g i l i t y a n d v e r s a t i l i t y t o a d a p t t o a n y m i s s i o n o r

    e nv ir onm e nt . As a comb a t mu l t i p li er , t he y s u p p or t t h e

    m a n e u v er com m a n d e r t h r o u g h t h e f iv e M P f u n ct i on s .

    MP cont ribute t o t he comm a nders overa ll comba t pow erb y i n t e g r a t i n g e f for t s w i t h t h o se of ot h e r com b a t , C S ,

    a nd comba t service support (CS S ) elements.

    1-2. I n a d d i t i o n t o s i n g l e-s e r v i ce op er a t i o n s , M P a l s o

    support joint , multinational , and interagency activi t ies.

    M P s u p p o r t a i r b a s e d e f e ns e i n c o nc e r t w i t h A i r F o r c e

    S e c u r i t y F o r c e s , o p e r a t e j oi n t a n d m u l t i n a t i o n a l

    c h e c k p oi n t s , c on d u c t c om b i n e d p o li c e p a t r o l s , a n d

    e xch a n g e p ol ice i n f or m a t i on a n d cr i m i n a l i n t e ll ig e n cew i t h t h e ho s t n a t i on (H N ), mi l it a r y , a nd ci v il ia n p o li ce

    agencies.

    1-3. MP ha ve the ca pabilit y t o expedite t he movement of

    com b a t r e s ou r c es , p r o v id e c r i t i ca l a s s e t s e cu r i t y a n d

    p r o t e c t i on, c on d u c t I /R , c ont r i b u t e t o f or c e p r o t e ct i on

    e f f o r t s t h r o u g h L &O o p e r a t i o n s , a n d g a t h e r a n d

    dissemina te police inform a tion a nd int elligence.

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    FM 3-19.4

    MILITARY POLICE FUNCTIONAL AREAS

    1 -4 . Wi t h t h e o l d b a t t l e f i e l d m i s s i o n s , t h e t e r m

    "operations" was used extensively and carried too broad

    of a m ean ing. To cla rify th e specific ta sks of th e MP , the

    b a t t l e f i el d m i s s i on s h a v e b e en r e d e f in e d i n t o t h e

    follow ing five functiona l a rea s:

    MMS

    AS

    I /R

    L &O

    P I O

    1-5. E a ch o f t h e se M P f u n ct i on s h a v e t a s k a r e a s a n d

    t a s ks t ha t s u pp or t t he m. M P f u nct i ons a r e t he b r oa d es t

    a r e a s f or w h i ch t a s k s a r e p la ce d . S o m e of t h e s e t a s k s

    w i ll r e q u ir e g r ou p in g s t h a t m i g h t n ot b e r ela t e d t o t h e

    e n t i r e f u n c t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , t a s k a r e a s w e r e c r e a t e d t o

    group specific tasks. Specific tasks consist of two types

    c o l l e c t i v e a n d i n d i v i d u a l . I n d i v i d u a l t a s k s a r e f u r t h e rd i vi d ed i n t o le a d e r a n d s ol d ie r t a s k s (F i gu r e 1 -1 ). The

    collective and individua l ta sks tha t support th e MP ta sk

    a reas a re found in th e MP mission t ra ining plan s (MTP )

    and MP soldiers manuals (SMs).

    1-6. MP procedures a re t he lowest level of det a i l . They

    e x p la i n t h e " h o w t o " a t t h e t a s k l e v e l. P r o ce d u r e s

    i n c l u d e t h e s t a n d i n g m e t h o d s u s e d b y a u n i t t o

    a c co m p l i s h t a s k s , w e a p o n a n d e q u i p m e n t o p er a t i n gs t e p s , cr e w d r i l ls , a n d s t a f f a ct i on a n d coor d i n a t i on .

    They a re th e building blocks of individua l a nd collect ive

    t a s k a c com p l is h m e n t a n d s e r v e a s t h e f ou n d a t i on of

    t a ct i cs a nd t e chni q u e s . P r oce d u r es a r e e xp la i ned i n t h e

    unit standing operating procedures (SOPs), MTPs, SMs,

    and similar publications.

    MANEUVER AND MOBILITY SUPPORT

    1 7 The MMS fu nction involves th e mea sur es necessa ry

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    FM 3-19.4

    movement of friendly r esources in a ll environment s. MP

    con d u c t M M S t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e com m a n d e r s r e ce iv e

    p er s o n n e l , eq u i pm e n t , a n d s u p p li es w h e n a n d w h e r e

    t h e y a r e n e e d e d . Th e t a s k a r e a s t h a t s u p p o r t t h e

    function of MMS include

    M P s uppor t f or r iv er cr os sin g s, br ea ch in g , a n d

    passage-of-line operations.

    St r a g g ler a nd d is loca t e d ci vi li a n cont r o l.

    R ou t e r e conna i ss a nce a nd s u r v ei ll a nce.

    Ma in supply r out e (MS R ) r egu la tion

    enforcement.

    1-8. Th e s e cu r i t y a n d v i a b i l it y o f t h e o pe r a t i on a l a n d

    ta ct ica l l ines of comm unica tions (LOC ) w ill be critica l t o

    con t i n u ou s s u s t a i n m e n t a n d r e cov er y op er a t i on s . M P

    e ns u r e t ha t l og i s t i cs a nd s u p pl y op er a t i ons a r e k e pt on

    time an d a rrive a t t he right pla ce. Refer t o Chapt er 5 for

    more informa tion a bout MMS.

    AREA SECURITY

    1-9. The AS fun ction consist s of those secur ity mea sur es

    Figure 1-1. Relationship Between MP Functions and Tasks

    MP functions

    Task areas

    Tasks

    IndividualCollective

    Leader Soldier

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    FM 3-19.4

    f le xi b il it y t o c on d u c t op er a t i o n s . Th e t a s k a r e a s t h a t

    support AS include

    R econ n a is sa n ce oper a t i on s .

    Ar ea d a m a g e con t r ol (AD C ). B a s e a n d a i r ba s e d efen se.

    R es pons e f or ce a nd t a ct i ca l comb a t f or ce (TC F )

    operations.

    C r it ica l sit e, a s set , a n d h ig h-r isk per son n el

    security.

    F or ce p r ot e ct i on a nd p hy s ica l s ecu r it y .

    An t it er r or is m.

    1 -1 0. M P p e r f or m i n g AS c on t r i b u t e t o s e cu r i n g a n d

    prot ect ing t he force an d preserving comba t pow er. Refer

    t o Chapter 6 for m ore inform a tion a bout AS .

    INTERNMENT AND RESETTL EMENT

    1 -1 1. Th e I /R f u n c t i o n c on s i s t s o f t h o s e m e a s u r e s

    necessary to provide shelter, sustain, guard, protect, andaccount for people (enemy prisoners of war [EPWs] and

    c iv i l i a n i n t e r n e e s [C I s ], U S m i l i t a r y p r i s o n e r s , a n d

    disloca t ed civilia ns [D C ]). The t a sk a rea s t ha t support I/R

    include

    E P W a n d C I h a ndlin g.

    P op ul a ce a nd r e sou r ce cont r ol .

    U S m i lit a r y pr i son er con f in em en t .

    D C s con t rol.

    1-12. The i nt e r na t i ona l comm u ni t y , me d i a , a nd p u b li c

    perceptions ha ve increa sed sensit ivi ty to t he protection

    of huma n r ights a nd t he need for a bsolute a ccount a bil ity

    of interned, detained personnel, and refugees in military

    op er a t i o n s . R e f er t o C h a p t e r 7 f o r m o r e i n f or m a t i on

    a bout I /R.

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    FM 3-19.4

    LAW AND ORDER

    1-13. Task areas and tasks that minimize the effects of

    a cr i m i n a l t h r e a t on f r i en d l y f or c es s u p p or t t h e L &O

    function. MP conduct L&O t o remove th e conditions a ndop por t u n i t i es t h a t p r om o t e c r im e , t h e r e by p r ev e n t i n g

    diversion of mili ta ry resources a nd m a inta ining m ili ta ry

    discipline. The task areas include

    L a w en for cem en t .

    C r im in a l in v es t ig a t i on s .

    U S cu st om s oper a t i on s .

    R ela t ed L &O t r a i n in g.

    1-14. Whether patrolling an installations housing area,

    conducting count erdrug opera tions, enha ncing securi ty ,

    o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g w a r c r i m e s , M P L & O c a p a b i l i t i e s a r e

    i n v a l u a b l e t o t h e c om m a n d e r . R e fe r t o C h a p t e r 8 for

    more inform a t ion a bout L&O.

    POLICE INTELLI GENCE OPERATIONS

    1 -1 5 . Th e P I O f u n c t i o n s u p p o r t s , e n h a n c e s , a n d

    con t r i b u t e s t o t h e com m a n d e r s p r o t e ct i on p r og r a m ,

    s i t u a t i o n a l a w a r e n e s s , a n d b a t t l e f i e l d v i s u a l i z a t i o n b y

    p o r t r a y i n g r e l e v a n t t h r e a t i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t m a y a f f e c t

    t h e op e r a t i on a l a n d t a c t i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t . Th e t a s k

    areas that support PIO include

    I nt e l lig ence p r ep a r a t i on of t he b a t t l ef ie ld (I P B ).

    Act i ve a n d pa s s iv e r oles . P olice a s s es s ment pr oce ss .

    1-16. Whet her in support of peacetim e inst a lla t ion L &O

    or d e t e ct i n g t h r e a t f or c es i n t h e b a t t l e s p a c e, t h e M P

    f o r c e e m p l o y m e n t p r o v i d e s t h e c om m a n d e r w i t h

    s u b s t a n t i a l i n f o r m a t i on a n d a n i n t e l li g e n c e s o u r c e ,

    pa r t i cu la r ly w h e r e t h e cr i m in a l e le m en t i s t h e s a m e a s

    or closely a ligned w ith t he opposing forces (OP FOR) a ndg ov e r n m e n t . R e fe r t o C h a p t e r 9 f o r m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n

    b t P I O

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    FM 3-19.4

    THREAT

    1-17. Today, friendly forces encounter a broad range of

    t r a d i t i on a l a n d n o n t r a d i t i on a l t h r e a t s . N o s i n g l e

    d om i n a t i n g t h r e a t w i ll b e t h e u n d i s pu t e d f ocu s o f U S

    security policy. Although overt attacks on the US and its

    s t r a t e g i c i n t e r e s t s m a y b e l e s s c om m o n , s t a b i l i t y

    op er a t i ons a nd s u p por t op er a t i o ns w i ll l ik el y i nc r e a s e .

    E conomic development a nd demogra phics, a s w ell as t he

    p r o g r e s s i on of s o ci a l a n d c u l t u r a l m o v e m e n t s , w i l l

    encompa ss a n a rra y of thr eat forces including nonna tion

    f or c es (e t h n i c con f l i ct s a n d t e r r o r i s t a c t i v it i e s ) w h i c h

    ch a l le n g e t r a d i t ion a l n a t i on a n d s t a t e e n v ir on m e n t s .

    A d d i t i o na l l y , na t i o n a nd s t a t e f o r c e s ( i nt e r na l s e c u r i t y

    forces a nd infan tr y-ba sed a nd a rmor-mecha nized-ba sed

    a rm ies) cont inue t o present a globa l t hr eat . These forces

    p o s s e s s v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f m i l i t a r y a n d a d v a n c e d

    technology capabilities.

    1 -18 . I n r e c en t m i l i t a r y o pe r a t i on s , a n o n t r a d i t i on a l

    c r i m i n a l t h r e a t h a s e m e r g e d . Th e e v o lv i n g c r i m i n a lt h r e a t ope r a t es m o st of t en i n t h e r e a r a r e a , n e a r p or t s ,

    in built-up a reas, a nd w here troop popula t ions a re high.

    Th i s t h r e a t i s m o s t l i k el y t o b e d e t e ct e d a t b or d e r

    crossings t rying to disrupt th e reloca t ion effort s of DC s.

    Th e y m a y c om m i t c r i m e s a g a i n s t p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c

    g r o u ps or b e a t ch e ck p oi n t s a n d r o a d b l ock s t r y i n g t o

    p o s i t i o n w e a p o n s , e x p l o s i v e s , o r p e r s o n n e l i n

    s u s t a i n m e n t a r e a s i n o r d e r t o d i s r u p t m i l i t a r yoperations or kill friendly forces. Such a threat requires

    commanders to minimize its negative impact on friendly

    f o r c e s , r e s o u r c e s , a nd o p e r a t i o ns . T he M P c o nt i nu e t o

    respond to nonmili tary threats including famine, health

    e pi d emi cs , i l le g a l i mmi g r a t i on, i ll eg a l d r u g t r a f f ic, a nd

    population dislocation.

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    MILITARY POLICE PLATOON ORGANIZATIONAND LEADERSHIP

    1-1 9. Th e r e a r e t w o ba s i c M P p la t o on o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,

    corps a nd division. Corps MP pla t oons a re orga nized an d

    equipped ba sica l ly th e sa me. E a ch division MP pla toon

    s u p p o r t i ng a d i f f e r e nt k i nd o f d i v i s i o n ( s u c h a s he a v y ,

    l i g h t , a i r b o r n e , o r a i r a s s a u l t ) i s d e s i g n e d u n d e r a

    different table(s) of organization and equipment (TOE).

    CORPS MIL ITARY POLI CE

    1 - 2 0 . D e p e nd i ng o n t he na t u r e o f t he o p e r a t i o n, c o r p sM P a r e u s u a l l y a m o n g t h e f i r s t f or c e s d e p loy e d t o

    s u p p or t m i l i t a r y op e r a t i on s a r o u n d t h e w o r l d . Th e y

    d e p l oy e a r l y t o a r e a s d e v a s t a t e d b y n a t u r a l o r m a n -

    m a d e d i s a s t e r s t o a s s i s t d i s a s t e r r e l i ef a n d d a m a g e

    a s s e s s m e n t e f f or t s . Th e y p r o v i d e s e c u r i t y a n d f o r ce

    p r o t e ct i o n t o f r i e n d l y f o r c e s , c r i t i ca l f a c il i t i e s , a n d

    resources a s unit s orga nize for mil ita ry opera tions. In a

    d e v e l op i n g t h e a t e r , c or p s M P co n ce n t r a t e m i s s i onsupport to the ma in effort . U nits w hose assista nce to the

    main effort is vital normally receive the highest priority

    for protection. Key facilities, such as traffic choke points,

    c r i t i c a l t u n n e l s a n d b r i d g e s , a n d a m m u n i t i o n a n d f u e l

    s t o r a g e poi n t s m a y r e q u i r e s pe ci a l p r ot e ct i on . As t h e

    t he a t e r m a t u r e s , t h e f ocu s ma y q u i ck ly c ha ng e t o ot h e r

    f u n ct i on s a s M P a d ju s t p r ior i t i es t o a c com m o d a t e t h e

    change.

    DIVISION MILITARY POLICE

    1 - 2 1 . D i v i s i o n M P a r e o r g a n i z e d s o m e w h a t d i f f e r e n t

    d e p e nd i ng o n t he t y p e o f d i v i s i o n t he y a r e s u p p o r t i ng .

    F o r e x a m p l e , a h e a v y d i v i s i o n h a s o n e M P p l a t o on

    providing direct support (DS ) to ea ch ma neuver brigade

    a nd t w o MP p la t o ons p r ov id i ng g e ner a l s u p por t (G S) t o

    t h e d i v i s i o n s r e a r . B o t h a i r b o r n e a n d a i r a s s a u l t

    d i v i s i o ns ha v e f o u r M P p l a t o o ns p r o v i d i ng G S A l i g ht

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    1-22. In hea vy divisions, w here high ly mobile forces a re

    designed to m ove q uickly over open ground, t he overa l l

    ne e d f o r M M S i s s i g ni f i c a nt . D i v i s i o n M P a r e l i k e l y t o

    focus on expediting t he forw a rd m ovement of t he critica lcom b a t r e s ou r c es i n t o t h e d i v is i on a r e a . H ow e v er , t h e

    p r i or i t y cou l d c h a n g e q u i ck l y t o r e m ov i n g E P Ws f r o m

    forw a rd a reas to freeing m a neuver forces from gua rding

    and caring for captives.

    1-23. I n a i r b or n e a n d a i r a s s a u l t d i v is i on s , p r i or i t y of

    M P s u p p or t i s m o s t of t e n n e e d ed f or E P W op er a t i o n s

    a nd t hen for MMS t o speed th e movement of CS vehicles

    w it h i n t h e a i r h ea d .

    1 -2 4 . F o r M P s u p p o r t i n g a n y d i v i s i o n , c e r t a i n

    e m p l o y m e n t c on s i d e r a t i o n s r e m a i n c on s t a n t . M P

    provide dedica ted securi ty for a ssets deemed cri t ica l by

    t h e d i v i s i o n c o m m a n d e r . T h i s i n c l u d e s t h e d i v i s i o n s

    main command post (CP) where MP operate outside the

    CP perimeter condu ctin g screening missions designed t o

    detect , disrupt, a nd dela y enemy forces from disruptingthe divisions primary CP. Another consideration is MP

    accepting EPWs from capturing troops as far forward as

    possible.

    SEPARATE BRIGADES

    1 -2 5. M P s u p p or t t o a s e p a r a t e b r i g a d e i s n o r m a l l y

    p r o v id e d b y a f ou r -s q u a d M P p la t oo n . Th e p l a t o on i s

    a s s i gn ed t o t h e b r ig a d e h e a d q u a r t e r s a n d h e a d q u a r t e r scom p a n y (H H C ). Th e b r i g a d e h a s a s ep a r a t e p r o vos t

    m a r s h a l (P M ) c e l l t h a t s e r v e s a s t h e c om m a n d a n d

    control (C 2) element for t he pla toon. The briga de P M cell

    h a s o pe r a t i on a l con t r ol (O P C O N ) of a l l M P a s s et s t h e

    s a m e w a y t h e d i v is i on P M h a s O P C O N of t h e d i v is i on

    M P a s s e t s . Th e b r i g a d e H H C p r o vi d e s s u s t a i n m e n t

    s u p por t f or b o t h t h e P M c el l a n d t h e M P p la t o on . Th e

    P M a d v is es t h e s ep a r a t e b r ig a d e comma nd er o n ma t t er spert a ining t o MP opera tions. The plat oon lea der directs

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    p r i o r i t i e s s e t f o r t h b y t h e P M a n d t h e s u p p o r t e d

    commander.

    1-26. The pla toon ca n perform a ny of t he five functions.

    Th e p l a t o on l e a d e r m a y t a s k o r g a n i z e t h e s q u a d sa c cor d i n g t o m i s s i on , e n e m y , t r o op s , t e r r a i n , t i m e

    a va ilable, a nd civi lia n considera t ions (ME TT-TC ), a nd

    p r ov i d e one s q u a d t o o pe r a t e t he E P W col le ct i ng p oi nt ,

    one sq ua d t o provide a mobile secur ity screen a nd occupy

    ob s er v a t i on p os t s (O P s ) a r o u n d t h e b r i g a d e s C P , a n d

    t w o s q u a d s t o c on d u c t M M S a n d AS t h r ou g h o u t t h e

    briga des rear a rea.

    INITIAL BRIGADE COMBAT TEAMS (IBCTs)

    1-27. M P s u p por t t o a n I B C T m a y d i f fe r f r om t h a t of

    ot h e r s e p a r a t e b r i g a d e s . Th e I B C T i s a p r e con f i g u r ed ,

    r e a d y - t o - f i g ht , c o mb i ne d - a r ms p a c k a g e . I t i s d e s i g ne d

    and optimized primari ly for employment in small-scale

    contingencies operations (SSCO) in complex and urban

    terrain, confronting low-end and mid-range threats. TheI B C T p a r t i ci p a t e s i n w a r , w i t h a u g m e n t a t i o n , a s a

    s u b or d i n a t e m a n e u v er com p on e n t w i t h i n a d i v is i on or

    corps, in a variety of possible roles. It also participates in

    s t a b i li t y a n d /or s u p p or t op er a t i on s a s a n i n i t i a l en t r y

    f o r c e . C i v i l u n r e s t o r c om p l e t e t u r m o i l n o r m a l l y

    cha ra cterizes th ese environment s.

    1-28 . O r g a n i ca l ly , M P s u p p or t t o t h e I B C T i s a t w o-

    person PM planning cell. The PM planning cell is locatedw i t h t h e H H C s m a n e u v e r s u p p o r t c e l l a n d u n d e r t h e

    d i r e ct s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e b r i g a d e O p e r a t i on s a n d

    Tra ining Officer (U S Arm y) (S 3). The role of t he P M cell

    i s s i g n i f i ca n t l y d i f f er e n t f r o m t h a t of a t r a d i t i o n a l

    d i v i s i o n P M o r s e p a r a t e b r i g a d e P M . Th e m a i n

    difference is th e lack of orga nic or ha bitua l MP a ssets in

    t h e I B C T. The a b s ence of or g a ni c M P a s s et s ma k es t he

    job of th e P M m uch more crit ica l . The P M m ust U n d er s t a n d t h e or g a n iz a t i on , ca pa b ilit ies , a n d

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    C on du ct effect iv e lia i son w i t h h ig her H Q P M

    elements.

    B ecom e a n e ffect i ve pla n n e r a n d a n t icipa t or of

    MP requirements.

    Ta sk orga nize MP units effectively a nd efficient ly.

    Assum e C 2 of incomin g MP forces or, if opera t ing

    u nd e r a d i v i s i o n, r e l i nq u i s h C 2 t o a d i v is i on or

    c o r p s P M ( i f a p p r o p r i a t e f o r e f f e c t i v e

    employment of MP forces).

    1 -2 9 . D e p e n d i n g o n M E TT-TC , t h e I B C T m a y b e

    a u g me nt ed b y M P e leme nt s r a ng ing f r om a p la t o on t o a

    b a t t a l ion. O nce t he b r i g a d e r e ce iv es M P a u g me nt a t i on,

    th e P M th en becomes a sta f f plan ner a nd coordina tor for

    a l l MP a ctivi t ies.

    1-30. S ince th e IB CT is a d ivisiona l briga de, th e division

    P M a n d t h e I B C T P M p l a y a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n

    developing a n optim um MP force packa ge to support th e

    brigade commanders concept of the operation. Despiteth e briga des ea rly t ime lines, the P M must consider a nd

    p la n f or M P a u g me nt a t i on f or ce s a s e a r l y a s p os s ib le t o

    f r ee u p v a l u a b le comb a t r e s ou r ce s. S SC O t h a t r e s u lt i n

    n u m e r ou s E P Ws , C I s , a n d r e f u g e e s w i l l h a m p e r t h e

    maneuver force's freedom of movement.

    1-31. I n i t i a l ly , M P p r i or i t y of e ff or t d u r i ng t h e of f ens e

    ma y be providing MMS for ground comba t, C S , an d C SS

    f or ce s a n d t a k in g c on t r ol of E P Ws a n d C I s . D u r i n g t h ed e f e n s e , t h e p r i o r i t y o f M P s u p p o r t m a y s h i f t t o

    con d u c t i n g AS a n d cou n t e r r e con n a i s s a n ce a l on g t h e

    L O C , C 2 c en t e r s , a n d C S S b a s e s . M P m a y a l s o b e

    required to conduct response force operations or become

    par t of the TC F.

    1 -3 2. D u r i n g s t a b i l i t y a n d s u p p o r t o pe r a t i on s , M P

    support ma y include

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    Or der r es t or a t ion .

    C r ow d con t r ol.

    AS or f or ce p r ot e ct i on.

    D C oper a t ion s.

    N oncomb a t a nt -e va cu a t i on op er a t i ons .

    PLATOON LEADER

    1 -3 3. Th e M P p l a t o on l e a d e r i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e

    compa ny comm a nder for t he pla toon's comba t rea diness,

    t r a i n i n g , a n d d i s ci p li n e a n d t h e m a i n t e n a n c e of i t s

    e q u i p m e n t . To b e s u cce s s f u l, t h e p l a t oon l ea d e r m u s td em on s t r a t e a n a b il it y t o le a d s ol dier s a n d m a n a g e a n

    or g a n iz a t ion , m a t e r ia l , a n d t i m e. H e m u s t b e a b le t o

    art iculate the capabil i t ies and l imitat ions of the platoon

    to va rious non-MP sta ff sections. In comba t, th e pla t oon

    lea der is r esponsible for a ccomplishing a l l th e m issions

    a s s i g n e d t o t h e p la t oon a ccor d i n g t o t h e c om m a n d e r s

    intent and preserving the platoons fighting capability.

    PLATOON SERGEANT (PSG)

    1-34. The P S G lea ds element s of the pla toon a s directed

    b y t h e p l a t o on l e a d e r a n d a s s u m e s c om m a n d o f t h e

    platoon in the absence of the platoon leader. He directs

    th e da y-to-da y a ctivi t ies of the pla toon a nd ensures t ha t

    t h e p l a t o on h a s i n d i v i d u a l a n d t e a m t r a i n i n g a n d

    l og i s t i cs n e e d e d t o a c co m p li s h i t s m i s s i o n . D u r i n g

    t a c t i c a l o p e r a t i o n s , h e m a y a s s i s t i n t h e c o n t r o l o f t h eplatoon.

    TEAM AND SQUAD LEADER

    1-3 5. Th e M P t e a m l ea d e r i s r e s p on s i b le t o t h e s q u a d

    l e a d e r f o r i n d i v i d u a l a n d t e a m t r a i n i n g a n d t e a m

    discipline. H e is responsible for t he ta ctica l employm ent

    a n d co n t r o l o f t h e t e a m a n d t h e m a i n t e n a n c e a n dop er a t i on of a l l v eh i cl es a n d e q u i pm e n t or g a n i c t o t h e

    t D i b t t i t i t h i

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    report s t o his superiors, a nd t a kes a ppropria te a ct ion to

    p r ot e ct t h e t e a m a ccor d i n g t o t h e r u l es o f en g a g e m en t

    (R O E ). A s q u a d l e a d e r h a s t h e s a m e r e s p on s i b il it y f or

    t he s q u a d a s t he t e a m l ea d er ha s for t he t e a m.

    FORCE PROTECTION (FP) MEASURES

    1 -3 6. M P l e a d e r s a t a l l l e v e l s m u s t e x a m i n e F P

    r eq u i r eme nt s a nd i nt e gr a t e F P me a s u r es t h r ou g hou t a l l

    the operations. Once higher HQ has established local FP

    p ol i ci e s , l e a d e r s s e t t h e e x a m p l e b y c om p l y i n g w i t h

    t h e m. L e a d e r s r e d u ce t he s o ld i er s ex pos u r e t o ha z a r d sby strictly enforcing all the protective postures that may

    include

    Tr a v elin g w it h a t lea s t t w o v eh icles a r m e d w i t h

    a t l ea s t o ne a u t oma t i c w e a p on.

    H a r d en in g of t h e v eh icles .

    Wea r i n g K ev la r a n d b od y a r m or .

    Not driving off th e roa d or cross-count ry.

    P l a cin g off-post fa cilit ies off lim it s d ur in g

    nondut y h ours.

    1 -3 7. M P l e a d e r s a n a l y z e a n d c om p e n s a t e f o r o t h e r

    t h r e a t s s u c h a s d i s e a s e , w e a t h e r , c r i m e , c o m p l a c e n c y ,

    terrorism, morale, safety, and other considerations.

    1-38. At t h e op er a t i ona l l ev e l, t e a m a nd s q u a d l ea d e r s

    es t a b li sh a s a f et y z on e a r o u n d t h e ir t ea m s . Th e s a f e t y

    z o n e i s t h e i m m e d i a t e a r e a a r o u n d t h e t e a m w h e r e

    t h r e a t f or ce s or e v e n t s c ou l d h a r m t h e t e a m or i n fl ict

    c a s u a l t i e s . I n o p e n t e r r a i n, t he s a f e t y z o ne ma y e x t e nd

    ou t t o t h e m a x i m u m e f fe ct i v e r a n g e o f t h e t e a m 's

    o r g a n i c -w e a p o n s y s t e m s . H o w e v e r , w h e n s e a r c h i n g

    vehicles at a checkpoint or conducting crowd control, the

    sa fety zone ma y only be an a rm's lengt h from t he team .

    1-39. Te a m a n d s q u a d l ea d er s r e m a i n a l er t t o t h r e a t st h a t e n t e r t h e t e a m ' s s a f e t y z o n e . T h e y m u s t q u i c k l y

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    a ct i on w i t hi n t h e R O E t o r e d u ce t he t h r e a t or mo v e t he

    t e a m .

    1-40. When r equired t o opera t e in crow ds, ma inta in eye

    con t a ct w i t h t e a m m e m ber s . E s t a b li sh a n d m a i n t a i n as a f e d i st a n c e b et w e en t h e t e a m a n d t h e cr ow d . N ev er

    a l low the t eam to become sepa ra ted or surrounded.

    1-41 . Wh e n p a t r o l li n g i n b u i l t -u p a r e a s , t h e g u n n e r

    sca ns t he upper f loors of th e buildings a nd th e str eets to

    t h e v eh i cl e's f r on t , r e a r , a n d f la n k s a n d i m m ed i a t e ly

    reports any suspicious activity. The driver concentrates

    on the area directly in front of the vehicle looking for anyunexploded mun itions, scat tera ble mines, or oth er road

    h a z a r d s . Al l t e a m m e m be r s s h ou ld s t a y a w a k e, a le r t ,

    a nd r e a d y t o r ea ct t o d a ng er .

    MILITARY POLICE PLATOON MISSION,CAPABILITIE S, AND L IMITATIONS

    1 -4 2. Th e p l a t o on h a s o n e c r i t i c a l w a r t i m e m i s s i o nw h i c h i s t o p r o v i d e M P C S t o a n a s s i g n e d a r e a of

    opera t ions (AO). MP C S consist s of a ll five MP functions.

    T he p l a t o o n p e r f o r ms i t s mi s s i o ns p r i ma r i l y mo u nt e d ,

    taking ful l advantage of the high mobil i ty multipurpose

    w heeled vehicle's (H MMWV's) versa til i ty a nd t he a dded

    p r o t e c t i o n a nd f i r e p o w e r o f t he a r mo r s e c u r i t y v e hi c l e

    (ASV).

    CAPABILITIES

    1-4 3. Th e M P p l a t oo n i s c a p a b l e of o p er a t i n g d a y o r

    n i g h t , i n v a r i o u s t e r r a i n c on d i t i o n s , a n d u n d e r a l l

    w e a t h e r a n d v i s i b i l i t y c on d i t i o n s . Th e i r m o d e o f

    op er a t i o n i s p os s i b le t h r ou g h t h e d e p loy m e n t a n d

    e m p l o y m e n t o f t h e t h r e e - p e r s o n t e a m t h r o u g h o u t t h e

    b a t t l e fi el d . H o w e v er , i t i s d ep end e nt on i t s p a r e nt u ni t

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    FM 3-19.4

    for sustainment support. The platoon has self-protection

    ca pa bili t ies such a s nuclear , biologica l , chemica l (NB C)

    d e t e ct i on e q u i p m e n t a n d a P l a t o on E a r l y -Wa r n i n gSystem (PEWS). The platoons radio transmission range

    i s i n c r e a s e d w i t h a n O E -2 5 4 a n t e n n a . B e c a u s e o f

    extensive police training and law enforcement missions,

    t h e M P a r e h i g h l y s k i ll ed i n t h e u s e o f f or c e a n d t h e

    e m p l o y m e n t o f l e t h a l a n d n o n l e t h a l t e c h n o l og i e s ,

    i nf o r ma t i o n- c o l l e c t i ng a nd d i s s e mi na t i o n, o b s e r v a t i o n

    a nd sur veilla nce, a nd crow d cont rol. The MP pla toon h a s

    a t r e m e n d o u s c om b a t a n d n o n c om b a t i n f o r m a t i on -c ol l e ct i n g c a p a b i l i t y . Th i s c a p a b i l i t y i s t h e r e s u l t o f

    ex t e n s i ve a r e a , z o n e, a n d r o u t e r e con n a i s s a n ce ; d a i ly

    cont a ct w ith loca l na t iona ls; condu cting combined police

    p a t r o l s w i t h H N m i l i t a r y a n d c i v i l i a n p o l i c e a g e n c i e s ;

    a n d c on d u c t i n g f i e l d i n t e r v i e w s . An M P p l a t o on i s

    c a p a b l e o f c ov e r i n g 50 0 s q u a r e k i l om e t e r s i n r o l l i n g

    t e r r a i n ; h o w e v e r , m o r e s e v e r e t e r r a i n s u c h a s

    mount a ins, ME TT-TC , a nd mission object ives w ill a ffectt h i s c a p a b i li t y . F o r e x a m p l e , co n s i d er on e m ob i le M P

    t e a m p e r 1 0 k i l om e t e r s o f r o u t e c o v e r a g e . F o r a r e a

    coverage, begin w ith a n estima te of one mobile MP tea m

    per 55 squ a re kilometers.

    1 -4 4 . U n l i k e m o s t c o m b a t a r m s p l a t o o n s , w h i c h

    m a n e u v er t o g et h e r i n f or m a t i on , t h e M P p la t o on m os t

    often operates independently and dispersed over a large

    a r e a . T h e p l a t o o n c o n d u c t s c o m b a t o p e r a t i o n s , w h e n

    r e q u i r e d , t h r ou g h t h e e m p loy m e n t of m ob il e com b a t

    s y s t e m s co n t a i n i n g t h r e e -m a n t e a m s op e r a t i n g

    i n d e pe n d e n t l y or i n c on c er t , a n d h a v i n g v e h i cl e cr e w -

    s er v e d a n d i n d iv id u a l w ea p on s ca p a b l e of d e fe a t i n g a

    L e v e l I I t h r e a t a n d d e f e n d i n g a p o s i t i o n a g a i n s t

    dismounted threats .

    1-45. B a sed on ME TT-TC, th e pla toon lea der m a y ta skorganize the platoon for certain missions. Normally, MP

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    are employed as squads; however, individual teams may

    ex ecu t e ma ny M P t a s k s.

    LIMITATIONS1 -4 6. D u r i n g c om b a t o p er a t i on s , t h e p l a t o on i s n o t

    or g a n i z ed a n d e q u i pp ed t o f i g h t f or e xt e n d e d p er i od s

    u n l e s s i t i s a u g m e n t e d w i t h i n d i r e ct f ir e or cl os e a i r

    s u pp or t (C AS ). Al t h ou g h t h e M P t e a m i s a l et h a l a n d

    highly m obile pla t form, i t is n ot str uctur ed or equipped

    f o r p r o l o ng e d a u t o no mo u s mi s s i o ns . L e a d e r s mu s t u s e

    th e MP tea m a s a t a sk orga nizat iona l building block an d

    avoid over tasking based solely on the number of teamsa v a i la b le . The p l a t oon ha s l i mit e d a nt i a r mo r c a p a b il it y

    a nd n orm a lly uses a nt iar mor w ea pons for self-protection

    a nd t o br e a k c ont a ct .

    PEACETIME TRAINING

    1-4 7. M P u n i t s t r a i n a s t h e y w i l l f i g h t . P e a ce t i m e

    t r a i n i n g m u s t r e p l i ca t e b a t t l e f i el d c on d i t i o n s a n dcon f or m t o Ar m y d o ct r i n e. L e a d e r s a n d s o ld i er s m u s t

    u n d e r s t a n d s t a n d a r d i z ed d oct r i n a l p r in c ip le s f ou n d i n

    applicable manuals to ensure that training is conducted

    t o s t a n d a r d . Th e f ol low i n g m a n u a l s pr ov id e t h e b a s i c

    founda tion for Army t ra ining:

    F Ms.

    Tra ining circulars (TC s).

    MTP s.

    D r ill b ooks .

    S Ms.

    Ar m y r eg u la t i on s (AR s )

    1-48. FM 25-100, F M 2 5 - 1 0 1 , a n d TC 25-10 provide MP

    leaders with established training doctrine and assist the

    lea ders in th e development a nd execut ion of t he tr a ining

    progra ms. These ma nua ls int roduce the concept of la ne

    t r a i n i n g a n d d e f i n e i t a s a t e ch n i q u e f o r t r a i n i n g

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    s o l d i e r , l e a d e r , a n d c ol l e ct i v e t a s k s u s i n g s p e c i f i c

    t e r r a i n.

    1-49. L a n e t r a i n i n g u s e s m u l t i e ch e l on t e c h n i q u e s t o

    maximize the efficient use of l imited terrain and controlc on d i t i o n s f or f or m a l or i n f o r m a l e v a l u a t i on s . L a n e

    t r a i n i n g i s e x t e r n a l l y s u p p o r t e d , r e s o u r c e d , a n d

    evaluated. I t enables similar units to simultaneously or

    s e q u en t i a l ly t r a i n o n m i ss i on -r e la t e d s ce n a r i os . L a n e

    t r a i n i n g i s r e s o u r c e i n t e n s i v e , s o c o m m a n d e r s m u s t

    m a x im i z e it s b e n ef it . C o m m a n d e r s n a r r ow t h e focu s

    a nd s e le ct onl y t h e mo s t cr i t i ca l mi s s i on-e s s ent i a l t a s k

    l i s t s (M E TL s ) i t e m s or c ol l ect i v e t a s k s f or t r a i n i n g .L a n e t r a i n i n g i s e s p e ci a l l y v a l u a b l e f o r c on d u c t i n g

    s p e ci f i c M E TL t a s k s , s i t u a t i on a l t r a i n i n g e x e r c i s es

    (S TXs), a nd oth er t ra ining event s. I t is of ten a ssociat ed

    w i t h t r a i n i n g r e q u i r i n g m o v e m e n t ov e r t e r r a i n ; f or

    e xa m p l e, m ov e m e n t t o c on t a ct or con d u ct i n g a r o u t e

    r e c o n n a i s s a n c e . L a n e t r a i n i n g c a n b e m o d i f i e d t o

    a c h i e v e b e n e f i t s i n L &O s c e n a r i o s , s u c h a s s p e c i a l -

    r e a ct i on t e a m (SR T) i nci d ent s , p a t r ol i nc id e nt s , t r a f f ica ccident s, a nd so fort h.

    1-50. The la ne t ra ining d oct rine outlined in F M 2 5 - 1 0 1

    a n d T C 2 5 - 10 ca n b e t a i l or e d f or s m a l l M P u n i t s b y

    u s i n g t h e t r a i n i n g e x ecu t i on m o d e l (TE M ). Th e TE M

    f ol low s t h e Ar m y d oct r i n e a n d t r a i n i n g p h i los op h y of

    hands-on METL training as outlined by F M s 25-100a n d

    2 5 - 1 0 1 . B e f o r e t h e TE M c a n b e i m p l e m e n t e d , t h e

    c o nc e p t o f t he o p e r a t i o n mu s t b e a p p r o v e d , e v a l u a t e d ,

    a n d d i r ect e d f r om t w o le ve ls u p . F o r e xa m p le , a s q u a d

    l e a d e r m u s t r e c e i v e a p p r o v a l t h r o u g h t h e c h a i n o f

    comm a nd f r om hi s comp a ny comm a nd e r t o ex ecu t e t he

    t r a i ni ng e v e nt ; a p l a t o o n l e a d e r g e t s a p p r o v a l f r o m t he

    battal ion commander and so forth.

    1-51. The TEM incorporates the combined-arms training

    m e t h o dol og y a n d a d ju s t s i t t o m e et t h e M P t r a i n in gr e q u i r e m e n t s . Th e TE M f o cu s e s t h e u n i t on t h e t i m e

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    crit ica l collect ive a nd individua l t a sks. The TE M consists

    of a n e ig h t -s t e p t r a i n in g m e t h o d olog y t h a t i s b a s e d o n

    l e a d e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f t he l a ne e x p e r t a nd a n o b s e r v e r /

    controller (OC) as well as subordinate unit leaders. Formore inform a t ion a bout TE M refer to Appendix C.

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    Chapter 2

    Battle Command

    Th i s ch a p t e r p r o v i d e s t h e t e ch n i q u e s a n d

    procedures used by MP lea ders a t compa ny a nd

    platoon level to C 2 their organizat ions.

    OVERVIEW2 -1 . B a t t l e c o m m a n d i s t h e a r t o f b a t t l e d e c i s i o n

    m a k i n g , l e a d i n g , a n d m o t i v a t i n g s o l d i e r s a n d

    or g a n i z a t i on s i n t o a ct i on t o a c h i ev e v i ct or y w i t h t h e

    l e a s t c os t t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i on . C o m m a n d e r s m u s t

    v is u a l iz e t h e cu r r e n t a n d f u t u r e s t a t e o f b ot h f r ie n d ly

    a n d e n e m y f or c e s . Th e c om m a n d e r p o s i t i o n s h i m s e l f

    w h e r e h e c a n g u i d e a n d m o t i v a t e t h e s o ld i e r s a n dinfluence the outcome of the missions.

    2-2. The compa ny comm a nder is responsible for a ll tha t

    t h e u n i t d o es or f a i l s t o d o . H e c a n n o t d e l e g a t e t h i s

    responsibil i ty, and the f inal decision and responsibil i ty

    rest with him. He discharges his responsibil i ty through

    a n e s t a b l i s h e d c h a i n o f c om m a n d a n d h o l d s e a c h

    s u b o r d i n a t e l e a d e r r e s p on s i b l e f o r t h e a ct i o n s of t h e

    platoon or the section.

    2-3. The c omm a nd e r m u s t b e p r of i ci ent i n t he t a ct i ca l

    e mpl oy me nt of t he u ni t . H e mu s t k no w t he c a p a b i li t ie s

    a n d l i m it a t i on s o f t h e s ol d ie r s a n d t h e e q u i pm e n t . A

    co m m a n d e r d oe s t h i s t h r o u g h a c on t i n u o u s c y c le of

    p la n n i n g , ex ecu t i n g , a n d a s s es s in g t r a i n in g . Th r o u g h

    th is tra ining, th e comma nder gets t o know th e soldiers.

    2 - 4 . M P c o m m a n d e r s p r i o r i t i z e , a s s i g n m i s s i o n s , a n da l l oc a t e r e s o u r c es w h e r e t h e y ca n b e s t s u p p or t t h e

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    FM 3-19.4

    c om m a n d e r m a k e s m o s t o f t h e t a c t i c a l d e c i s i o n s .

    Te c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e s i n t o d a y s o p e r a t i o n a l

    e n v i r o n m e n t s h a v e r e d u c ed t h e t i m e a v a i l a b l e f o r

    d e ci s ion ma k i ng w hi l e inc r e a s i ng t he p os s i bi li t i es t ha tmust be considered.

    2 - 5 . T h o r o u g h a n d s o u n d o p e r a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s t h e

    k e y t o s u c c e s s f u l c o m b a t a n d C S o p e r a t i o n s .

    C om m a n d e r s m u s t i d e n t i f y t h e op p or t u n i t i e s a n d

    a nt icipa te a nd a void problems. They must a na lyze their

    o p t i o n s b e f o r e m a k i n g t h e d e c i s i o n s o n w h i c h

    s u b o r d i n a t e l e a d e r s w i l l b a s e t h e i r a c t i o n s .

    Commanders balance competing risks and then identi fya nd develop the best cour se of a ction (C OA).

    MILITARY DECISION-MAKING PROCESS(MDMP)

    2-6 . Th e M D M P i s a s i n g l e , e s t a b l is h e d , a n d p r ov e n

    a n a l y t i c a l p r o ce s s u s e d a t a l l t h e e c h e l o n s o f t h e

    c om m a n d s . Th i s i s a s e v e n -s t e p p r o ce s s u s e d w h e na d eq u a t e p la n n i n g t i m e a n d e n ou g h s t a f f su p por t a r e

    a v a i l a b l e ( T a b l e 2 - 1 ) . Th i s p r o ce s s i s a d e t a i l e d ,

    deliberate, sequential , and time-consuming process that

    helps the comma nder a nd h is sta f f exa mine a ba tt lef ield

    s i t u a t i on a n d r e a ch l og i ca l d e ci s ion s . Th e com m a n d e r

    u s e s t h e e n t i r e s t a f f d u r i n g t h e p r oce s s t o e xp lor e t h e

    f u l l r a n g e of p r ob a b l e a n d l ik e ly e n e m y a n d f r i en d l y

    C O A s a n d t o a n a l y z e a n d c o m p a r e h i s o w norganizations capabilities with the enemys.

    Table 2-1. MDMP

    Step Action Step Action

    1 Receipt of the mission 5 COA comparison

    2 Mission analysis 6 COA approval

    3 COA development 7 Orders production

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    2-7. At c om p a n y l ev e l, t h e com m a n d e r n o r m a l ly u s e s

    t he M D M P i n a t i me - c o ns t r a i ne d e nv i r o nme nt w i t ho u t

    e n ou g h s t a f f . A u n i t ca n s h o r t e n t h e p r o ce s s i f it f u ll y

    understa nds t he role of each step of th e process a nd th er e q u i r e m e n t s t o p r od u ce t h e n e ce s sa r y p r o d u ct s . Th e

    a pplica tion of the MD MP a t compa ny level a nd below is

    cal led the troop-leading procedures (TLP). F i gu r e 2 -1 ,

    p a g e 2 - 4 s h o w s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n M D M P a n d

    TLP.

    2 -8 . M P c om m a n d e r s p l a n s u c ce s s f u l op e r a t i on s b y

    a n t i c ip a t i n g p os s i b l e f u t u r e e v e n t s a n d p l a n n i n g

    con t i n g en c ie s . MP l ea d e r s e n h a n c e b ot h p l a n n i n g a n dexecut ion of the opera tions w hen t hey

    Us e t he milit a r y pla nning a nd d ecis ion-ma k ing

    process.

    Develop short- a nd long-ra nge goa ls.

    Identify goals and objectives with a recognizable

    end-state.

    C oordin at e goa ls a nd a ct ions in tern ally a n dexternally.

    B a se their pla ns on objective pla nning factors.

    Review their plans, continuously, in light of the

    METT-TC and updated information.

    Assign responsibilities a nd express expecta tions.

    I dent ify t he opt ions t ha t ma y d evelop d ur ing a n

    operation.

    Sta nd ready to accommodate the changes.

    MIL ITARY PL ANNING

    2-9. C o m m a n d e r s s e l ect a n d ca r r y ou t t h e d ev e lop ed

    C O As u s i n g m i l i t a r y p l a n n i n g . M i l i t a r y p l a n n i n g

    guidelines include

    F oreca st ing req uirement s by a na lyzing a nd

    ev a l u a t i n g f a ct s a n d t r en d s t o pr ed ict w h a t m a yoccur.

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    1. Receive and analyzethe mission.

    3. Make a tentative plan.

    4. Initiate movement.

    5. Conduct reconnaissance.

    6. Complete the plan.

    7. Issue the order.

    8. Supervise, refine, and rehearse.

    Mission analysis (METT-TC)- Mission- Enemy- Terrain (and weather)- Troops- Time available- Civilian considerations

    2. Issue the warning order(WO).

    Refinement of plan ordersproduction

    COA selection (approval)

    COA comparison

    COA analysis

    COA development

    TLP MDMP

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    Exam ining probable requirements a nd esta blishing

    priorities for furth er prepa ra tion.

    Studying implications and interrelat ionships of

    proba ble requirements. Ana ly zing t he mission t o d et er mine t a s ks , t heir

    complexity , a nd th eir rela tive import a nce.

    Esta blishing guidance for further planning tha t w ill

    h e l p k e e p a l l t h e e l e m e n t s f o cu s e d o n t h e

    comm a nders int ent.

    P reparing studies and estimates to help formulate

    the COA and assess its feasibility.

    Selecting the COA, identifying the best course, a nd

    r e t a i n i n g o t h e r f e a s i b l e c ou r s e s f o r u s e i n

    contingencies as alternate plans.

    P r epa ring t he pla n in det a il a nd conduct in g

    r e h e a r s a l s w h e n t i m e , r es ou r c es , a n d s e cu r i t y

    permit.

    2-10. Use the fol lowing mil i tary planning guidelines to

    a nsw er th e th ree key questions of opera tiona l pla nning: Wh a t m ilit a r y con dit ion m ust be pr odu ced t o

    a chieve th e goa l?

    Wha t sequence of actions is most likely to produce

    that condition?

    H ow should resources be a pplied to a ccomplish tha t

    sequence of a ctions?

    2-11. If t he pla n is not implemented immedia t ely, reta ini t f or l a t e r u s e . A s e v e n t s oc cu r o r n e w i n f o r m a t i on

    b e c o m e s a v a i l a b l e , r e v i e w a n d r e v i s e t h e p l a n

    accordingly.

    ANALYSIS, FORECASTING, AND RI SKS

    2 -1 2. C o n d u c t i n g a m i s s i o n a n a l y s i s i s c r u c i a l t o

    p la n n i n g . Th e p r oce s s b e g i n s b y g a t h e r i n g f a c t s a n d

    ascertaining current conditions, such as the

    Hi h l l i i d th d ' i t t

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    Current ta sk organizat ion (tw o levels dow n).

    Current unit st at us (loca tions, opera tion

    capabilities, and activities).

    Logistics situa tion (refer to FM 101-5for t he logist icestimate format).

    2-13. When fa cts a re not a va i la ble, the comma nder w ill

    n e e d t o d e v e l o p a s s u m p t i o n s . As s u m p t i o n s m u s t

    substitute for fact where information is not known. Keep

    i n m i n d t h a t a s t i m e p a s s e s b et w e en t h e r e ce ip t of a

    m i s s i o n a n d t h e e x e c u t i o n o f a p l a n , f a c t s a r e

    i n c r e a s i n g l y l i k e l y t o h a v e c h a n g e d . D e v e l op s o u n d

    a ssumptions t ha t ca n be used in place of facts .

    2 -14 . An a l y z i n g t h e h i g h e r -l e v e l m i s s i on a n d t h e

    com m a n d e r 's i n t e n t w il l h e lp id e n t if y w h a t t a s k s a r e

    r e q u i r e d t o a ccom p l is h t h e m i s s i on . As t h e m i s s ion i s

    a n a l y z ed , i d e n t i fy b ot h t h e specif ied a n d t h e i m p l i e d

    ta sks t o be perform ed. Specified tasksa re those sta ted in

    higher H Q orders a nd pla ns. I m p l i ed t a sk s (like crossing

    a r i v er or p a s s in g t h r o u g h t h e l in e s o f a u n i t l y in gb et w e en y ou a n d t h e ob je ct i v e ) a r e n o t s o s t a t e d , b u t

    m u s t b e a ccom p l is h e d t o s a t i s fy t h e ov e r a l l o pe r a t i on .

    F r o m a mo ng t he s p e c i f i e d a nd i mp l i e d t a s k s , e s s e nt i a l

    t a s k s t h a t a r e cr u c ia l t o t h e m i s s ion 's s u c ce ss m u s t b e

    identified.

    2-1 5. I n t e g r a l t o m i s s i on p la n n i n g i s t h e a n a l y s i s o f

    m i s s i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s i n t e r m s of t i m e , s p a c e, a n d

    p er s onne l . I f M P a r e t o b a l a nce t h e b ene f it s of d e t a i le d

    p l a n n i n g a g a i n s t t h e n e e d f o r i m m e d i a t e a c t i o n , t h e y

    m u s t

    Determine how much t ime there will be between

    receiving the mission and the deadline for having

    completed it.

    Know how long it w ill take to obtain and process

    information, make decisions, and issue orders.

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    Know how long it w ill ta ke subordina tes to execute

    the orders, complete the mission, or carry out the

    operation.

    2 -1 6. B e c a u s e e a c h u n i t i n v o l v e d i n a n o p e r a t i o np er f or m s i t s p l a n n i n g b a s e d on t h e p la n s of t h e n e xt

    higher level, a l loca tion of a dequa te t ime for subordina te

    units t o plan is a considera tion a t each level. P ublishing

    SO P s r e d u c e s t he nu mb e r o f d e t a i l s t o b e e x p l a i ne d . I t

    a l s o p r o m o t e s u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d t e a m w o r k a m o n g

    comm a nders, s ta f f, a nd t roops.

    2-17. When d oing r everse pla nn ing, consider t he cla ssical lotment of one-third t ime for planning and two-thirds

    time for execution (Table 2-2). M ov e ba ck w a r d f r om t he

    t ime of execution t o

    Alloca t e t im e t o a ccom plish ea ch ph a se of a n

    operation.

    Determine how much time is needed to rehear se.

    Determine how much time is needed for developing

    th e plan.

    2-18. Whe n u s i ng t e r r a i n a na l y s is , c ons i d e r t he l a y o u t

    Table 2-2. Reverse Planning Timetable

    Time Action

    2230 Execute the mission.

    2130-2215 Conduct inspection(s).

    1845-2130 Conduct rehearsal(s).

    1815-1845 Issue an operation order (OPORD).

    1745-1815 Complete the plan.

    1715-1745 Conduct the leaders reconnaissance.

    1630-1715 Issue a tentative plan.

    1630 Issue a WO.

    1600 Receive the mission.

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    l imitat ions of the major terrain features, transportat ion

    n e t w o r k s , a n d b u i l t -u p a r e a s . F i t t h e o pe r a t i on a l

    conce pt a nd p l a nni ng t o t h a t e nvi r onme nt . U s e t he I P B

    t o ev a lu a t e t h e a r e a in t e r m s o f t h e m i li t a r y a s pe ct s o ft h e t e r r a i n . C o n s i d er h o w t o e x pl oi t t h e op por t u n i t i e s

    a f f or d e d b y w e a t h e r w h i l e m i n i m i z i n g i t s a d v e r s e

    effects.

    2-19. U s e cu r r e nt i nfor ma t i on o n t he t hr e a t t o i d ent i fy

    k n o w n e n e m y a ct i v i t i e s a n d t h r e a t c a p a b i l it i e s t h a t

    co u l d a f f e ct t h i s a n d f u t u r e o p e r a t i on s . At t e m p t t o

    a nt icipa te t he enemy's object ives a nd int entions.

    2 -2 0 . C o n s i d e r a v a i l a b l e a s s e t s a n d d e t e r m i n e

    acceptable levels of risk. At every echelon, MP disperse

    th eir a ssets a nd prioritize opera tions to meet t he echelon

    comma nder's n eeds w ithin th e l imits of t he resources a t

    ha nd . M P l ea d e r s mu s t conce nt r a t e t he ir e f for t s on k ey

    l o c a t i o n s a n d a c c e p t r i s k s e l s e w h e r e . W h e n p o s s i b l e ,

    r e c og n i z e a n d m od e r a t e s u c h r i s k s i n t h e c h o ic e of

    op er a t i on s a n d i n t h e con t i n g e n cy p la n n i n g . Th e fi v es t e ps t o id ent i f y , a na l y z e, a nd r e d u ce r i s ks a r e l is t e d i n

    FM 100-14.

    COURSE OF ACTION IDENTIFICATION, DEVELOPMENT,AND SELECTION

    2-21. The commanders selected COA wil l become the

    a ctu a l pla n for a ccomplishing th e mission. To ensur e t he

    best plan possible, identify several possible COAs, eachs i g n i fi ca n t l y d i f fe r en t f r om t h e ot h e r s . I n i d en t i fy i n g

    C O As , d o n ot o v e r l oo k a c h e c k o f t h e " b a s i c s " t h a t

    include t he

    C omma nder s int ent .

    E ssen tia l t a sks.

    Effective use of C 2.

    P r inciples of w a r . Ethical considerat ions.

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    2-22. Consider preparing a COA statement (and sketch,

    i f a p pr o pr i a t e ) for e a c h op t i on . Th e C O A s t a t e m e n t i s

    t h e " h o w " o f t h e o p e r a t i o n . E n s u r e t h a t i t i n c l u d e s t h e

    follow ing five element s: What the type of action.

    When the time the a ction w ill begin.

    Where the assigned area.

    How the use of availa ble a ssets.

    Why the purpose of the opera tion.

    2-23 . Wh e n d e v el op in g t h e C O A, a n a l y z e t h e r e l a t i v e

    c o m b a t p o w e r . C o n s i d e r t h e i n i t i a l a r r a y o f t h e f o r c e sa n d d e v el op t h e s ch e m e s o f m a n e u v e r . D e t e r m i n e C 2

    mean s a nd ma neuver cont rol mea sures.

    2 -2 4 . B a s e d o c t r i n a l c a p a b i l i t i e s a n d p l a n n i n g o n

    h i s t o r i c a l p l a n n i n g f a c t o r s , a n d t h e n r e l o o k t h e

    es t i m a t e s i n l ig h t of t h e a v a i la b le a s s et s , t h e f a ct o r s of

    M E TT-TC , t h e e ch e l o n c om m a n d e r 's i n t e n t , a n d t h e

    m i s s i o n ' s p r i o r i t i e s . F o r e x a m p l e , w h e n p l a n n i n g

    d i s t r i b u t i o n o f mo b i l e a s s e t s f o r r o u t e c o v e r a g e , b e g i n

    w i t h a n e s t i m a t e o f o n e m o b i l e M P t e a m p e r 1 0

    kilometers. For a rea coverage, begin w ith a n estima te of

    one mobile MP tea m per 55 sq ua re kilometers.

    2 -25 . Wh e n d i s p er s i n g t h e a s s e t s i n t o s m a l l c om b a t

    elements, consider t he classic ra t ios of friendly t o enemy

    f or c e s (3 t o 1 ) t o h e lp e n s u r e t h a t t h e e le m e n t s c a n

    con c en t r a t e e n o u g h c om b a t p ow e r t o a ccom p l is h t h em i s s ion . C o n s i d er t h e s p ee d a n d e a s e o f r e a s s em b l in g

    th e elements i f dispersing t hem t o dista nt si tes.

    2 - 2 6 . A t t e mp t t o a nt i c i p a t e t he e ne my ' s l i k e l y mo v e s .

    C o ns id er w a y s t o ob s t r u c t d a ng e r ou s a p pr oa che s t o t he

    a r ea a n d a v en u es l ea d i n g a w a y f r om pot e n t i a l la n d in g

    z o n e s . P l a n w a y s t o c om b i n e t h e e f f or t s of d i f f e r e n t

    resources, l ike enhancing the combat power for the base

    response a nd count erreconn a issa nce opera tions w ith fire

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    s u p p or t f r o m f i el d a r t i l le r y or a v i a t i on . At t e m p t t o

    determine t he out come of the opera tions by

    Conserving unit strength thr ough economy of force.

    U sing terrain, weather, deception, a nd opera tionssecurity (OPS EC ) to your a dvanta ge.

    Focusing your efforts on enemy vulnera bilities.

    Ensuring unity of effort a mong subordinates and

    w ith y our peers.

    2-27. When planning for combat operations, whenever

    possible, develop a C OA t ha t a voids a n enemy 's st rengt h

    a nd str ikes a t his w eakn esses. Avoid hea d-on encount ersw i t h a n e n e m y 's f o r ce s . S e e k t o g a i n t h e e l em e n t of

    surprise. When moving, plan to use indirect approaches

    a n d f l a n k p os i t i on s t h a t d o n o t a t t r a c t i m m e d i a t e

    a t t e n t i on . P l a n f or f i r e s u pp or t t o i n cr e a s e M P com b a t

    p ow e r . P l a n t o op er a t e o n t h e en e m y 's f la n k s a n d r e a r ,

    where direct fire is most effective, psychological shock is

    t h e g r e a t es t , a n d t h e e n em y i s lea s t p r ep a r e d t o fi gh t .

    R e s p o n d t o a n d i m p l e m e n t c h a n g e s q u i c k l y a n d p l a ns u p p l e m e n t a r y o r a l t e r n a t i v e c on t r o l m e a s u r e s t o

    modify t he plan a s th e si tua tion dicta tes.

    2-28. F o r a com b a t op er a t i on , t h e C O A s t a t e m e n t a n d

    sketches include the following:

    Allocat ed forces.

    Unit bou nd a r ies.

    Axes of advance. Routes for a forw a rd or rea rw ar d pa ssage of lines.

    Air a xes for the ma neuver of a tt a ck helicopters.

    Other control mea sures w hich ma y include

    P ha s e l ine s.

    Assembly a nd holding a reas.

    Zones or sectors.

    B a tt le posit ions. Objectives.

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    2-29. As s e s s a l l of t he f e a s i b l e C O As a f t e r d e v e lop i ng

    t h e m . C o n s id e r c on s t r a i n t s a n d r e st r ict i on s on ea ch

    COA. Weigh the available COA for the AO, for the level

    of r e s p on s i b i l i t y , t h e c om m a n d e r 's i n t e n t , a n d t h emission's priori t ies. Decide on the best COA. For more

    i n f or m a t i on a b ou t t h e M D M P p r o ce s s , r e f e r t o F M

    101-5.

    2 -3 0. O n c e t h e c om m a n d e r d e c i d e s o n a C O A, h e

    a nn ounces it in t he form of orders t ha t include his intent

    a nd concept of th e opera tion. B a sed on th ese orders, th e

    p la t o on l ea d e r u s e s TL P t o or g a n i z e h i s t i m e d u r i n g

    p l a n n i n g a n d p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e m i s s i o n . Ti m em a n a g e m e n t i s t h e k e y . Th e p la t o on l ea d e r n o r m a l ly

    uses one-th ird of th e a va ila ble t ime to pla n, prepa re, an d

    i ss u e t h e or d er . Th e s q u a d le a d e r s h a v e t h e r e m a i n i n g

    t w o-t h i r d s of t h e t i m e t o p r e pa r e t h e s q u a d s f or t h e

    m i s s i on . Wh e n e v e r p os s i b le , TL P a r e i n t e g r a t e d a n d

    a ccom p l is h e d c on c u r r e n t l y r a t h e r t h a n s e q u e n t i a l ly .

    R e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n T L P a n d t h e M D M P a r e s h o w n

    in F i gur e 2-1, page 2-4.

    TROOP-LEADING PROCEDURES

    2-31. TLP begin w hen t he pla t oon lea der is a lert ed for a

    mission and starts again when he receives a change or a

    ne w mi s s i on. C ond u c t i ng TL P i s a n e ig ht -s t e p pr o ce s s

    (Tabl e 2-3, page 2-12). S teps 3 thr ough 8 ma y not fol low

    a r i g i d s e q u e n c e . S e v e r a l o f t h e s t e p s m a y b ea ccom p l is h e d con c u r r e n t l y . I n C S op er a t i o n s , p la t o on

    lea ders ra rely ha ve enough t ime t o go through each step

    i n d e t a i l. H ow e v er , t h e p r o ce d u r e m u s t b e f ol low e d , i f

    on l y i n a b b r ev ia t e d f or m . Th i s e n s u r e s t h a t n o t h i n g i s

    lef t out of the pla nning a nd t he prepa ra tion.

    2 - 3 2 . R i s k ma na g e me nt i s a n i nt e g r a l p a r t o f T L P a nd

    m u s t b e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o e v e r y a s p e c t o f m i s s i o n

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    p l a n n i n g a n d e xe cu t i on . I d e n t i f y i n g h a z a r d s a n d

    i m p l e m e n t i n g c on t r o l m e a s u r e s t o m i t i g a t e t h o s e

    h a z a r d s w i l l m i n i m i z e o p e r a t i o n a l a c c i d e n t s , t h e r e b y

    p r es er v i n g com b a t p ow e r . R i s k m a n a g e m en t i s n ot a

    s e pa r a t e p r oce s s, b u t r a t h e r i n f u s e d i n t o t h e e n t i r e

    TL P . F o r m o r e i n f or m a t i on a b ou t r i s k m a n a g e m e n t ,refer to F M 1 0 0 - 1 4 .

    RECEIVE AND ANALYZE THE MISSION

    2-33. TLP begin w hen t he pla t oon lea der is a lert ed for a

    mi s s ion a nd s t a r t a g a i n w he n he r ece iv es a cha ng e or a

    n e w m i s s i o n . Wh e n t h e p l a t o on l ea d e r r e c e iv e s t h e

    mission, he

    Ana lyzes the mission.

    Considers the operations underwa y.

    Identifies the haza rds associa ted w ith the mission,

    and considers the aspects of the current and future

    s it u a t i on s , e n v ir on m e n t , a n d k n ow n h i s t or i ca l

    problems.

    Considers the time needed to pla n a nd ca rry out the

    n e w m i s s i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , w i l l s l e e p p l a n s b eneeded to ensure tha t a ll the tea ms a re on a simila r

    Table 2-3. The Eight Steps of TLP

    Step Action

    1 Receive and analyze the mission.2 Issue a WO.

    3 Make a tentative plan.

    4 Initiate movement.

    5 Conduct a reconnaissance.

    6 Complete the plan.

    7 Issue the order.8 Supervise, refine, and rehearse.

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    P lans t he use of avai lable t ime. The most crit ical

    resource may be time, especially during daylight

    hours.

    Us es r ev er se pla nning t o ma k e a t imet a b le. Thetimetable

    Identi f ies w ha t must be done.

    Works ba ckw a rds from th e t ime th e soldiers

    h a v e t o be r e a d y , a l low i n g t h e m t i m e t o do

    ea ch t a s k .

    U ses n o m ore t ha n one-t hir d of t he t ime for

    p l a n n i n g . Th e s u b o r d i n a t e l e a d e r s n e e d t h e

    remaining t ime to ma ke prepa ra tions.

    2-34. I f t i m e i s t o o s h or t t o d o t h e r e s t of t h e t r o op -

    l e a d i ng s t e p s i n d e t a i l , a t l e a s t d o a f a s t me nt a l r e v i e w

    a n d

    Make a quick ma p reconna issance wh ile sending for

    th e subordina te lea ders, depending on t he level of

    th e mission.

    Ha ve the minimum control measures needed postedon their maps.

    G ive an abbreviated order.

    Cite enemy and friendly situat ions.

    Sta te the mission of the team, squad, or plat oon and

    t he concept of t he opera t ion.

    2-35. I f t h e r e i s n o t e n o u g h t i m e t o d o t h e s e a c t i on s ,

    ha v e t he u ni t mo ve ou t , t he n i s su e a f r a g m e nt a r y o r d er(F R A G O ) b y r a d i o o r a t t h e n e x t s c h e d u l e d h a l t .

    Continue th e pla n w hile moving.

    ISSUE A WARNING ORDER

    2-36. I s s u e a n o r a l or w r i t t e n WO t o t h e s u b or d i n a t e

    leaders as soon as possible. Give enough information for

    t h e u n i t t o b e g in p r ep a r i n g f or t h e m i s s ion . I f n e e d ed ,

    issue severa l WOs t o keep subordina tes inform ed. Refer

    t o Appendix D for more inform a tion a bout WOs

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    2-37. Th e u n i t S O P s h ou l d d et a i l w h a t a ct i on s t o t a k e

    w h e n a WO i s r e c e iv e d . S u c h a c t i o n s m a y i n c l u d e

    d r a w i n g a m m u n i t i o n , r a t i o n s , w a t e r , a n d

    c om m u n i c a t i o n s g e a r a n d c h e c k i n g v e h i c l e s a n de q u i p m e n t . K e ep a l l t h e p er s o n n e l i n f o r m e d of w h a t

    t he y a r e t o do a nd w hy t hey a r e t o d o it .

    MAKE A TENTATIVE PLAN

    2-38. D evelop th e plan ba sed on t he fa ctors of ME TT-TC

    (u s i n g t h e O P O R D f or m a t a n d t h e h i g h e r H Q o r d er ).

    The o r d er ma y b e s pe ci fi c a b ou t t he t a s k s t h e u ni t i s t o

    do. The time available may be limited and the scheme ofma neuver ma y be dicta ted. Nevert heless, the leader st i l l

    must evalua te th e m ission in t erms of ME TT-TC to see

    h o w M P e l e m e n t s c a n b e s t c a r r y o u t t h e c o m m a n d e r ' s

    order. The lea der must

    Consider ea ch fa ctor and compare the COA to form

    a base for t he pla n.

    Include concepts for reconna issance, coordina tion

    w ith a dja cent a nd/or s upport ing unit s, a nd tr oop

    movement.

    Assess the identified ha zards. Consider the impact

    of each ha za rd in t erms of potent ial loss ba sed on

    proba bility a nd severity .

    Identify control measures that will eliminate the

    ha z a r d s or mi t i g a t e t he m t o a n a cce pt a b le le vel .

    Ma ke decisions on a ccepta ble levels of risk ba sed onpotential benefits versus cost.

    Issue the plan, when firm, as an order . Appendix D

    contains the OPORD format.

    INITIATE MOVEMENT

    2-39. Inst ruct subordina te lea ders t o sta rt moving to the

    assembly area (AA). Allow subordinate leaders enough

    t i m e f or t h ei r a ct i on s i f t h e e le m en t h a s t o m ov e a n d

    reorga nize for th e mission

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    CONDUCT A RECONNAISSANCE

    2-40. E ns u r e t ha t t he t e r r a i n w he r e t he op er a t i on i s t o

    be conducted is reconnoitered. At a minimum, conduct a

    m a p r e c on n a i s s a n c e . (A m a p r e co n n a i s s a n c e i s t h eeasiest , but lea st reliable form of reconna issa nce. I t is a

    supplement to other types of reconnaissance.) Study the

    m a p f or t e r r a i n f ea t u r e s, n a t u r a l b a r r i er s , a n d o t h er

    cha r a ct e r i s t i cs . H a v e s u b or d i na t e l e a d e r s h e lp i d ent i fy

    key t erra in fea t ures. Refer to F M 2 1 - 2 6 for ma p-rea ding

    skills. Follow up w ith a visua l reconna issa nce of th e a rea

    to be used a nd t he t erra in over w hich y ou w ill opera te. A

    visua l reconn a issa nce ca n be done

    On t he ground. A ground reconnaissance is t ime

    c on s u m i n g , b u t t h e m o s t r e l i a b l e t y p e o f

    reconna issa nce. MP see terra in fea tur es up close

    a nd ca n note problems not easily seen using oth er

    reconn a issa nce meth ods.

    In the a ir. If ava ilable, a ir reconna issance ca n cover

    terrain quickly. To do an air reconnaissance, show

    the pilot a map of the terrain to be reconnoitered.

    S p eci fy t h e t y p e of i n f or m a t i on t o b e g a t h e r e d .

    H a v e on e p er s on i n t h e p la n e t r a ck t h e p a t r o l's

    route on a map. At critical points, if the aircraft can

    land, ha ve pa rt of the pat rol dismount to ma ke a

    ground reconna issance wh ile th e rest of th e pat rol

    goes back into th e a ir t o provide overw a tch security .

    If th e aircra ft ca nnot land, ma ke a visual search for

    enemy a ctivity or for t he required inform a tion.

    2-41. U s e t h e i n f or m a t i on f r o m t h e r e con n a i s s a n ce t o

    v e r i fy or t o c h a n g e t h e p l a n a n d t o m od i f y t h e r i s k -

    a s s es s m e n t p r oce s s. Ad a p t y ou r t a ct i cs t o t h e t e r r a i n

    a n d t h e a b i l i t i e s of t h e f or c e . I f t h e r e c on n a i s s a n c e

    ca n n o t b e f in i s h e d d u e t o d is t a n c e or e n em y p r es s u r e ,

    m a k e t h e p l a n f r o m w h a t h a s b e e n s e e n . G i v e

    i n s t r u c t i o n s f or l a t e r a ct i on s i n g e n e r a l t e r m s a n dc on f i r m or c h a n g e w h i l e m o v i n g ov e r t h e t e r r a i n .

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    P r ov id e a s k et c h t h a t w i ll a i d w i t h a s a n d t a b le t o h e lp

    in th e OP ORD issue, if t ime permits.

    COMPLETE THE PL AN2-42. Add deta ils or ma kes cha nges to th e tenta t ive pla n

    (a s a result of th e reconna issa nce a nd coordina tion w ith

    nea rby a nd/or support ing a gencies) a nd identify specific

    ta sks for a l