arri 90th anniversary_book

of 35/35

Post on 19-Aug-2015




3 download

Embed Size (px)


  2. 2. THE POWER TO DREAM, THE VISION TO INNOVATE Aside from simply entertaining us, motion pictures have offered us some of the most memorable images of our times. Film can reflect our culture, our history and who we are. Behind this artistry is the technology necessary to communicate these fascinating and compelling visions. Inspired by the magic of flickering images in a dark cinema, founders, August Arnold and Robert Richter were so moved by this newly invented art form as students, that they aspired to become filmmakers and later designers and manufacturers of precision engineered equipment that would revolutionize the industry. Today the ARRI Group is the worlds largest manufacturer and distributor of motion picture cameras, digital intermediate and lighting technologies. With headquarters in Munich, Germany and ARRI Group subsidiaries in USA, UK, Austria, Italy, Canada and Australia a network of over forty authorized accredited agencies offer further professional service and distribution across the globe. The ARRI Group also includes camera, lighting and grip rental companies located all over Europe, UK, USA and Australia and a worldwide network of rental partners providing productions with direct access to an extensive range of the latest high quality equipment, the experience and expertise of dedicated staff and the back-up of a renowned worldwide organisation. The ARRI Groups product development, manufacturing and distribution is accompanied by an ever growing service offering. ARRI Film & TV has made a name for itself in postproduction for domestic and international feature films, TV productions and commercials. Today, they offer a complete postproduction workflow, providing everything from lab services, to state-of-the-art image and audio post services. The close relationship between all of ARRIs businesses creates a company that is unique in the world, one that can supply everything to see a project through from script to screen. Recognizing that the imagination of the filmmaker is limitless but that tools and technology do have their limitations ARRI constantly strives to offer something better to assist the artist in creating their vision. Synonymous with providing the most innovative and highly engineered tools available, combined with heritage and experience, the last ninety years have shown significant advances in technology and ARRI has seized the challenge to continue to take those advances to the next level.2 Robert Richter and August Arnold
  3. 3. In the Beginning1916Two friends and aspiring cinematographers,This industrious pair designed and built their first film printing machine,August Arnold and Robert Richter, founded a made from old sprockets and various drive parts from an old film projectorcompany that would revolutionize the film and bought from a second-hand goods stall in a local Munich market. Arnoldtelevision industry. The collaboration began with a and Richter officially established their company in 1917 and named it ARRI,chance meeting at a grammar school where the pair after the first two letters of each of their surnames. They set up in a modestbecame firm friends based upon a passion and flairshop on Trkenstrasse in Munich, the same address continues to be in usefor all things technical. To supplement their pockettoday but on a much grander scale housing the international headquartersmoney they repaired bicycles and carried outof the organisation.installation work for a local electrical company.Their friendship flourished, as did their passion forimages on the flickering screen as it gatheredpopularity and momentum.1917It wasnt long before Arnold and Richter had their first official success withthe sale of several printers. Both had gained an extraordinary amount oftechnical knowledge and expertise by assisting filmmakers Michael Koppand Peter Ostermayer.Arnold and Richter working together on a grinding machine and lathe. 1918 In the Weiss-Blau studio at Schellingstrasse the two1915 friends learnt the secrets of existing lighting techniques.During their pre-military training they became acquainted with Martin Kopp,a cameraman working for Messter Newsreels. Captivated by this mediumof moving images the two discovered their true passion and destiny. It wasntlong before they had saved enough money to purchase their first camera, aGaumont hand crank camera. When they werent filming they spent theirfree time in a laboratory constantly pushing boundaries to discover new andexciting ways to expose film and create new effects.Saving diligently soon paid off, it wasnt too long before they made theirsecond purchase, a second-hand Urban 35mm camera. With their technicalexpertise they made various improvements while at the same time becomingrespected freelance cameramen.Robert Richter (left) and August Arnold with Jupiter lamps. 45
  4. 4. 1918 1920In September, under the direction of Fred Stanz, they achieved their first success into the foray of motionArnold and Richter worked hard and in 1920 shot their first productions The Train Robbers andpictures with the western style feature film Black Jack, shot in a valley on the outskirts of Munich.Deadly Cowboys with the help of a Path camera. As these were their own productions they earned a substantial amount of money to finance the manufacture of their second phase improvedThey continued to shoot feature films in the early years making over one hundred in total, such as westerns, design printers. An Italian film producer purchased 12 with an order for 12 more to follow.a popular genre at this time. This included The Yellow Strangler, Texas Freds Honeymoon and the thrilling It was the sale of their printers and the money they made on their film productions that allowedHigh Voltage Caution! Danger! them to finance the design and manufacture of their first film cameras and lighting products.However, they were never very far from thinking up new ideas for technical improvements on existing productsand designs for new products to manufacture.The cast of Black Jack. At the camera, August Arnold.Robert Richter on camera with Karl Dittmann shooting The Train Robbers. 6 7
  5. 5. 1924 1924ARRI began production of the first mirror facetThe first camera developed was the KINARRI 35,reflector with an electric light bulb and designed a a hand cranked 35mm camera housing 100ft ofmobile generator, fully equipped with an aircraftstandard film.engine to support it. With the development of When they werent filming they would rent theirthese pioneering technologies, combined with cameras to other cameramen for a fee for them tothe expansion of the film processing laboratory, shoot their own projects, giving birth to the idea laterthe installation of further printing machines and for equipment rental which one day would becomedeveloping rooms, the small company continued to the ARRI Rental Group.grow at an impressive rate. The next model, an improved version named the Tropen, was built with an adjustable rotary shutter.Mobile generator. 89
  6. 6. 19251937Saw the first sale success in the USA with theThe first ARRI Fresnel lampheads were introduced.exportation of a new improved printing machine.1927After expanding the printing department in 1925 with self-constructedmachines, ARRI built the first big film processing machine with friction drive.By this time the company had 20 employees.1937A landmark year came in 1937 with the designand build of the reflex mirror shutter camera,the ARRIFLEX 35. It was so groundbreaking andrevolutionary, the design principle continues to beincorporated in every modern motion picture filmcamera today. For the first time in movie-making history,a camera operator could focus through the viewfinderand see without any parallax errors. The ability toactually see through the lens empowered filmmakers tohave more control over their creative vision.1928The ARRIFLEX 35 was so enduring that afterselling almost 17,000 units, 45 years later inThe KINARRI 16 was developed and built, an amateur camera with1982 an Academy Award of Merit (Oscar statue)a hand crank, this was then followed by an advanced version with awas presented for the concept and engineering ofspring mechanism. this camera.1011
  7. 7. 19441946During World War II production was re-located to theSeventy ARRIFLEX 35II cameras were in production by 1946.old Brannenburg Castle on the River Inn and to Buch Over the years, more than 17,000 ARRIFLEX 35s were built.on Lake Ammersee. This precautionary measureproved to be a wise one as on 13th July 1944 largebomber formations dropped incendiary bombs on asection of the Munich headquarters. Within momentsthe ARRI plant had gone up in flames, all thatremained was smoking debris. Brannenburg Castle, one of ARRIs production sites duing World War II.1945After the end of the war Arnold and Richter, togetherwith members of staff, started to rebuild new premiseson the ruins of the previous structure. Reconstructionwas carried out in several phases, which tookapproximately ten years to complete. The main entrance at Trkenstrasse under construction. ARRIFLEX 35II photographed in the sixties. 1213
  8. 8. Dark Passage(1947 ) almost exclusively. Actors perform directly into the camera as 1948 Post-war reconstruction proceeded at high speed. This phase of construction Parry sets about clearing his name of the murder of his wife, accompanied by a Bogart voice-over. This and other deceits, was completed in the late fifties. such as the appearance of Parrys hands performing functions immediately in front of the lens, seek to give the impression that we in the audience are seeing precisely what the character is seeing. Only after Parry undergoes plastic surgery to alter his appearance is Bogarts face finally revealed, from which point the movie adopts a more conventional and objective filming style. Realizing that the choice of camera for point of view shots was of crucial importance, Daves acquired an ARRIFLEX 35 from the US government after discovering that several had been brought back to the USA from Germany at the close of the war. Veteran Cinematographer Sidney Hickox, who had Louisiana Story (1948) also photographed the two preceding Bogart/Bacall movies, quickly adapted to using the small and portable camera both on set and on location in San Francisco.Directed by legendary Daves thought carefully about how he would assemble the documentary filmmaker footage: I learned that we dont use our eyes the way film is edited, so instead of direct cutting I dissolved or cut on 1952Robert J. Flaherty, this feature was one of the first to use the pans. The compact design of the ARRIFLEX 35 and its reflex Property was purchased in Stephanskirchen, near Rosenheim, to house the ARRIFLEX 35II after imports intoThe third of four films starring Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall, Dark Passage was viewing system allowed for more intimate and preciselyAmerica began in 1947. factory and a foundry for the design and manufacture of ARRI lighting andreleased in late 1947. Shot partly on location in San Francisco and partly on thecomposed images, which gave a polish to the filmsPhotographed by Richard camera magazines.Warner lot in LA, this highly stylised film noir was directed by Delmer Daves, who had subjective camera-work. Leacock, it tells the fictionalrisen from prop boy to actor to writer and would become best known for directing a After Dark Passage the subjective camera technique fell fromstory of a young Cajun boystring of well received westerns over the next 20 years. favour, appearing mainly in the occasional horror or sciencefrom the bayous of Louisiana.Dark Passage is notable mainly for its use of a dramatic device that is most commonlyfiction film and only for short sequences. Most recently, Brian The lightweight camera provedreferred to as subjective camera, a technique whereby action is viewed through the De Palma brought the device back to film noir by includinguseful given the difficult terraineyes of a particular observer, rather than through the usual objective, impersonal a subjective camera scene in The Black Dahlia (2006), and Flaherty was impressedpoint of view. The film opens with Bogarts character, Vincent Parry, escaping fromthough such examples are few and far between in by the reflex viewfinder, oftenprison by concealing himself in one of several barrels on an outbound truck. Havingcontemporary cinema. Unlike the dramatic device for which operating one of twomanaged to topple the barrel from the moving vehicle and career down a hill withoutit was first utilized in Hollywood, the ARRIFLEX 35mm reflex ARRIFLEX cameras himself.injury, he stumbles into undergrowth without the audience having seen his face. Forcamera went from strength to strength and has now beenthe next 30 minutes of its running time, the film utilises the subjective camera technique used on a countless number of films.1415
  9. 9. Famous racing driver, Graham Hill,1952films a training lap with an ARRIFLEX16ST, mounted on the car.ARRI developed its largest lamphead so far, the ARRI GIGANT 20kW.1952Mid-century brought the golden age of television to the world and later stillfollowed the era of home video, these brought about changes in the use offilm cameras and therefore the requirements they had to fulfill. Thebroadening media horizon, first in the USA and then the rest of the world,led to greater demands for programmes, not only in the publicly ownednational companies but also the private media sector of cable and satellitetechnologies. This opened up new possibilities and the consequence was agrowing demand for more programmes, and therefore an increasingdemand for cameras. The popular mass medium demanded faster andcheaper production methods, taking advantage of 16mm film. In 1952 ARRIbrought the ARRIFLEX 16ST to market, the first professional 16mm filmcamera incorporating the reflex mirror shutter. At this time the 16mm formatwas used for the capture of news and sports reports, however, in futureyears for this particular segment of the industry this format was to bereplaced by video cameras. 16 17
  10. 10. Satyajit Ray1953The first blimps are developed for 16mmand 35mm cameras.1953In Munich ARRI continued to expand with thecompletion of two large studios complete withdubbing rooms and production offices, joined laterFilming began in 1952, funded by Ray himself, and would continue in fits and startsby a modern motion picture theatre. over four years as money came and went. The director was adamant that the filmshould be shot in real locations with a combination of actors and non-actors, in theThere can be few directors in the history of cinema to have true neo-realist vein.made their first feature film with as little experience and asMitra shot with an ARRIFLEX 35II, while sound was recorded with a Nagra reel-to-reelmuch success as Satyajit Ray. Now widely regarded as onetape recorder. This lightweight kit allowed for swift and versatile location shootingof the greatest Indian filmmakers of all time, Ray was firstwith a minimum of crew, which was vital to the production in terms of both resourcesexposed to the world of film production when he volunteeredand directorial help Jean Renoir scout locations for The River during theFrench directors visit to his home region of Bengal in 1949. Ray and Mitra sought to avoid a slick studio-like lighting style, so Mitra developed asystem of bounce lighting whereby lamps were aimed at cheap white sheets angledEmployed as a graphic designer at an advertising agency,at the performers in order to create a softer, more natural light. By this method, whichRay was seconded to London the following year and took thewould go on to be utilised by lighting cameramen worldwide, Mitra could simulateopportunity to watch every film he possibly could. It wasdaylight with extraordinary simplicity and effectiveness. The resulting black and whiteafter a screening of Vittorio de Sicas neo-realist masterpiececinematography was stunning and played a big part in the success of the film.Bicycle Thieves that he resolved to direct his own adaptationof the classic Bengali novel Pather Panchali, a story revolving Championed by the American Director John Huston, who saw some of Rays footagearound the family struggles of an impoverished Bengali boywhile location scouting in India for The Man Who Would Be King, the film premierednamed New Yorks Museum of Modern Art in 1955. After its subsequent release inCalcutta, Pather Panchali was entered in the 1956 Cannes Film Festival, where itOn his return to India in late 1950, Ray set about assemblingwon the special jury prize for Best Human Document.a crew; fortuitously, his chosen collaborators turned out to beextremely talented individuals. Novice Art Director Bansi The film went on to win over a dozen awards and prizes, launching Ray on his longChandra Gupta would go on to become the most respectedand distinguished directorial career. Pather Panchali became the first of three filmspractitioner of this discipline in all of India, while Production concerning the same character that are collectively known as the Apu Trilogy. MitraManager Anil Choudhury rose to the challenge of his taskserved as his cinematographer for many years and ARRIFLEX cameras were a staplewith aplomb. Perhaps most crucial to the success of Rays of their collaboration. When Rays son Sandip became a director in later years, heaesthetic vision was Subrata Mitra, a stills photographer who too chose to shoot with ARRIFLEX cameras, having assisted on his fathers setshad never before operated a motion picture camera but who throughout his life. Satyajit Ray died on April 23, 1992, just weeks after beingwas persuaded to take on the role of cinematographer. awarded an Academy Honorary Award for Lifetime Achievement.1819
  11. 11. 19571964In 1957 a new colour printing laboratory was completed and equipped ARRIFLEX cameras film sports events all over the world. A Japanese cameramanwith ARRI printing and developing machines. Twelve months later, a furtherrecords the opening of the 18th Olympic Games in Tokyo with an ARRIFLEX 16ST.large office building was nearing completion. A Taste of Honey (1961) An adaptation of Shelagh Delaneys play, this gritty social drama followed the kitchen sink trend set by John Osbornes Look Back in Anger. Directed by Tony Richardson, a prominent figure of the British New Wave, the filmCamera and assembly department, Adalbert Strasse. was photographed by Walter Lassally, who frequently1958 shot with blimped ARRIFLEX 35II series cameras on a number ofARRI builds a cinema. It was refurbished in 1985 and again in 2002, when different film stocks. This wasit was completely renovated and equipped with the latest technology. the first British feature to be filmed entirely on location;A Hard Days Night (1964) it won four BAFTA awards. Produced on a limited budget to capitalise on the Beatlemania phenomenon, Richard Lesters mad-cap mock-documentary follows the Fab Four as they prepare for a show. The ARRIFLEX 35IIB cameras allowed Cinematographer Gilbert Taylor BSC,ASC to keep up with John, Paul, George and Ringo as they dashed from screaming fans, while the reflex finder permitted handheld zoom and telephoto shots. The film is credited with inventing a plethora of music video techniques.Cinema photographed in 1985. 2021
  12. 12. Tonino Delli Colli1965 The ARRIFLEX 16BL is the first self-blimped camera and continues in the following years to become one of the most successful cameras ever. Tonino Delli Colli (left) with Pier Paolo Pasolini. Tonino Delli Colli at work on Ginger and Fred. Federico Fellini is at the camera. In 1961 he teamed for the first time with Director Pier Paolo Pasolini, on Accattone. Their collaboration, which Delli Colli rated as one of the most rewarding of his working life, would continue for the following 15 years, producing such classics as The Decameron and The Gospel According to St. Matthew. Together they consistently created different and original images, partly by using equipment not common in the Italian industry at the time, including a 35-140mm zoom and lightweight ARRIFLEX 35mm reflex cameras. Perhaps the films for which Delli Colli is best known are those directed by Sergio Leone. The cinematographer had helped and encouraged Leone when he was trying to raise interest in A Fistful of Dollars, a low-budget western that adapted the plot of Kurosawas Yojimbo. When the film was finally made it was a runaway success, as was its sequel, For a Few Dollars More. Delli Colli got involved for the last in what became known as the Dollars Trilogy, The Good, the Bad and the Ugly, in 1966. HeTonino Delli Colli with the camera on the set ofThe Good, the Bad and the Ugly, while Sergio Leone directs.photographed this film, as well as Leones next western Once Upon a Time in the West, using Techniscope, a two perforation widescreen process that had beenAfter beginning work at the Cinecitt studios in Rome when developed by Technicolor Italia. The system combined a two perforation pull-down withhe was 16, Tonino Delli Colli AIC served as an apprentice a 2.35:1 gate, resulting in two images being exposed on top of each other within thein the camera department for several years under the four perforation Academy area. Delli Colli shot with Techniscope ARRI 35II CT/Btutelage of cinematographers such as Mario Albertelli. Proud cameras, which made filming in the desert easier due to their portability. The fact thatThe Good, the Bad and the Ugly (1966) until the end of his life of the fact that he never studied they also halved film stock and development costs gave Leone the freedom to filmfilmmaking, nor read even a single book on the subject, Delli scenes many times over, which was how he preferred to work.Colli learned his craft on the job and eventually began toThe third and final western that Sergio Leone madetake the reins himself when Albertelli fell ill. Another important collaborator was Federico Fellini, with whom Delli Colli made fourabout the man with no name, a lone gunman played by films, including The Voice of the Moon and Ginger & Fred, both of which were shotClint Eastwood, The Good, the Bad and the Ugly is a After World War II, the neo-realist style of filmmaking with ARRI 35BL series cameras. Fellini had a habit of changing everything at the laststory of treasure, greed and treachery, set against an epic emerged in Italy, characterised by naturalistic black-and- minute, so the cinematographer had to draw on all of his experience and be readybackdrop of the American Civil War. Tonino Delli Colliwhite photography and location shooting. Delli Colli built for anything on set each day.AIC shot wild with ARRIFLEX 35II CT/B Techniscope his reputation as a cinematographer during this period andcameras; all dialogue was dubbed in postproduction as later spearheaded the general transition to colour byAfter winning four David di Donatello awards over the course of his long and illustrioussome actors were speaking Italian and others English, photographing the first colour Italian film, Tot a Colori, in career, Delli Collis final film was Life is Beautiful in 1997, which won internationalas was common with spaghetti westerns.1952. The emulsion he used for this film was rated at 6 ASA, acclaim. He died in 2005, the same year he was awarded the ASC Internationalnecessitating vast quantities of light for studio scenes.Achievement Award.2223
  13. 13. 1966 1970The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences presented ARRI with an Academy Award for the design andThe ARRITECHNO 35 is the only X-ray moviedevelopment of the ARRIFLEX with up to 150fps on the market. Used in the field of angiocardiography, thirteen thousand were sold worldwide. 1972A Clockwork Orange The ARRIFLEX 35BL was the first self-blimped studio silent 35mm film(1971) camera. Previously, blimped cameras were extremely cumbersome and weighed up to 80 pounds, but with the compact 35BL handheld work was possible since it only weighed 33 pounds. Some iconic films shot Stanley Kubricks adaptation of with the camera from this era included Taxi Driver, Days of Heaven,Anthony Burgess novel follows Apocalypse Now, The Shining and Reds.the adventures of socialmaladroit Alex and his droogsin a dystopian future verydifferent from that portrayedin Kubricks previous film2001: A Space Odyssey.Photographed by John Alcott BSCwith both blimped and wild Easy Rider (1969)ARRIFLEX 35IIC cameras,A Clockwork Orange wasfilmed almost entirely on Photographed by the great Laszlo Kovacs ASC, Easy Rider was shotlocation. The cameras were on an ARRIFLEX 35IIC owned by Vilmos Zsigmond ASC. Stars Peterowned by Kubrick himself, who Fonda and Dennis Hopper produced and directed respectively, asalso served as operator for the well as writing the film together with Terry Southern. Kovacs adaptedmany handheld sequences. a 1968 Chevy Impala with a flat wooden platform and used it as a camera car for the road scenes, operating the 35IIC whilst both zooming and focusing the lens himself.2425
  14. 14. Across 110th Street(1972)1972ARRI pioneers the development of daylight luminaires. The ARRISONNE 2000W, the worlds first ever daylightlamphead, was produced using Osram HQI technology, an early form of HMI discharge light. A fast action sequence is filmed with an ARRIFLEX 35BL. Said found out during principal photography that the first production model of the much anticipated ARRILFEX 35BL had just arrived in New York. Having established a long and successful relationship with ARRIFLEX over the I Spy years, Said persuaded Volker Bahnemann, at that time Vice President of the ARRI division in America, to let his Across 110th Street crew be the first to try out the 35BL, for a week. The camera immediately revolutionised what they were able to achieve on the streets of Harlem. It was self-blimped and featured a dual-compartment coaxial magazine positioned at its rear for perfectly shoulder-balanced handheld shooting. Its a real DoP Jack Priestly on the rooftops of New York. winner, affirmed cinematographer Jack Priestly at the time. Its as quiet as a church mouse and has great flexibility, especially as it weighs only 33 pounds. I dont know what When planning this gritty Harlem-based blaxploitation I would have done in a lot of spots without it, especially in those small rooms where we movie, Director Barry Shears was adamant that only by filming often had to shoot. You put it on your shoulder and walk around, bend down, sit down, in real locations could he bring a suitably raw and genuine hold it in your lap everything. I think its going to help the film industry tremendously. feel to its themes of gang warfare and bloody street violence. Hollywood colleagues warned him that New York was the One week with the 35BL proved it to be such a valuable tool that Said negotiated worst city in which to film, due to labour costs and permit keeping the camera for the last four weeks of filming. Camera Operator Sol Negrin, later nightmares, and Harlem the worst part of New York, due to to become a highly respected cinematographer, reported of the 35BL: It was used in its status at that time as the most lawless ghetto in the US. major sound sequences shot in confined quarters where it was impossible to use a large camera, but where we needed portability and quietness. We also used it on the rooftops Undeterred, Shears took on Fouad Said, an unrivalled expert of buildings in Little Italy buildings that had no elevators. The low noise level of the ARRISONNEs in action illuminating the Konigsplatz in Munich during the Olympic location shooting, as a Co-Producer. Said had cut his teeth ARRIFLEX 35BL permits shooting sound sequences in confined quarters, thus eliminating as a cameraman on the pioneering NBC TV series, I Spy, the post-dubbing of dialogue that is usually necessary under such conditions. which broke new ground for American television by mixing studio work with location footage shot all over the world; a feat A combination of Fouad Saids radical location skills and ARRIFLEXs ground-breaking made possible by abandoning the ubiquitous but unwieldy technology allowed Shears dream of a realistic backdrop for his story to be Mitchell cameras of the day in favour of the lightweightaccomplished. A staggering 95% of the movie was shot at a total of 60 different interior ARRIFLEX IIC. and exterior locations in Harlem.26 27
  15. 15. 1975 Bound for Glory (1976)The ARRIFLEX 16SR was the first professional camera with symmetricalconstruction, allowing easy operating on both sides. This offered a far widerHal Ashby originally cast Tim Buckley to star in this biopicrange as a news and documentation camera.of American folk singer Woody Guthrie, but he died before filming began and was replaced byIn 1982 its successor, the ARRIFLEX 16SR II, appeared on the market. David Carradine. Cinematographer Haskell Wexler ASC shot with an ARRIFLEX 35BL and won the Oscar for Best Cinematography at the 1977 Academy Awards for his efforts. Bound for Glory is famous for being the first feature film to make use of Garrett Browns revolutionary Steadicam.The Shining (1980)1977Based on a novel by StephenDuring these years ARRI continued to grow on a more international scale.King, Stanley Kubricks seminalIn 1977 the forming of an ARRI subsidiary in New York and Los Angeleshorror film was the last heinsured ARRIs growing presence in the Hollywood market where amade with cinematographerpermanent foothold has remained ever since. By establishing American-John Alcott BSC and his secondbased subsidiaries, ARRIs technological influence grew from the strongwith the ARRIFLEX 35BL. Therelationships established with US filmmakers.vast Overlook Hotel set atThis strategy for growth lead the way for the opening of other outlets around Elstree Studios was lit bythe world. By the 1980s, ARRI in Munich had become a total end-to-end practicals as well asproduction entity, offering camera and lighting rental and complete 700,000W of simulatedpostproduction facilities.daylight punching throughwindows, resulting intemperatures so high that theset burned down. The Shining isfamous for Kubricks masterful1979use of a Steadicam, operatedby its inventor, Garrett Brown.The ARRI APOLLO Daylight Fresnel series wasdeveloped utilising double-ended HMI bulbs.2829
  16. 16. Stanley KubrickStanley Kubrick on the set of Eyes Wide Shut.At the age of 13 Stanley Kubrick was given a Graflexeffort, it taught him a great deal about the dramatization of intellectual ideas andcamera by his father Jacques, a professional physician in also gave investors the confidence to back another feature. On Killers Kiss, which hethe Bronx, New York, and a keen amateur photographer. again photographed himself, Kubrick made use of an ARRIFLEX 35IIA for certainStanley was soon taking pictures for his school newspaper scenes. The compactness of the camera allowed him to operate personally, handheldand after a very short time image-making had become far if need be, while its reflex viewfinder suited his meticulous eye for composition.more important to him than his classroom studies. By the timeThe 35II camera series, which developed through various models over the years,he was 17 he had sold his first photograph to Lookbecame regular fixtures on Kubricks sets. They were used when mobility was vital,magazine, a national publication to which he contributedsuch as in the scene depicting the siege of Burpelson Air Force base infurther pictures throughout his last year of high school beforeDr. Strangelove, or when space was limited, such as on the B-52 set of the same film.being employed as a staff photographer upon graduation.In 1970 Kubrick began production on A Clockwork Orange, which was shot almostOver the next few years Kubrick honed his photographicentirely with his own 35IIC cameras. He utilised ARRIFLEX blimps for dialogue scenesskills on a variety of assignments for Look, all the whilewhen necessary, but revelled in the freedom afforded by the lightweight camera whiledeveloping his passion for movies by frequenting theshooting wild. All of the handheld scenes were operated by the director himself,cinemas of Manhattan whenever possible, just as he had Stanley Kubrick on the set of The Shining.including the infamous Singin in the Rain rape sequence and the Catlady fight.when playing truant from school. In early 1949 he covereda photo story on middleweight boxer Walter Cartier andA lifelong camera enthusiast, Kubrick maintained an extraordinary knowledge ofwas inspired to produce a short documentary film, funded by motion picture technology and continued to select ARRI cameras as the product linehis own savings, entitled Day of the Fight. He sold the filmdeveloped throughout his career. The 35BL series were used on both Barry Lyndonto RKO for $100 more than it cost to make and became, atand Full Metal Jacket, while for Eyes Wide Shut, Kubrick chose a 535B as histhe age of 22, an entrepreneurial filmmaker who had turnedprincipal camera.a profit, albeit a modest one.In a shot from Jan Harlans touching tribute Stanley Kubrick: A Life in Pictures, releasedGiving up his job at the magazine, Kubrick devoted himselftwo years after the Directors death, Kubrick is seen sitting in his own garden with histo a career in film and produced a number of further shorts daughter on his knee. He points directly at the lens and says you know what kindbefore raising the money to shoot his first feature, Fear and of camera that is? Its an ARRIFLEX.Desire. Although he later dismissed this as a student-level 30 31
  17. 17. Das Boot(1981)The Last Waltz (1978)Hailed by many as the greatest rock film ever made, The LastWaltz documents the final concert of The Band, during whichthey perform with guests such as Bob Dylan and MuddyWaters. Director Martin Scorsese, who had begun his careeras an editor on Woodstock, Michael Wadleighs film of thelegendary 1969 music festival, employed camera operatorsincluding Michael Chapman ASC, Vilmos Zsigmond ASC andLaszlo Kovaks ASC to man the seven different cameras, Jost Vacano in the submarine set with a purpose built gyro-rig and prototype IIIC. First Assistant Peter Maiwaldseveral of which were ARRIFLEX 35BLs.holds the remote focus unit. Vacano built a gyroscopically-stabilized camera rig that he could hold in front of his crouched body as he ran through the set. Though Steadicam was available at that time, it was too cumbersome to get through the tiny circular doors that separated compartments within the submarine. Space was so tight that he had to wear a crash helmet and body armour to prevent serious injury on the many occasions when he fell or struck an obstacle. The rig softened his jarring running motion without eliminating a sense of human bodyBased on the best-selling World War II U-boat novel by Lothar movement that he believed would help pull audiences into the story.G. Buchheim, Das Boot had actually been in development asApocolypse Now (1979) an American venture from as early as 1976. The project,Vacano initially used an ARRIFLEX IIC camera on his handheld rig, but ran into difficultyhowever, was impeded and eventually shut down by creativebecause the rigid viewfinder made low-angle work almost impossible. He lived in Munichdifferences between the production team and Buchheim, whoand had a good relationship with ARRI, so asked engineers at the company if they mightRelocating Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness to the had right of veto over the screenplay. In 1979, Producer build something that could help him. This conversation brought about the birth of theVietnam War, Francis Ford Coppolas sprawling exploration Gnter Rohrbach was head of Bavaria Film Studios and ARRIFLEX IIIC, a single-mount, pivoting-viewfinder camera that represented the lastof the human psyches response to violence and chaos took resurrected the film as an all-German production.evolutionary step of a body design which began life in 1946 as the ARRIFLEX II. Vacano16 months to film in the Philippines. Vittorio Storaro AIC, ASCwas delighted: I was always very close with the ARRI engineers, he says. We wouldJost Vacano BVK, ASC a local cinematographer with 15 yearswon an Oscar for his extraordinary and colourful discuss future developments and I would tell them what I would like to see or whatexperience shooting features and German TV, was hired tophotography, despite the troubled shoot and intenselyparticular features might help me. They were always very willing to help and for Das Bootphotograph the film. He had never met Director Wolfgang they built a completely new camera for me, which was fantastic.challenging conditions. He shot with an ARRIFLEX 35BL and Peterson before, though they quickly formed a strongcan be seen operating an ARRIFLEX 16ST in a scene where relationship and shared a determination that absolute realismDas Boot was a box-office smash and a towering artistic success. It became the mosthe and Coppola cameo as a TV news team. should be the basic credo underlying the endeavour. Vacano successful foreign film released in the US up to that time and its record of six Oscarran into difficulty, however, when he expressed a belief thatnominations has yet to be matched by a German film. Jost Vacano describes the shoothandheld filming would be the best option: I had very strongas physically the toughest of his career, but remembers having no doubt at all that theyfeelings about the visuals of this film and it was not easy in the were creating something special. You know after this film I worked in the United Statesbeginning to convince the director and the producers thatfor about 15 years and shot many big mainstream films there, but when I look back,I was right.Das Boot is still one of my favourite pieces. Maybe the best one of all.32 33
  18. 18. Sven Nykvist Director Andrei Tarkovsky and Sven Nykvist on location during filming of The Sacrifice.Sven Nykvist ASC, built a career that spanned six decades, over the course of which he worked on over 120 films and collected two AcademyAwards for Best Cinematography. As a young boy he was left with relatives in Stockholm when his parents emigrated from Sweden to work asLutheran missionaries in the Congo. The sense of isolation and abandonment instilled in Nykvist by this separation almost certainly contributed to hisemotional affinity with legendary Director Ingmar Bergman, whose work often dealt with such themes. Their collaboration, stretching across many yearsand resulting in more than 20 films, was the most important professional and creative relationship of Nykvists life.Starting out in the early 1940s as a camera assistant at studios in Sweden and Italy, Nykvist first took sole responsibility for photographing the film13 Chairs in 1945. He was working on documentaries immediately prior to sharing a cinematography credit on Sawdust and Tinsel in 1953,initiating his association with Bergman. Six years later the director asked Nykvist to shoot Virgin Spring, encouraging him to think not just in terms ofcreating beautiful images, but of actually using light to help tell the story. Ingmar Bergman has meant more to me more than almost anyone else inmy whole life because of what he taught me, Nykvist commented in 1976. He got me interested in what I think is the most important thing inphotography using light to create a mood.Virgin Spring won the Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film and was followed by Through a Glass Darkly, Winter Light and The Silence, by whichtime the two men had formed an unshakeable creative bond. Nykvists developing style was favouring soft, bounced light, unobtrusive cameraworkand intense study of the human face. His propensity for searching close-ups is most notable in Persona, a film he shot on an ARRIFLEX 35IIC in 1966.In fact, no matter what studio camera he might use on a film, he almost always included an ARRIFLEX as part of his kit, for handheld shots andset-ups affording limited space.After the ARRIFLEX 35BL came out in 1972, Nykvist made use of it on a number of films, including Fanny and Alexander, for which he won his secondOscar in 1982. Shot to be released as both a five-hour TV series and a three-hour feature, the production was fraught with difficulty, nearly costingthe cinematographer his life when a crossbeam fell in the studio.Nykvist teamed up with Andrei Tarkovsky for The Sacrifice, the celebrated Russian directors final film before succumbing to cancer. Nykvist againshot with the 35BL, producing beautiful, lingering images; the film won an extraordinary four awards at Cannes, including Best Artistic Contribution Director Ingmar Bergman linesfor cinematography.up a shot with Sven Nykvist on Fanny and Alexander.Not long after receiving a Lifetime Achievement Award from the ASC in 1996, Nykvist was diagnosed with progressive aphasia and was forced toretire. Respected worldwide and having worked with many other important directors including Woody Allen, Roman Polanski, Louis Malle and RichardAttenborough, Sven Nykvist died in September 2006.Fanny and Alexander (1982)Sven Nykvist collected a BAFTA, a BSC Award and the Best Cinematography Oscar for his work on thisIngmar Bergman classic, which tells the story of the Ekdahls, an early twentieth-century Swedish family.Creating some of the most memorable images of his 25-year collaboration with Bergman, Nykvist assertedhis total mastery of natural light with this film. The ARRIFLEX 35BL perfectly suited the directors demand formobile yet unobtrusive camerawork. 34 35
  19. 19. 19821988Subsidiary company ARRI Video, now known as ARRI Film & TV, is set up. Today it offers a complete postproductionThe ARRI STUDIO range was introduced, a series ofworkflow, providing everything from lab services to state-of-the-art image and audio post services. high performance lampheads that took advantage oftungsten halogen lamps and utilised wide anglelenses for the first time to provide a 60 degreebeam angle. Full Metal Jacket (1987)The Last Emperor (1987) Douglas Milsome BSC, whoBernardo Bertoluccis tale of pulled focus for John AlcottPuyi, the last Emperor of China, BSC on The Shining, stepped won a staggering nine in as cinematographer for Academy Awards, one of them Stanley Kubrick on this film, being Vittorio Storaros third for which the director againBest Cinematography. It was the opted to shoot with ARRIFLEXfirst Western film to be made 35BL cameras. Despite being about modern China with the set in Vietnam, the entire film full co-operation of the Chinese was produced and filmed ingovernment. Storaro filmed with England, at Pinewoodan ARRIFLEX 35BL and Studios, Bassingbourn meticulously controlled his Barracks and Becktoncolour palette, assigning Gasworks. Milsome specific colours to different experimented with different themes and stages in the story. shutter angles for battle scenes, a technique Janusz Kaminski borrowed for Saving Private Ryan.36 37