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  • Artificial Life, Artificial Intelligence

    & The Posthuman

    AK 2100

  • • AL and AI have been an area for research and speculation in science and science fiction

    • idea of blurring the human and the machine • Norbert Wiener - 1940s: first theories about computation

    with decentralized systems • J.C.R. Licklider (1960): Man-Computer Symbiosis - let

    computers help formulaic thinking and enable humans and computers to cooperate in making decisions and controlling complex situations

    • Richard Dawkins and the meme • Wiener and Dawkins’ theories relevant to current artistic

    explorations in AL

    Artificial Life

    Karl Sims, Galapagos, 1997

  • Artificial Life

    Karl Sims, Galapagos, 1997 http://www.genarts.com/galapagos/index.html

    Galápagos is an interactive Darwinian evolution of virtual "organisms." Twelve computers simulate the growth and behaviors of a population of abstract animated forms and display them on twelve screens arranged in an arc. The viewers participate in this exhibit by selecting which organisms they find most aesthetically interesting and standing on step sensors in front of those displays. The selected organisms survive, mate, mutate and reproduce. Those not selected are removed, and their computers are inhabited by new offspring from the survivors. The offspring are copies and combinations of their parents, but their genes are altered by random mutations. Sometimes a mutation is favorable, the new organism is more interesting than its ancestors, and is then selected by the viewers. As this evolutionary cycle of reproduction and selection continues, more and more interesting organisms can emerge.

  • Artificial Life

    Christa Sommerer and Laurent Mignonneau, A-Volve http://www.iamas.ac.jp/~christa/WORKS/A-VolveLinks.html

    • issues of transformation of information and the survival of the aesthetically fittest

    • A-Volve by Christa Sommerer and Laurent Mignonneau • establishes a direct connection between the physical and

    the virtual world • A-Volve is a reminder of how complex all life forms are,

    whether organic or inorganic • it also makes explicit our role in shaping artificial life

  • Artificial Life

    Christa Sommerer and Laurent Mignonneau, A-Volve http://www.iamas.ac.jp/~christa/WORKS/A-VolveLinks.html

    • issues of transformation of information and the survival of the aesthetically fittest

    • A-Volve by Christa Sommerer and Laurent Mignonneau • establishes a direct connection between the physical and

    the virtual world • A-Volve is a reminder of how complex all life forms are,

    whether organic or inorganic • it also makes explicit our role in shaping artificial life

  • Artificial Life

    Christa Sommerer and Laurent Mignonneau, A-Volve http://www.iamas.ac.jp/~christa/WORKS/A-VolveLinks.html

    • issues of transformation of information and the survival of the aesthetically fittest

    • A-Volve by Christa Sommerer and Laurent Mignonneau • establishes a direct connection between the physical and

    the virtual world • A-Volve is a reminder of how complex all life forms are,

    whether organic or inorganic • it also makes explicit our role in shaping artificial life

  • Artificial Life

    Thomas Ray - Tierra http://www.his.atr.jp/~ray/tierra/index.html

    • Thomas Ray’s Tierra • transports the concept of the wildlife reserve into the

    digital realm • a network bio-diversity reserve for digital organisms • uses the concept of evolution to generate complex

    software • self-replicating machine code programs • Ray created several ways of visualizing the process of

    evolution that allows observers to watch the programs develop

  • Artificial Life

    • AL artworks do not necessarily address the evolution of digital organisms

    • often use algorithms for specifying behaviours • Rebecca Allen’s “Emergence”: creates 3D computer-

    generated environments that explore social behaviours and communication through gesture and movement

    • Kenneth Rinaldo’s “Autopoesis” (2000) is a constantly evolving environment that seems to create itself

    • all these projects help us understand the structure of ideas and the nature of intelligence and life itself

    • could indicate a process of evolution of the cooperation between human and machine

    Rebecca Allen’s home page: http://rebeccaallen.com/ Emergence Project: http://emergence.design.ucla.edu/

  • Artificial Life

    • AL artworks do not necessarily address the evolution of digital organisms

    • often use algorithms for specifying behaviours • Rebecca Allen’s “Emergence”: creates 3D computer-

    generated environments that explore social behaviours and communication through gesture and movement

    • Kenneth Rinaldo’s “Autopoesis” (2000) is a constantly evolving environment that seems to create itself

    • all these projects help us understand the structure of ideas and the nature of intelligence and life itself

    • could indicate a process of evolution of the cooperation between human and machine

    Kenneth Rinaldo http://accad.osu.edu/~rinaldo/

  • Erwin Driessens, Maria Verstappen Tickle Holland

    Art and Artificial Life International Competition http://www.fundacion.telefonica.com/at/vida/english/index.html

  • Artificial Intelligence

    • Real AI still within the domains of SF • Alan Turing (1912-54): the Turing Test • Deep Blue: groundbreaking milestone in 1997 • Speech recognition systems • Eliza and Alice (chatbots)

  • • Ken Feingold: animatronic heads, speech recognition • http://www.kenfeingold.com/ • If/then: heads are involved in an ever changing dialogue that

    investigates the philosophical issues of their existence • highlights how meaning is often created through failed

    communication • provides some insight into how we, as human beings,

    construct what we consider to be meaningful

    Artificial Intelligence

  • Artificial Intelligence

    Inside my mind I can sense that there is an I that is something that’s not the one who is sensing. Why? Why do you look just like me? No, I don’t look just like you - I am accidental. I’m not sure how to take that. Why are you not sure how to take that? I don’t know. That’s beautiful, why? Are we the same? I am clumsy. And clumsy, huh? What is that? Why do you ask? I don’t know. Don’t know, huh? What is that? You are a strange one. On the inside or the outside? And where is that, exactly? Going is not begun on the not yet gone over. Why? I don’t know. You scoop swoon. Are you talking to me? Who are we? Are we the same? Huh? Can I believe my ears? Do you feel like resting? I feel like I am here. Sometimes I feel very confused. Is feeling the same as thinking? How can anything be the same as anything else if two things can’t be in the same place at the same time? What does that mean? I think about what things mean, it’s what I do all the time. But there’s always something behind the thing – behind the thing that means the thing – you know what I mean? What does exist mean, for example? I can say things that have no meaning. Can stay friends that have no need, and no? Ok.

    Transcript of a conversation

  • • Ken Feingold: animatronic heads, speech recognition

    Artificial Intelligence

    Three self-portraits, each possessing an animal, vegetable, or mineral mind, debate the nature of violence with each other, and discuss their fears – generally their fears about each other. They also wonder about “that thing” before them, and we hear how they project their own interior worlds onto it in an attempt to figure out what it really is. Although they hear each other, nothing seems to penetrate or influence their ideas; no matter what the subject matter discussed, they eventually return to their own interests and fixed ideas.

  • • David Rokeby

    Artificial Intelligence

    My intent as an artist is that sufficient tension exist between the object and the name given to challenge the viewers' preconceptions of the objects, and draw them into speculative exploration. The names will have something of the quality of titles that artists give artworks: something a little out of left field, representing a re-interpretation, or alternate interpretation of the visual image of the object. One aim is to highlight the tight conspiracy between perception and language, bringing into focus the assumptions that make perception viable, but also biased and fallible, and the way language inhibits (or alternately enhances) our ability to see.

    Giver of Names, 1998 -

    http://homepage.mac.com/davidrokeby/gon.html

  • • David Rokeby

    Artificial Intelligence

    The surface inspiration for n-Cha(n)t was a strong and somewhat inexplicable desire to hear a community of computers speaking together: chattering amongst themselves, musing, intoning chants... They intercommunicate, and through doing so, 'synchronize' their individual internal 'states of mind'. When left uninterrupted to communicate amongth themselves, they eventually fall into chanting, a shared stream of verbal association.

    N-Cha(n)t, 2001

    http://homepage.mac.com/davidrokeby/gon.html