ass anaphy2

Human Anatomy Chapter 1 The Human Body: An Orientation

Upload: ces-rivera

Post on 06-Apr-2018




0 download


8/3/2019 Ass Anaphy2 1/26

Human Anatomy

Chapter 1

The Human Body: An Orientation

8/3/2019 Ass Anaphy2 2/26

I. Definitions• Anatomy is the study of thestructure and shape of the body and

body parts and their relationships toone another.– Gross anatomy – examining large easily

observable body structures.

– Microscope anatomy – examining cellsand tissues using a microscope.

8/3/2019 Ass Anaphy2 3/26

I. Definitions (con’t) • Physiology is the study of how thebody and its parts work or function.

– Neurophysiology – explains how thenervous system works.

– Cardiac physiology studies the functionsof the heart.

• Anatomy and physiology are alwaysrelated. FORM FOLLOWSFUNCTION.

8/3/2019 Ass Anaphy2 4/26

II. Levels of

Organization• Atoms  – building blocks of

matter. They combine toform:

• Molecules  – water, sugars, and

proteins.• Molecules associate in

specific ways to form cells.

8/3/2019 Ass Anaphy2 5/26

II. Levels of

Organization (Con’t) • Cells are the smallest units of all livingthings.

• Cells that are similar and have a common

function are called tissues.• An organ is a structure, composed of twoor more tissue types, that performs aspecific function for the body.

• A group of organs that cooperate toaccomplish a common purpose is called anorgan system.

• All 11 organ systems make up an organism .

8/3/2019 Ass Anaphy2 6/26

II. Levels of


8/3/2019 Ass Anaphy2 7/26

Integumentary System• External covering of the body

• Waterproofs, cushions and protects

• Excretes salts and urea in sweat andhelps regulate body temperature

• Sense organ – pain and pressure

8/3/2019 Ass Anaphy2 8/26

Skeletal System• Bone, cartilage, ligaments, and joints

• Support and protection

• Attachment of the skeletal muscles• Hematopoiesis – the formation of

blood cells

• Store house of minerals

8/3/2019 Ass Anaphy2 9/26

Muscular System• Only one function – contract

• Movement occurs when muscles contract

• Three types of muscle tissue– Skeletal muscles - movement

– Cardial muscles - heart contraction

– Smooth muscles – intestines, internal organs

8/3/2019 Ass Anaphy2 10/26

Nervous System• Fast-acting control system• Consists of the brain, spinal

cord, nerves, and sensoryreceptors.• The body must be able to

respond to stimuli.• The Central Nervous system

assesses the informationreceived and responds.

8/3/2019 Ass Anaphy2 11/26

Endocrine System• Slow acting control system of thebody.

• Produces and releases hormones intothe blood.

• Includes pituitary, thyroid, adrenals,

thymus, pancreas, pineal, ovaries,testes, and parathyroid glands.

8/3/2019 Ass Anaphy2 12/26

Cardiovascular System• Made up of the heart and bloodvessels.

• Blood is the transporting fluid• Carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones,and other substances to and fromthe cells where waste is exchanged

and removed.

8/3/2019 Ass Anaphy2 13/26

Lymphatic System• Closely related to the cardiovascular system.

• Includes lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and

other organs like the spleen and tonsils.• Fluid leaks from the blood vessels and thissystem returns the fluid back to thecirculatory system.

• Lymph nodes help cleanse the blood andhouse the cells involved in immunity.

8/3/2019 Ass Anaphy2 14/26

Respiratory System• Keep the body constantly suppliedwith oxygen and remove carbondioxide.

• Includes nasal passages, pharynx,larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.

• Lungs have tiny air sacs in which gas

exchange occurs

8/3/2019 Ass Anaphy2 15/26

Digestive System• Tube within a tube system running fromthe mouth to the anus.

• Includes the oral cavity (mouth),

esophagus, stomach, small and largeintestines, and the rectum.

• Break down food into usablemacromolecules.

• Large intestines job is to reclaim water.

8/3/2019 Ass Anaphy2 16/26

Urinary System• The body produces waste which must beremoved.

• Nitrogenous wastes (urea and uric acid)

must be removed.• Sometimes called the excretory system• Includes kidneys, ureters, bladder, and

urethra.• Maintains body’s water and salt balance 

8/3/2019 Ass Anaphy2 17/26

Reproductive System• Produce offspring

• Sperm produced by testes

• Eggs produced by ovaries• Fertilization occurs when sperm is

deposited into the female by the


8/3/2019 Ass Anaphy2 18/26

HOMEOSTASIS• The key to understanding the interactionsof the body systems as well as disease andwellness is understanding homeostasis.

• Homeostasis is the body’s ability tomaintain relatively stable internalconditions even though the outside world

is continuously changing.

8/3/2019 Ass Anaphy2 19/26

The Language of

Anatomy• To accurately describe body parts andposition we have to have a reference pointthat is accepted universally. This is

helpful when the coroner finds a body andmust describe the body.• Anatomical position – The assumption that

the body is erect with the feet parallel

and the arms hanging at the sides with thepalms facing forward.

8/3/2019 Ass Anaphy2 20/26

Directional Terms (pg. 12)Superior/cranial/cephalad Toward the head or upper part of thebody or structure; above

Inferior (caudal) Away from the head end or toward thelower part of a body or structure;below

Anterior (ventral) Toward the front of the body (belly)

Posterior (dorsal) Toward the back of the body; behind

Medial Toward or at the midline of the body;on the inner side of

Lateral Away from the midline of the body; onthe outer side of

Intermediate Between a medial and lateral structure

8/3/2019 Ass Anaphy2 21/26

Directional Terms (pg. 12)Proximal Close to the origin of the body part orthe point of attachment of a limb tothe body trunk

Distal Farther from the origin of a body part

or the point of attachment of a lumb tothe body truck

Superficial Toward or at the body surface

Deep Away from the body surface; more


8/3/2019 Ass Anaphy2 22/26

Anterior Body Landmarks(pg. 13)

Abdominal Anterior body trunk inferior to theribs

Antecubital Anterior surface of the elbow

Axillary Armpit

Brachial Arm

Buccal Cheek area

Carpal Wrist

Cervical Neck region

8/3/2019 Ass Anaphy2 23/26

Anterior Body Landmarks(pg 13)

Digital Fingers and toes

Femoral Thigh

Inguinal Area where thigh meets the trunk

Nasal Nose area

Oral Mouth

Orbital Eye area

Patellar Anterior knee

8/3/2019 Ass Anaphy2 24/26

Anterior Body Landmarks

(pg 13)Peroneal Lateral part of the leg

Pubic Genital region

Sternal Breasbone area

Tarsal Ankle region

Thoracic Chest

Umbilical Navel

8/3/2019 Ass Anaphy2 25/26

Posterior Body Landmarks

(pg 13)Cephalic Head

Deltoid Curve of the shoulder

Gluteal Butt

Lumbar Lower back

Occipital Posterior surface of the head

Popliteal Posterior knee area

Scapular Shoulder blade region

Sural The area of the calf muscle

Vertebral Area of the spine

8/3/2019 Ass Anaphy2 26/26

Body Planes (pg 14)• Body planes and sections can be used to

describe either the entire body or any partof the body such as an organ.

• There are several ways to “cut” body. – Sagittal section – cut down the middle to create

left and right sides. (aka midsagittal or mediansection if the cut makes equal sides)

– Frontal or coronal section – a cut that dividesthe body into anterior and posterior sides.– Transverse or cross sections – A cut is made

along the horizontal plane dividing the body intosuperior and inferior parts.