ass dhirti

Upload: himmatkuldeep

Post on 07-Apr-2018




0 download


  • 8/6/2019 Ass Dhirti


    Shree V.J. Modha College of Information Technology.

    Assignment - 1On

    C Programming

    Semester: 1st

    Date : 10th Aug 2011

    Submitted By: Submitted To:Name: Kuldeep Singh Miss. Dhirti

    Roll: 09 Lecturer

    Class: B.C.A. (B)

    Prepared By. Guided By.

    Kuldeep Singh Miss. Dhirti

  • 8/6/2019 Ass Dhirti


    Q.1 What is HTML? Illustrate the history of HTML.

    Ans. No. 1.

    HTML is the "mother tongue" of your browser.

    To make a long story short, HTML was invented in 1990 by a scientist called TimBerners-Lee. The purpose was to make it easier for scientists at different universities to gainaccess to each other's research documents. The project became a bigger success than TimBerners-Lee had ever imagined. By inventing HTML he laid the foundation for the web as weknow it today.

    HTML is a language, which makes it possible to present information (e.g. scientificresearch) on the Internet. What you see when you view a page on the Internet is yourbrowser's interpretation of HTML. To see the HTML code of a page on the Internet, simplyclick "View" in the top menu of your browser and choose "Source".

    History of HTML

    First of all GML(General Markup Language) was found by IBM(InternalBusiness Machine) at that time it was first step for making webpage.

    After That SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) wasdeveloped by ISO(International Standardization Origination) in 1986 itwas higher level markup language. Its describe or defines formatting& Hipertext links. SGML is not idle for transmission across theinternet to different Computers & Browsers after that HTML was fountby Tim Berners-Lee& his team in 1989 in the European Laborites.

    It makes possible to create & digital web page that can be read entirepopulation of Web.

    Mr. Tim Berners-Lee

    Prepared By. Guided By.

    Kuldeep Singh Miss. Dhirti
  • 8/6/2019 Ass Dhirti


    Q.2 Explain the structure HTML.

    Ans. No. 2.

    An HTML document has two* main parts:

    1. head. The head element contains title and meta data of a web document.2. body. The body element contains the information that you want to display on a web


    * To make your web pages compatible with HTML 4, you need to add a document typedeclaration (DTD) before the HTML element. Many web authoring software add DTD andbasic tags automatically when you create a new web page.

    In a web page, the first tag (specifically, ) indicates the markup language that isbeing used for the document. The tag contains information about the web page.Lastly, the content appears in the tag. The following illustration provides asummary.

    Prepared By. Guided By.

    Kuldeep Singh Miss. Dhirti
  • 8/6/2019 Ass Dhirti


    Q.3 Explain the Comment Tag.

    Ans. No. 3.

    The comment tag is used to insert a comment in the source code. A comment will beignored by the browser. You can use comments to explain your code, which can help youwhen you edit the source code at a later date.

    You can also store program-specific information inside comments. In this case theywill not be visible for the user, but they are still available to the program. A good practice isto comment the text inside scripts and style elements to prevent older browsers, that do not

    support scripting or styles, from showing it as plain text.

    This is a paragraph.

    Prepared By. Guided By.

    Kuldeep Singh Miss. Dhirti

  • 8/6/2019 Ass Dhirti


    Q.4 Explain Text Formatting Tags .

    Ans. No. 4.

    A Page that contains endless text that all looks identical is a deterrent for most 'surfers'.Modifying text to suite its position is one way of ensuring the page is not and eye-sore.However too much variety in the text format can also look displeasing.

    - Header. This tag is a quick way of creating headings and sub-headingsby using numbers varying from 1 (Being the largest) to about 6 (which would then

    have to be the smallest). You can adjust the size and the boldness of the textdepending on the heading number you choose. - Bold. Use this tag to bold certain parts of the document. Any text in

    between the tags will be bolded the same as in a word processor. - Italic. Also working the same way as a word processor, italics displays the

    text at a slight angle. - Underline. Another way of making words stand out. Notice that ordinary

    links are already underlined and don't need the extra tag. (You may also notice thatthe links in my guide aren't underlined, and that they change colour when the mouseis moved over them. This is achieved using style sheets.)

    - Centre. A very useful tag, as it says, it makes everything inbetween the tags, centred (in the middle of the page).

    - Strikeout. Quite a dumb feature if you ask me, but theremust be someone who uses it. Strikeout just puts a line right through the centre ofthe text, ie crossing it out. Note: Some Older browsers may require thetag in order to perform a strikeout.

    - Subscript. Makes the text smaller and places it slightly below theusual line of text.

    - Superscript. The same as before but above the text. - Font Colour. If you require a few words to be

    a different colour to that of the standard text colour for the document, this is the tagto use. The same way you changed the colour of the background or links intheBackground and Colours section, you do the same here. There is a large variety ofcolours to choose from, Once again the 6 question marks represent the hex code. Fora list of colours and their codes, see Colour Codes.

    - Font Size. Ranging from 1 to 7 you can change the sizeof the font (1 being the smallest and 7 the largest.

    - Change Font Size. For an immediate change of fontsize with respect to the font size preceding it, this tag increase or decreases the sizeof the font by the number you specify. Eg: Some Text

    - Change Font. To have a certain font other than thatof the standard text, you have to use this tag. Be aware thought that having a fancyfont on your page means that the person viewing that page must also have that fonton their computer otherwise it will either look totally different or not show anything atall. To use it type the font name, eg "Arial" or "Courier New" etc.

    - Typewriter. The text appears to have been typed by a typewriter.Thistext is written using the tags.

    Prepared By. Guided By.

    Kuldeep Singh Miss. Dhirti
  • 8/6/2019 Ass Dhirti


    - Preformatted Text. By using these tags you are saying thatanything between them is to be placed on the page as is.

    - Block Quote. When writing several longparagraphs, this would be the best tag to use. Any text between the tags, includingspaces, carriage returns and punctuation, will appear in the browser exactly as it is in

    the HTML editor. - Emphasis. This tag is used to emphasize whatever is between them.The text is usually displayed in italics but varies according to your browser.

    - Strong Emphasis. This tag is used to strongly emphasizewhatever is between them. The text is usually displayed in bold but also variesdepending on your browser.

    - Citation. Used to cite the text between the tags. It is also usuallydisplayed in italics.

    Q.5 Explain Marquee Tags with all its attributes.

    Ans. No. 5.

    The Marquee tag allows you to have a scrolling text effect. Anything put between theopening and closing tags will scroll across the screen. A number of attributes that go with itand are useful include the following, which all use numbers.

    Scrollamount - the amount of pixels of each movementScrolldelay - the amount of time in milliseconds between each jump. (1000 is 1 second).

    Determine the text or graphic that you want to scroll on your website. This should ideally bea small amount of text or a small graphic, as large amounts of scrolling text can be difficultfor your website visitor to read. Marquees in HTML are ideal for news tickers, eye-catching

    headlines or important announcements.

    Use the "" HTML tag to create any type of scrolling text or graphic. At its mostsimple, you can create a right to left scrolling piece of text by writing "SCROLLING TEXT" and replacing the text in all capital letters with the text youwant to scroll. The text will scroll at a moderate rate of speed across the entire section ofthe website you put it in. You can also use other HTML text attributes, such as headings,font color, font style and size within the marquee tags. Always remember to close the HTMLtag with "" at the end, or your entire website will scroll.

    Adjust the width of the marquee tag in HTML by using a width attribute added to the

    marquee code. For example, "" will scroll the text on only 30percent of your website. Of course, you can also include the marquee HTML tag within astyle sheet or table website layout. Height can be adjusted in the same way. This is usefulfor scrolling graphics.

    Change the direction the words or pictures move by using the marquee tag with thedirection attribute. The default direction is right to left. You can switch the direction bytyping " Text " to make the word "Text" scrollfrom left to the right.

    Make the marquee text or graphics do more than just scroll across the screen. This HTMLcode also includes behavior attributes. Using the code "" will

    Prepared By. Guided By.

    Kuldeep Singh Miss. Dhirti

  • 8/6/2019 Ass Dhirti


    create the default scrolling text; "" will cause the text withinthe tags to scroll across the screen, but then stop and stay at the edge of the screen. Tomake the text bounce from one side of the screen to the other, use the "" command.

    Speed up or slow down your marquee text or graphic speed by using two different HTMLattributes: scroll delay and scroll amount. Scroll delay is used to slow down marquee text,and scroll amount is used to speed it up. Therefore, typing ""will result in text that goes at about half the normal speed, and using "" will make the text fly by on the screen. Use these for a special effector to make the text or graphic easier to view.

    Q.6 Explain the meaning of Networking explain its services.

    Ans. No. 6.

    A computer network, often simply referred to as a network, is a collectionofcomputers and devices interconnected by communications channels that facilitatecommunications and allows sharing of resources and information among interconnecteddevices.[1] Put more simply, a computer network is a collection of two ormore computers linked together for the purposes of sharing information, resources, among

    other things. Computer networking or Data Communications (Datacom) isthe engineeringdiscipline concerned with computer networks. Computer networking issometimes considered a sub-discipline ofelectricalengineering, telecommunications, computer science, informationtechnology and/or computer engineering since it relies heavily upon the theoretical andpractical application of these scientific and engineering disciplines.

    A communications protocol defines the formats and rules for exchanging information viaa network. Well-known communications protocols are Ethernet, which is a family ofprotocols used in LANs, the Internet Protocol Suite, which is used not only in theeponymous Internet, but today nearly ubiquitously in any computer network.

    1. Basic connective Services :

    The PCs in a networking must have special system software that enables them to function in a

    networking environment.

    Client and server machine requireds specified software compoents. A computer that is strictly a

    server often cannot provide ant client functionally. A computer is a peer to peer metworking

    function as both a client and server: thus, its required the client and server software.

    Prepared By. Guided By.

    Kuldeep Singh Miss. Dhirti
  • 8/6/2019 Ass Dhirti


    Opreating systems such as Windows NT Workstation and Windows 95 both od which are peer

    to peer networking operating system, include of services and utilities that facilities metworking.

    2. File Services.

    Information is stored on the hard disk in the form of a file. File service provide the means to

    share the files and folders on a computers hard disk several network computers.

    Few services are listed below.

    File Transfer Services.

    File Storage

    File Archiving

    File update Synchronization

    Date Migration

    Q.7 Explain type of Networking Toplogies.

    Ans. No. 7.

    Network topology is the layout pattern of interconnections of the various elements(links, nodes, etc.) of a computer or biological network. Network topologies may be physicalor logical. Physical topology refers to the physical design of a network including the devices,location and cable installation. Logical topology refers to how data is actually transferred ina network as opposed to its physical design. In general physical topology relates to a corenetwork whereas logical topology relates to basic network.

    Peer to Peer

    The simplest topology is a permanent link between two endpoints. Switched Peerto Peer topologies are the basic model of conventional telephony. The valueof a permanent point-to-point network is unimpeded communicationsbetween the two endpoints. The value of an on-demand on is proportionalto the number of potential pairs of subscribers, and has been expressedas Metcalfe's Law.


    In local area networks where bus topology is used, each node is connected to asingle cable. Each computer or server is connected to the single bus cable.A signal from the source travels in both directions to all machinesconnected on the bus cable until it finds theintended recipient. If the machine address doesnot match the intended address for the data,

    the machine ignores the data. Alternatively, ifthe data does match the machine address, thedata is accepted. Since the bus topology

    Prepared By. Guided By.

    Kuldeep Singh Miss. Dhirti's_Law's_Law
  • 8/6/2019 Ass Dhirti


    consists of only one wire, it is rather inexpensive to implement whencompared to other topologies. However, the low cost of implementing thetechnology is offset by the high cost of managing the network. Additionally,since only one cable is utilized, it can be thesingle point of failure. If thenetwork cable breaks, the entire network will be down.


    In local area networks with a star topology, each network hostis connected to a central hub with a point-to-point connection.All traffic that traverses the network passes through thecentral hub. The hub acts as a signal repeater. The startopology is considered the easiest topology to design andimplement. An advantage of the star topology is the simplicityof adding additional nodes. The primary disadvantage of thestar topology is that the hub represents a single point offailure.


    A network topology that is set up in a circular fashionin which data travels around the ring in onedirection and each device on the right acts as arepeater to keep the signal strong as it travels.Each device incorporates a receiver for theincoming signal and a transmitter to send the

    data on to the next device in the ring. Thenetwork is dependent on the ability of thesignal to travel around the ring.


    The value of fully meshed networks is proportionalto the exponent of the number of subscribers,assuming that communicating groups of anytwo endpoints, up to and including all theendpoints, is approximated by Reed's Law.

    Prepared By. Guided By.

    Kuldeep Singh Miss. Dhirti's_Law's_Law
  • 8/6/2019 Ass Dhirti


    Q.8 Explain type of Networking Toplogies.

    Ans. No. 8.

    A computer network, often simply referred to as a network, is a collectionofcomputers and devices interconnected by communications channels that facilitate

    communications and allows sharing of resources and information among interconnecteddevices. Put more simply, a computer network is a collection of two ormore computers linked together for the purposes of sharing information, resources, amongother things. Computer networking or Data Communications (Datacom) isthe engineeringdiscipline concerned with computer networks.

    Local Area Network

    A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that connects computers and devices in alimited geographical area such as home, school, computer laboratory or office building.[1] The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to wide area networks (WANs), includetheir usually higher data-transfer rates, smaller geographic area, and lack of a need

    for leased telecommunication lines.

    Prepared By. Guided By.

    Kuldeep Singh Miss. Dhirti
  • 8/6/2019 Ass Dhirti


    Wide Area Network

    A wide area network (WAN) is a telecommunication network that covers a broad area (i.e.,any network that links across metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries). Business andgovernment entities utilize WAN to relay data among employees, clients, buyers, andsuppliers from various geographical locations. In essence this mode of telecommunicationallows a business to effectively carry out its daily function regardless of location.

    Metropolitan Area Network

    A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a computer network that usually spans a city or alarge campus. A MAN usually interconnects a number oflocal area networks (LANs) using ahigh-capacity backbone technology, such as fiber-optical links, and provides up-link servicesto wide area networks (or WAN) and the Internet.

    Q.9 Explain type of Networking Topologies.

    Ans. No. 9.

    The HTML element FONT is an inline element used to change font sizes, font colors and font

    styles of the text in your webpages, but it is deprecated in HTML 4.0 in favor of cascadingstyle sheets. The reason for this is simple: CSS (cascading style sheets) give you much moreflexibility and many more styling options than the FONT element.

    Font Sizes

    As you have seen in the previous lessons, the font used by default is the one which is set upas the default text font in your browser. Usually this is "Times New Roman", black color andsize 3. To change the font size of the text on your webpages, you simply embed the text inthe FONT element and add the SIZEattribute with a value between 1 (very small) and 7(very big) to the opening font tag. See example below.

    Prepared By. Guided By.

    Kuldeep Singh Miss. Dhirti
  • 8/6/2019 Ass Dhirti


    Different Font Sizes

    Text in standard font, usually "Times New Roman" - size: 3 - color: black.

    Font size 1 Font size 2 Font size 4 Font size 5
    Font size 6 Font size 7

    Font Colors

    To change the text color you need to add the attribute COLOR to the opening FONT tag andassign it a value for the color. The color value can be any of the following 16 color names:

    black, silver, white, gray, maroon, red, blue, green, yellow, purple, fuchsia, cyan, lime, olive,navy, teal, aqua.

    Instead of the color names, you can also use the hexadecimal numbers for the colors, whichare specified according to the RGB value for each color. The hexadecimal numbers must beprefixed by the "#" sign. Examples: #000099 for dark blue or #FFFF99 for a faint yellow.

    Different Font Colors

    Text in standard font, usually "Times New Roman" - size: 2 - color: black.

    Font size 4, blue color Font size 5, green color
    Font size 2, yellow color Standard font size, red color

    Different Fonts

    To change the font style from the default (Times New Roman) to a different style, simplyadd the attribute FACE to the opening FONT tag. As value for the FACE attribute you canuse any specific font name such as "verdana", "arial", "georgia", "bookman old style","comic sans ms" and many more. Alternatively you may use generic font styles such as"serif", "sans-serif", "cursive", "fantasy" and "monospace". The font face values are case-insensitive, i.e. it doesnt matter whether you type "Arial" or "arial".

    Beware ! Not all users might have all the font styles installed on their computers, so

    especially when you are planning to use very specific fonts, you should specify at least onealternative font style (either a more common font name or a generic font). Simply add one

    Prepared By. Guided By.

    Kuldeep Singh Miss. Dhirti

  • 8/6/2019 Ass Dhirti


    or two more comma-separated values to the FACE attribute, which is also shown in theexample below.

    Different Font Faces, Colors and Sizes Combined

    Text in standard font, usually "Times New Roman" - size: 3 - color: black.

    font face Verdana

    font face: Mistral, size: 6, color:navy

    font face Comic Sans MS

    font face Courier, size 2

    font face Helvetica, alternatively

    Arial, color: dark green

    generic font styles

    cursiv (f.ex. Comic Sans MS)
    monospace (f.ex. Courier New)
    fantasy (f.ex. Western)
    sans-serif (f.ex. Helvetica)
    serif (f.ex. Times)

    Q.10 Display the following Output.

    Ans. No. 10.

    Date : 13th October, 2007

    Prepared By. Guided By.

    Kuldeep Singh Miss. Dhirti

  • 8/6/2019 Ass Dhirti


    Scientific :- H2O + O = H2O

    Maths :- (x + y )2 = x2 + 2xy +y2

    Q.11 Display the following Output. Well Come to my Website

    Ans. No. 11.

    Prepared By. Guided By.

    Kuldeep Singh Miss. Dhirti

  • 8/6/2019 Ass Dhirti


    Welcome To My


    Prepared By. Guided By.

    Kuldeep Singh Miss. Dhirti