aug2015 steve lincoln analytical validation

19
© 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 1 © 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 1 Analytic Validation and Performance Monitoring of Clinical NGS Assays Germline

Upload: genomeinabottle

Post on 17-Jan-2017

359 views

Category:

Health & Medicine


0 download

TRANSCRIPT

Page 1: Aug2015 steve lincoln analytical validation

© 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 1 © 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 1

Analytic Validation and Performance Monitoring of Clinical NGS Assays

Germline

Page 2: Aug2015 steve lincoln analytical validation

© 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 2 © 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 2

A systematic comparison of traditional and multi-gene panel testing for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in more than 1000 patients

Stephen E. Lincoln1, Yuya Kobayashi1, Michael J. Anderson1, Shan Yang1,Andrea J. Desmond2, Meredith A. Mills3, Geoffrey B. Nilsen1, Kevin B. Jacobs1, Federico A. Monzon1, Allison W. Kurian3, James M. Ford3, Leif W. Ellisen2,4

 1. Invitae, San Francisco, CA2. Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, MA3. Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA4. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

Lincoln et al., J Mol Diag 2015

Page 3: Aug2015 steve lincoln analytical validation

© 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 3 © 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 3

Companion Clinical Actionability Research Study

Desmond et al., JAMA Oncol. 2015Swisher, JAMA Oncol. 2015

Page 4: Aug2015 steve lincoln analytical validation

© 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 4 © 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 4

NA12878 and 6 other Well-Characterized Genomes (WCGs) were used in a 1105 sample study to evaluate a 29-gene hereditary cancer panel test

The 7 WCGs contributed 310 of 750 comparable variants to both the sensitivity and specificity analyses

But… the 77% coverage of GIAB data was a substantial limitation– No exonic variants in 5 of 29 panel genes in any of 7 samples

• Only 1 coding variant each in 2 other genes• Reason: (a) missing 23% of GIAB and (b) population genetics

– Almost all GIAB variants are SNVs• Only 6 of 310 were very small deletions (max 4bp)• 0 insertions, 0 other variant types• No GIAB CNV data yet (but we’d expect 0 CNVs in these 29 genes)

– The 77% is biased to the “easy” subset of the genome

WCGs Contribution to JMD Study

Lincoln et al., J Mol Diag 2015; Lincoln GIAB Spring 2015

Page 5: Aug2015 steve lincoln analytical validation

© 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 5 © 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 5

A Significant Fraction of Pathogenic Variants in Clinical Cases are Technically Challenging

Pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants (n=260) among the clinical cases (n=1062) by variant type:

Lincoln et al., J Mol Diag 2015

Small Indel

i.e. CNVs

Page 6: Aug2015 steve lincoln analytical validation

© 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 6 © 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 6

BRCA2 c.9203del126

Split-read signal at 3’

end of deletion

Split-read signal at 5’

end of deletion

Exon target

Page 7: Aug2015 steve lincoln analytical validation

© 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 7 © 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 7

BRCA2 c.156_insAlu

Split-read signal of

Alu sequence

Page 8: Aug2015 steve lincoln analytical validation

© 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 8 © 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 8

Get IGV

MSH2 c.943+3T>C

Homopolymer-A

Alignment and Biochemical

Artifacts

Page 9: Aug2015 steve lincoln analytical validation

CDKN2A c.9_32dup24

Insertion of repeat in correctly mapped NGS reads

Split-read signal

Repeat Copy 1 Repeat Copy 2

Split-read signal

Translation5’ Met

Page 10: Aug2015 steve lincoln analytical validation

© 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 10 © 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 10

Idealized Workflow

David Litwack, FDA, Feb 2015

Page 11: Aug2015 steve lincoln analytical validation

© 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 11 © 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 11

Idealized Workflow

DNA Prep Targeting & Library Sequencing Bioinformatics Interpretation

and Reporting

GIAB Sample(s)

FASTQ VCFLibraryDNASpecimen Report

GIAB DataComparison

Page 12: Aug2015 steve lincoln analytical validation

© 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 12 © 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 12

Idealized Workflow

Benefits:1. Easy (in principle, software tools still need

improvement)2. GIAB gives much broader coverage

compared to traditional reference samples3. Virtually unlimited sample supply

DNA Prep Targeting & Library Sequencing Bioinformatics Interpretation

and Reporting

GIAB Sample(s)

FASTQ VCFLibraryDNASpecimen Report

GIAB DataComparison

Page 13: Aug2015 steve lincoln analytical validation

© 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 13 © 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 13

Idealized Workflow

DNA Prep Targeting & Library Sequencing Bioinformatics Interpretation

and Reporting

GIAB Sample(s)

FASTQ VCFLibraryDNASpecimen Report

GIAB DataComparison

Challenges:1. GIAB data are NOT representative of clinical

practice2. The VCF is NOT the report, and there are

substantial differences even in genotypes. 3. Does not evaluate specimen collection, storage,

transfer, or DNA prep By far our

greatest source of problems

In fact, pre-prepared gDNA is not in spec for

our Dx test

Page 14: Aug2015 steve lincoln analytical validation

© 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 14 © 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 14

Idealized Workflow

DNA Prep Targeting & Library Sequencing Bioinformatics Interpretation

and Reporting

FASTQ VCFLibraryDNASpecimen Report

A complex, multi-step process which can and does change analytic results

Page 15: Aug2015 steve lincoln analytical validation

© 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 15 © 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 15

Actual Interpretation/Reporting Workflow: VCF Genotypes Are NOT the Reported Analytical Data

More QC and Filtering

Convert into Transcript Variants

Lab Director Review of Raw Data

Lab Director Interpretation

Orthogonal Confirmation

Re-”spelling”QC

Confirmation Failures Removed

Common Polymorphisms and Wild-type Calls Removed

BenignsRemoved

Known Artifacts Removed

Many steps after VCF and before Dx report can and do add, remove, edit, or change genotypes before reporting

This happens in transcript variants (in HGVS) which is not convertible back to VCF

Benign variants with no clinical significance do NOT get the same quality control as reported variants

Many of these steps involve human medical experts, not algorithms

VCF Report

Gap FillingVariants may

be Added

Not a 1-1 process

Page 16: Aug2015 steve lincoln analytical validation

© 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 16 © 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 16

Challenges in NGS Validation with GIAB

1. 77% completeness of GIAB vs. hg19/build37 is a very substantial limitation– The other 23% includes all or part of many commonly

tested genes– The 77% is based toward easy stuff– Reminder: this 23/77 issue is different than the “dark

matter” issue (regions not in the reference genome)

2. The very limited number of more challenging variants in coding regions of commonly tested genes is a even more substantial limitation– Indels, complex sequence changes, CNVs

Page 17: Aug2015 steve lincoln analytical validation

© 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 17 © 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 17

Other Challenges in NGS Validation with GIAB

3. The actual references used in (most) reporting are transcripts, not the genome sequence– They can be different in significant ways– We use our own curated set of transcript sequences

and alignments (Hart et al., Bioinformatics 2014)

4. Sample type (pre-prepared gDNA) is not in spec for our validated assay

Page 18: Aug2015 steve lincoln analytical validation

© 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 18 © 2015 Invitae Corporation. All Rights Reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL | 18

Philosophical Digression

What is the purpose of analytic validation of a NGS germline assay?

1. Essentially impossible to capture real world variability and challenges

2. In practice, online QC/QA plays a much more important role than validation

Page 19: Aug2015 steve lincoln analytical validation