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BANDAGES By L.NAGARAJAN

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Page 1: BANDAGES Corrected

BANDAGES

ByL.NAGARAJAN

Page 2: BANDAGES Corrected

INTRODUCTION

A bandage is a piece of material used either to support a medical device such as a dressing or splint, or on its own to provide support to the body.

The word "bandage" is often used to mean a dressing, which is used directly on a wound, whereas a bandage is technically only used to support a dressing, and not directly on a wound.

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Bandages are available in a wide range of types, from generic cloth strips, to specialized shaped bandages designed for a specific limb or part of the body.

Bandages can often be improvised as the situation demands, using clothing, blankets or other material.

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TYPES OF BANDAGES

Gauze bandages Compression bandages Triangular bandages Tube bandages Collagen bandages Alginate Bandages

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Bandages are also classified into the following types Long-stretch or

elastic systems

Short-stretch or low-elasticity systems

Multicomponent multilayer bandage systems (MLBs)

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Specifications

Rolled Bandages: Material:100% Cotton

Dimensions: 19 X 15, 25 X 18, 30 X 20Yarn: 40's x 40'sSize: 1", 2", 3", 4", 6" X 4,5,6,10 YARDS

Elastic Adhesive Bandage: Sizes 6.0 cm X 4 mtr. (St. Length) 8.0 cm X 4 mtr. (St. Length) 10.0 cm X 4 mtr. (St. Length) 15.0 cm X 4 mtr. (St. Length)

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PROPERTIES

General:A bandage is a material that supports the body and allows it to heal itself.

Elasticity :The elasticity of a bandage is the capacity of the stretched textile to return to its initial shape once the deformation force has been removed (its capacity to resist the stretching force).

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Extensibility : The extensibility is the

capacity of a material to be deformed when it is subjected to a constant traction force.

Loss of linear recovery assessed on the basis of a hysteresis graph.

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Interface pressures: The interface pressure is the pressure

measured in vivo between the compression system applied to a limb and the skin.

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Manufacturing Process

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The manufacturing process has different stages, through which material passes and changed into bandages.

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Cotton Wool Processing Lines

The processing of cotton wool starts from cotton wastes and low grade cottons.

Then its cleaned, bleached and dried, after carded and transformed in finished products.

Finished products of a cotton wool processing line, destined to the sanitary and cosmetic use.

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Gauze Bandage Manufacturing

MEDICAL is a special crochet machine for the production of cotton gauzes and elastic bandages in the requested width, with already-made selvedges.

It produce cotton gauzes starting from bleached cotton yarns.

The big versatility of this machine allows to produce a large variety of rigid and elastic bandages, by using yarns of different nature: cotton, wool, polyester, nylon, lycra, rubber threads.

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Specifications

The total width of the machine is 80 cm

Gauzes and bandages are produced in the requested width from min. 5 cm up to 30

cm. The output of gauzes and

bandages are rolled on big bobbins around 30 cm of diameter.

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Adhesive bandage manufacturing

ROTOPLASTER AC is used for the production and single-wrapping of adhesive first aid bandages

It can produce various sizes and shapes with island or continuous pad, round or square edges and hot perforation

Precision, simplicity and versatility are the characteristics of ROTOPLASTER AC machines

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Specifications

It has a production capacity up to 2000 pieces/min (based on size19x72 mm).

The production speed can vary according to the quality of raw materials.

The machine are completely controlled by electronics.

No manual regulation is requested on this machine, which is self-regulating.

The machines are fed from raw materials in reels ext. diameter 500 mm for adhesive substrates and 400 mm for all other materials.

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ROTOPLASTER AC can produce all usual formats and sizes of adhesive first aid bandages

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Elastic bandage An elastic bandage having a resilient elastic

layer and a relatively non-resilient layer to limit the stretching of the elastic layer so the bandage is not applied too tightly.

An elastic bandage for use on human limbs which consists of a length of tubular elastic material which can be easily slipped over the user's hand or foot.

It often called an "ace wrap," the elastic bandage is a roll of loose-weave cloth containing elastic strands. Wrapped around the extremity or trunk, it squeezes the underlying tissues.

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Uses

compression of injuries such as a sprain or bruise

elastic immobilization or support of injured parts

 securing the dressing on a large open wound

control of bleeding in wounds or fractures

symptom control in rib fracture

.

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Non Elastic bandage

An elastic bandage is disclosed having a nonelastic absorbent nonwoven web, a non-elastic breathable nonwoven web, and a melt spun elastomeric material disposed between the two webs

Non-elastic compression has been used to treat venous insufficiency of the lower extremities

It is more effective at reducing deep venous refluxes than elastic bandages in patients with venous ulcers.

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Supporting bandage A support bandage is a form of bandage

that assists the healing of injured muscles and bones, helps slow the bleeding of a wound, or provides support to prevent injuries from occurring.

A bandage for forming a stiffening or supporting cast comprising a carrier material and a composition thereon.

The supportive bandages can help prevent damage and injury to the area in which it is applied.

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Types of support bandages

compression bandage Elastic bandage Pressure bandage

The type that should be used varies based on the situation and on the intended purpose of the dressing.

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Compression bandages A self-sticking compressive

bandage effective for cooling and compressing an injured body part of a human being or an animal.

The bandage comprises a flexible, open-cell, synthetic resin foam impregnated with a hydrous gel.

The bandage is effective to cool the skin by evaporative cooling and by refrigeration caused by contact of the gel with the skin.

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Types of compression bandages

Short stretch compression bandages: This type of bandage that is capable of shortening around the limb after application and is therefore not exerting ever-increasing pressure during inactivity

Long stretch compression bandages: have long stretch properties, meaning their high compressive power can be easily adjusted.

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Retention Bandages

Retention bandages are used to hold a dressings or devices in place. 

These bandages should have a high degree of conformability, excellent stretch characteristics and therefore offer little support value. 

The yarns are light weight and the weave is open to ensure the bandage is comfortable and allows free air circulation.

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Fluid-retentive bandage

A bandage which retains bodily fluids at least until such fluids reach the top of the dressing that may be placed in the bandage and which permits removal or replacement of the dressing without detaching the bandage from the patient.

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Bandaging Textiles

The fibers and fabrics used for bandages applications are dependent upon their intended functions.

Warp-knitted spacer fabrics Elasticated woven fabrics Tubular knitted hose with

elastane fiber Nonwovens

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Yarns used in bandages

Elastomeric yarns and Composite warp yarns.

The composite yarns(1)comprise a staple fibre yarn (2)and a textured filament yarn (3)which are twisted together; the staple fibre

yarn forms loops (4)which gives the bandage a crepe effect.

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Evaluation of bandages

The test methods vary for their types of bandages

Types of testing are as follows, Physical Testing Biological Testing

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Physical Testing BS EN 13726: 1 - Free

Swell Absorptive Capacity BS EN 13726: 1 - Fluid

Handling Capacity BS EN 13726: 1 - Fluid

Affinity of Amorphous Hydro gel

Dressings and Physical Characteristics

BS EN 13726: 3 - Waterproof ness

Conformability Extensibility British Pharmacopoeia

1993 - Foam Dressings British Pharmacopoeia

1993 - Film Dressings

British Pharmacopoeia 1993: Addendum 1995 - Alginate

Dressings British Pharmacopoeia 1993:

Addendum 1996 - Semi permeable

Hydrocolloids Wicking absorbency Absorbency/Fluid retention BS 7505 - Specification for

the elastic properties of flat, non-adhesive,

extensible fabric bandages WRAP dynamic absorbency

testing

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Biological Testing

Bacterial barrier testing BP 2002 - Sterility testing In vitro tissue compatibility testing ASTM E 2149-01 - Antimicrobial activity of

immobilized antimicrobial agents under dynamic conditions Antimicrobial activity - zone of inhibition (ZOI) Bacteriophage testing of barrier dressings

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Test Method For Adhesive Bandage

Adhesive bandages are suitable for venous disorders to a mild lymphoedematous adjunct.

Test Methods:

A. Primary Adhesive Strength Testing for Adhesive bandages

B. Lasting Adhesive Strength

Testing for Plasters C. The Peeling Strength Testing

for Adhesive bandages

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Primary Adhesive Strength Testing for Adhesive bandages:

Lab think CZY-G Primary Adhesive Tester is taken as example

Here glue strength test is established Lasting Adhesive Strength Testing for Plasters: Lab think CZY-6S Lasting Adhesive Tester as well

as YGJ-02 Adhesive Tape Rolling Tester is taken as examples.

Slip time as well as a descending time is recorded

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Peeling Strength Testing for Adhesive bandages:

Lab think BLD-200S Peeling Strength Tester or XLW Auto Tensile Tester is taken as example

According to a pharmacopoeia, 180 grade bark strength contrast is adopted.

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End Uses of bandages Fingertip Bandage:

protecting a shallow laceration of the fingertip or thumb tip covering a small chin or nose abrasion

Knuckle Bandage:

protecting a shallow laceration on a knuckle covering an abrasion on a "curve"

Roll Gauze Roller gauze is used to secure dressings

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Triangular Bandage: used as a tie for a splint on the arm or leg. Non-adherent Pad: Non-adherent pads are useful to cover open

wounds such as burns and abrasions. Padding Roll Gauze: It absorbs ooze or blood, and prevents dryness in

an open wound. Bandages for Lymphoedema

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Pressure garments

Pressure garments prevent and control the formation of hypertrophic scars by applying counter pressure to the wounded area.

Pressure garments aid in reducing the effects hypertrophic scarring there by reducing scarring

and deformities. Pressure garments play a vital role in the proper

healing of wounds and reduce the effects of scaring.

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The continuous wearing of pressure garments prevents the thickening, buckling, and nodular formations seen in hypertrophic scars.

The external pressure applied by the garments decreases inflammatory response and the amount of blood in the scar, reducing itching and prevents collagen from synthesizing.

Additionally pressure garments provide protection against injury.

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