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School of Library and Information Science Devi Ahilya University Indore (MP)
Submitted To:-Dr. G.H.S. NaiduHOD, School of LISUTD,DAVV , Indore
Submitted By:-D.P. KushwahRoll No.M.Phil-04DAVV , Indore
Contents Introduction to the term “Bibliometrics”Origin of the term “Bibliometrics”DefinitionsObjectivesScopeWhy BibliometricsApplications of BibliometricsBibliometrics LawsLotka’s LawBradford’s lawZipf’s LawConclusion
Introduction to the term "Bibliometrics”
Origin of the term “Bibliometrics”
Biblio + Metrics = Bibliometrics
“Biblio” is originated from Greek word “Biblion” which means “Book” or “Paper”
“Metrics” is originated from Greek or Latin word “Metricus” or “Metrikos” which means the science of Meter or to measure
Continued 1….Bibliometrics is a set of methods used to study or
measure texts and information. Citation analysis and content analysis are commonly used in Bibliometrics methods. While Bibliometrics methods are most often used in the field of library and information science.
Bibliometrics uses mathematical and statistical methods to analyse and measure the output of publications. Modern Bibliometrics has been largely inspired by Derek de Solla Price and the seminal work was carried out by him in the middle of the last century.
Origin Of the term Bibliometrics
The term “Bibliometrics” by Pritchard and “Scientometrics” by Nalimov and Mulchenko have been introduced almost simultaneously in 1969. While Pritchard explained the term Bibliometrics as "the application of mathematical and statistical methods to Bibliographic information of books and other media of communication”.
Nalimov and Mulchenko defined Scientometrics as "the application of those quantitative methods which are dealing with the analysis of science viewed as an information process" (Nalimov and Mulchenko, 1969). According to these interpretations, Scientometrics is restricted to the measurement of science communication, whereas Bibliometrics is designed to deal with more general information processes.
According to Potter :- “The Study and measurement of Publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship”.
According to Alan Pritchard :- “Studies which seek to quantify the process of written communication”.
According to Alvin M. Schrader :- “Scientific study of recorded discourses”.
ObjectivesAnalysis of Information Transfer Process and
Control on.To tell about the structure of Knowledge and its
transmission.The rendering of reliable statistics.The definition of the delimitation of the subject.Understanding of specific reading habits.To point out the inherent relevant importance of
Several types of documents in the various disciplines.
ScopeIdentification of the main journals.Ranking of journals.Selection magazines.Sort of magazines.Make known to the mutual influence of
magazines.Development and expansion of knowledge in
various fields,An institution, contribute to the scientific
progress of the nation or individual,Continued ….
Research methodology in making.Duties of different themes and readers in
identifying documents.Documentation in a specific area to detect
progress.The same theme order creating a list of
scientists and information specialists.Measuring the usefulness of information
services,Formulation of principles for standardization.
To identify which areas are most active and which are becoming important.
Identify the influences & “cross fertilizations”.
Useful to the policy makers who are deciding the priority areas in a certain research domain.
Applications of Bibliometrics To identify research trends and growth of
knowledge. To estimate comprehensiveness of secondary
periodicals. Library selection, weeding, policies Information
organization Information management. To identify users of different subjects. To identify authorship and its trends in documents
on various subjects. To forecast past, present and future publishing
trends. To predict productivity of publishers, individual
authors, organizations and countries.
Lotka’s Law (1926)
Bradford’s Law (1934)
Zipf’s Law (1935)
Lotka’s Law (1926)
The Frequency Distribution of Scientific Productivity
“It would be of interest to determine, if possible, the part which men of different caliber contribute to the progress of science considering first simple volume of production.
Alfred J. Lotka.
Lotka’s law: xn • y = C Xnœ1/y xn = c1/y C=xn yThe total number of authors y in a given subject, each producing x publications, is inversely proportional to some exponential function n of x.Where:
x = number of publicationsy = no. of authors credited with x
publicationsn = constant (equals 2 for
scientific subjects)C = constant
inverse square law of scientific productivity
Lotka’s LawThe number of authors making ncontributions to the literature is about1/n2 of those making one– 60% of authors make one contribution– 15% of authors make two contributions– <7% of authors make three contributions– <4% of authors make four contributions– <2.5% of authors make five contributions– 1.25% of authors make six contributions– <1% of authors make seven contributions
Lotka’s Law Example : Out of 1000 authors– 608 publish 1 article– 152 publish 2 articles– 68 publish 3 articles– 38 publish 4 articles– 24 publish 5 articles– 17 publish 6 articles– 12 publish 7 articlesNot exact prediction but holds trueoverall in most fields
Bradford’s Law (1934)
"If scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of articles on a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and several groups or zones containing the same number of articles as the nucleus, when the numbers of periodicals in the nucleus and succeeding zones will be as n : n2 : n3. Samual.Climent Bradford
© Tefko Saracevic 19
Bradford's Law of Scattering – zones
3 sources 130 articles
9 sources 130 articles
27 sources 130 articles Garfield hypothesis
Bradford’s Law of ScatteringIn any field of interest, relevant journals can be split into three groupsEach group contributes the same number of relevant articles to citations in the field# of 1st group journals = k3 sources = 130 articles # of 2nd group journals = k*n9 sources = 130 articles# of 3rd group journals = k*n227 sources = 130 articles
© Tefko Saracevic 21
Bradford's Law of Scattering – an idealized example
No. of source journals
No. of articles per source
Total no. of articles60703050183260352015
© Tefko Saracevic 22
Zipf’s law(1935) : r • f = c Rœ1/f R= c1/f r • f = c
Where:r = rank (in terms of frequency)f = frequency (no. of times the given word is used in the text)c = constant for the given text
For a given text the rank of a word multiplied by the frequency is a constant
Works well for high frequency words, not so well for low – thus a number of modificationsGeorge Kingsley Zipf
Zipf’s Law of term distribution
In a document of ca. 10,000 words the most frequently used word is “the” at 950 Times.
the 2nd most frequently used word is “a” at 490 Times.
the 3rd most frequently used term is “in” at 340 Times.
the 1000th most frequently used term is “fruit” at 1 time.
Zipf’s Law of term distribution
Frequency x occurrences = constant1 x 950 = 9502 x 490 = 9803 x 340 = 10201000 x 1 = 1000Constant = 1000 for this document
As conclusion we can say that, Bibliometrics is a major sub-discipline of quantitative research. This is a tool used by the library and information science professionals for studying the communication processes, information flows, and for better understanding and effective management and dissemination of information. Bibliometrics techniques are being used for a variety of purposes like determination of various scientific indicators, valuation of scientific output, selection of journals for libraries and even forecasting the potential of a particular field.
Continued 1…. It is effective for, measuring the scattering of
articles on a subject in various periodicals (Bradford), measuring the productivity of an author based on the number of published articles. (Lotka), Ranking of words in a text based on frequency of occurrence of words. (Zipf), Productivity count of a literature, identifying the peers, social change and the core journals etc. (Citation Analysis), Bibliographic control, Preparation of retrospective bibliography and better Library Management. Hence We can conclude that, There is an important role of Bibliometrics and Bibliometrics Laws in the field of Library and Information Science.
Reference Google search-https://www.google.comNotes of related subject Teacher Mr. Ritesh TiwariUse of journals.Study Materials.Sharma,A.K. Research Methodology and Information
Technology.New Delhi : Ess Ess Publication p 162-69BROOKES, B.C., Biblio-, sciento-, infor-metrics???
What are we talking about, In: L. Egghe, R. Rousseau (Eds.), Informetrics 89/90, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1990, 31-43