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    BY: GROUP 3-A

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    is the direct willful destruction of ones ownlife

    It is willful in so far a deliberate, voluntary and

    intentional: and it is destructive in so far asthe means of terminating ones own life is,more often than not, violent, brutal or veryharsh.

    Suicide as an act of self-destruction, indicatesfor an individual, for various reasons no longerregards life as worth living.

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    religious

    cultural

    personal

    financial

    Social

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    RELIGIOUS REASONS

    In recent times, even from Roman Catholic,

    Irishmen, and Buddhist Vietnamese have

    committed suicide through self-immolation or

    self-starvation in order to achieve political

    objective.

    the Buddhist monks who burned themselves

    to death in protest against tyranny ofVietnam.

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    RELIGIOUS REASONS

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    CULTURAL REASONS

    The kamikaze pilots during the WWII viewed suicide asa heroic act of sacrifice for their country.

    Moreover, the Japanese Shintoists believe that onewho dies for ones country becomes one of the deities.

    This explains the unconditional readiness andwillingness of the Japanese soldiers to die for their owncountry during a war (e.g. suicide-pilot squadron andthe practice of hara-kiri). For the Shintoists claim that

    even their spirits (soul) can help defend their land fromexternal aggressors.

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    CULTURAL REASONS

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    PERSONAL REASONS

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    The personal reasons may include:

    1. Misfortune and frustration in love or

    marriage. (e.g. desertion by ones beloved

    spouse)

    2. Parental indifference or apathy towards ones

    boyfriend/girlfriend.

    3. In-law problems especially if victims live

    with their parents in-law.

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    The personal reasons may include:

    1. Failure in an examination.

    2. Loss of honor and integrity. (e.g. shame and

    self-pity resulting from pregnancy caused by

    rape or incest)

    3. Nervous breakdown due to ones inability to

    cope with lifes problems. (e.g. culture shock,

    inability to adjust to new situations or new

    responsibilities)

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    FINANCIAL REASONS

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    FINANCIAL REASONS

    1. Poverty and impoverishment. (e.g. parents

    and children burn themselves to death

    because of extreme deprivation )

    2. Great loss of money or collapse of business

    venture

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    SOCIAL AND POLITICAL REASONS

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    Social and political reasons include:

    1. Failed coup dtat. (e.g. many of the coup

    plotters against Mikhail; Gorbachew who

    failed, resorted to suicide.

    2. Protest against mans inhumanity to man.

    (e.g. the practice of self-immolation among

    the Buddhist monks)

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    Flavius Josephus

    a famous soldier, statesman and historian who

    was the commander of a defeated army

    Against his soldiers wishes to kill themselves and

    avoid surrender in shame.

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    Josephus argued:

    1. Suicide is a crime which is contrary to thecommon nature of all animals (e.g. the

    instinct of survival - animals) are all naturallyinclined to preserve themselves; and

    2. The soul is the depositum(deposited for

    safekeeping) received from God, so that tokill oneself is contrary to the divine will, andis hence a wicked act

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    St. Augustine

    was Bishop of Hippo . He was a Latin-speaking

    philosopher and theologian who lived in the

    Roman Africa Province. His writings were veryinfluential in the development of Western

    Christianity.

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    St. Augustine contented:

    1. Suicide is itself a greater sin than any and all sins

    that could allegedly avoided bycommitting it;

    2. Self-murder is against the fifth

    commandment ("Thou shalt not kill.")

    3. Suicide deprives one of the opportunity to

    repent; and4. It is an ignoble act through which one attempts

    to escape the ills of life (Wiliams 1972:43).

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    St. Thomas Aquinas

    was an Italian Dominican priest of the Catholic

    Church, and an immensely influential philosopher

    and theologian in the tradition of scholasticism,known as Doctor Angelicus, Doctor Communis, or

    Doctor Universalis.

    He was the foremost classical proponent of

    natural theology

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    St. Thomas three fold argument:

    1. Suicide is against natural law (e.g., ournatural inclination of self-preservation and

    conservation) this is a sort of self-kindness orcharity that one owes oneself.

    2. Being a member of a society, a person who killshimself will deprive the community (e.g., family,

    relatives, friends, coworker) of his activity - theylikewise will be affected by his sudden, if notviolent, death; and

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    3.) Suicide is a usurpation of God's function - Life

    is God's gift to man, & hence suicide

    involves an arrogant act which one is not a

    liberty to perform (Wiliams 1972:43).

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    Michael de Montaigne French essayist and skeptical philosopher, was the

    first to explicitly question the views of Augustine

    and Aquinas.

    He argued: if and when an individual reaches apoint where what he feels is terrible pain, agony,

    and misery, then suicide becomes excusable-

    permissible.

    In his view ones fear of suffering that is worse

    than death itself is the most excusable incitement

    to self-killing

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    John Dome

    a British clergyman and a religious writer, criticizedthe Christian prohibition of suicide as a self-serving forcapitalists and Christian authorities who exploit andoppress their laborers.

    He explained that the proscription of the Church ismerely a part of the economic enslavement oflaborers.

    Suicide, in his view, is a means of liberating oneself

    from exploitation and oppression. Thus, the probationof suicide is surreptitious way of preventing themasses from escaping the tasks expected of them bythe prohibitors.

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    Baron de Montesquieu a philosopher and political theorist, also justified

    suicide by saying:

    1. It is unjust to compel a person to labor for a society

    he no longer consents to be a member of. Thisjustifies the act of terminating ones own life;

    2. The act of suicide does not disturb the order of

    providence, nor does any other human act alter the

    modifications of matter; and

    3. Though the soul is separated from the body the

    order or regularity in the universe never changes

    (Williams 1972:43)

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    David Hume

    Scottish philosopher defended suicide:

    a) The removal of misery makes suicide morallyjustifiable and permissible; to bear unbearable pain is

    in no way part of a natural inclination;b) Moral duty is reciprocal; while alive and healthy, it is

    my bounden duty to render service to society as itprotects me in return, but when my life becomes aliability and a burden to society, my withdrawal is notonly innocent but laudable;

    c) There is no such thing as order designed by God;mans life is as disposable as that of an oysters(William 1972:43-44)

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    Natural law ethics

    with its principle of stewardship considers suicide

    as self-murder

    An individual has no right to murder himself as he

    has no right to murder someone else.

    Only an individual who has dominion over a thing

    has the right to destroy it. No individual, however,has dominion over his life, for it is but a gift to

    him.

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    Natural law ethics

    No person has acquired it through his own effort

    and industry. He hasnt purchased it but ratherreceived it as a gift from God; hence, the latter

    alone has dominion over an individuals life. A

    person is only a steward, a caretaker at most.

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    The utilitarians principle of utility

    utility seems to be in keeping with the argumentthat an individual may deliberately terminate his

    own life if and when suffering becomes too muchto bear.

    Besides, whenever one has become a financialburden and a liability due to prolonged, incurable

    disease, then an appeal to the greatest happinessfor the greatest number principle becomesjustifiable. This is arguable, however.

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    Kants ethics

    within the context of the categorical imperatives notusing oneself only as means but always as an end,may be taken as a rejection or prohibition of suicide.

    On the other hand, advocates of the principle ofautonomy (or right of self-determination) may appealto Kants concept of a rational beings autonomy andself-regulating will to support and justify their

    argument that an individual not only has a duty topreserve his life, but also to die with dignity if andwhen the situation warrants such a moral decision.

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    The conduct of clinicians is guided by ethicscodes that provide nominal protection to suicidalclients. The codes draw on these principles:

    Autonomy - Respect for the individual self-determination

    Beneficence - Doing the greatest good possible

    Non-maleficence - Minimizing or preventing

    harm

    Justice- Fairness and equal access to care.

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    Bioethics has developed responsibilities based

    on autonomy:

    Respect for person - The basis of client rights

    Telling the truth and giving all the facts -

    Disclosure

    Confidentiality - Maintaining client privacy

    Fidelity - Doing the job" and "being there" for theclient.

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    Beneficence

    is acting in the best interest of clients.

    Non-maleficence

    is minimizing harm. Justice is treating individuals

    fairly.

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    Autonomy and Suicide

    This principle impacts the clinical response to all

    suicidal individuals.

    It calls for respect, dignity, and choice. The last oftentakes precedence.

    Respect for personal rights: This duty sanctifies choice.

    Suicide is the outcome of psychological debilitation.

    Extending autonomy to those so afflicted facilitatessuicide. Respect for the individual is better served by

    recognizing their vulnerability.

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    Telling the truth:Clients who are at risk deservecandor as to their exposure and means ofintervention. Clinicians with strong views aboutsuicide should disclose them or refer the client

    elsewhere. Confidentiality: This presents many dilemmas.

    Suicidality and secrecy are a fatal combination. Insome states clinicians may breach confidentiality

    if the client is a danger to themselves or others.Therapists must disclose if the client is a threat toothers. Disclosure of suicidality not mandated.

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    Fidelity: Clinicians are to be faithful to clients.

    The risk of suicide must be taken seriously and

    be acknowledged as the primary problem.

    Fidelity also demands that clinicians updatetheir views and skills. Outmoded views of

    suicide put clients at risk.

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    Beneficence and Suicide

    Clinicians must be proactive in working for the

    client's well-being.

    Beneficence should not be sacrificed to autonomyif the client is suicidal.

    Beneficence is caring not just treatment.

    Every attempt at intervention is warranted.

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    Non-maleficence and Suicide

    Clinicians must strive to protect clients from harm.

    Non-maleficence calls for whatever it takes to

    assure the client's life.

    Justice and Suicide

    Clinicians must treat all consistently. Fairnesscannot be assumed.

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    Concluding Comments:

    Clinicians often equate what's legal with

    what's ethical. In most cases, the law sets only

    minimum standards of conduct. Ethics

    demands more. This is especially true in

    regard to suicidal individuals.

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    ur group s strong y aga nst su c e. rue t s t at

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    ur group s strong y aga nst su c e. rue t s t atevery patient has the right to self-determination as

    stated in the principle of autonomy and it is likely to

    be the very principle being violated if you try to save

    suicide victims. However, we have the principle of

    beneficence and non-malfeasance supporting our

    interventions. Moreover, there are also points to

    consider when practicing the principle of autonomyand these are: a) mental capacity, b) options, and c)

    independence. Perhaps independence is practiced but

    mental capacity and options are in question. This

    usually happens when a person is very vulnerable or

    in a state of depression which hinders the mind to

    look at alternatives and see only one way- to commit

    suicide.

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    "No. Choice implies that a suicidal

    person can reasonably look at

    alternatives and select among them.

    If they could rationally choose, it

    would not be suicide. Suicidehappens when all other alternatives

    are exhausted -- when no otherchoices are seen."

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