biotechnology in livestock production definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive...

of 45 /45
Biotechnology in Livestock Production

Upload: nathan-maynard

Post on 27-Mar-2015

230 views

Category:

Documents


0 download

TRANSCRIPT

Page 1: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Biotechnology in Livestock Production

Page 2: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Definition the science of altering

genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Page 3: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Two areasgenetic engineeringembryo transfer

Page 4: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Genetic Engineering is based on a technology

involving recombinant DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

Page 5: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Genetic Engineering involves taking a tiny bit of

DNA containing the desired gene from one organism and splicing it into the DNA strand of another organism

Page 6: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Genetic Engineeringpurpose - to have the

recipient organism take on the characteristic controlled by the transferred gene

Page 7: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Examplesdisease resistant animalsgrowth regulatorsnew drugs and vaccines

Page 8: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Examplesspecify size and sex of

animalsorganism that “eats” oil

used in the Persian Gulf

Page 9: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

BSTBovine Somatotropin

(Bovine Growth Hormone)Somatotropins are proteins

that affect the utilization of energy in the body

Page 10: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

BSTcauses energy derived

from feed to be used for milk production rather than weight gain

Page 11: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

BSTdoes not reduce energy

available for body maintenance

increases energy available by improving breakdown of fat and increasing appetite

Page 12: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

BSTsmall amounts of BST are

produced naturally in the cow by the pituitary gland

Page 13: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

BSTpreviously, the only source

of BST for research has been from pituitary glands of dead cows

Page 14: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

BSTnow, because of genetic

engineering, large quantities of BST can be produced

Page 15: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

BSTgene that controls BST

production is spliced into the DNA of a bacteria “Agrobacteria”

is injected into a cow

Page 16: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

BSTcausing increased BST

production in the cow

Page 17: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

BST research at the University of

Wisconsin-Madison and Cornell University in New York has showed an average increase of 40% over lactation (305 days)

Page 18: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Formula20,000# X 40% = 8000# of

extra milk8000# @ $10/cwt =$800

Page 19: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Porcine Somatotropin is produced naturally by

the pituitary gland of the pig

it acts as a growth regulator

Page 20: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

PSTproduction decreases as

an animal matures

Page 21: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

PSTproduced through RDNA

technology

Page 22: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

PSThow it works

•A. causes an increase in cell division in muscle tissue.

•B. causes decrease in fat storage and increases in accumulation of protein.

Page 23: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

PSTC. improves feed

efficiency and decrease fat deposition

Page 24: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

ResultsA. increase in feed efficiency

29%B. increase daily gain 19%C. increase loin eye area 12%D. decreases fat 33%

Page 25: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Resultsmust be injected daily

Page 26: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Opposition to “Biotech” people fearproduction of new

uncontrollable disease freak animals

Page 27: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Opposition to “Biotech” long term adverse effects

of environment from products

Page 28: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Biotech in Crop Production lowered costs and

increased yields improved feeding valuesnew corn plant

Page 29: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Biotech in Crop Productionproduces higher levels of

tryptophanamino acid essential for

protein formation in an animals body.

Page 30: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Biotech in Crop Production the first plant patented

Page 31: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Other areas researchedherbicide resistancepest resistance frost resistancesalt tolerantdrought resistance

Page 32: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Embryo Transferwell established in cattle

industry, especially dairy

Page 33: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Processcow is treated with

hormones to cause “superovulation”

can produce as many as 25 eggs

Page 34: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Processdonor cow then artificially

inseminated

Page 35: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Processduring this process,

“Recipient” cows or heifers are treated with hormones to synchronize their heat cycle to be the same as the donor cow.

Page 36: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Processafter the eggs are fertilized

and before they leave the oviduct, the cow is “flushed” with a saline solution or a solution of egg yolk and D.M.S.O.

Page 37: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Processovaries and oviducts are

massaged & flushed with fluid-which washes the fertilized eggs out of the body into a cylinder

Page 38: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Process individual embryos are

located under a microscope and put into a straw

Page 39: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Processembryos may be frozen

much the same as cattle semen samples

first research in the U.S. was done in central WI in 1982

Page 40: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Process freezing protocol now widely

usedmost transfer work is done

non-surgically with success rates of approximately 75%

Page 41: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Splitting research has also

successfully split embryos resulting in as many as 5 identical calves

Page 42: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Slow Progressmany characteristics are

controlled by multiple genes instead of a single gene

Page 43: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Slow Progress lack of money for researchgovernment regulationsenvironmental groups

filing lawsuits to stop research and testing

Page 44: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

Slow Progressmany farmers don’t

support genetic engineering because they feel we already have surplus production

Page 45: Biotechnology in Livestock Production Definition ntnthe science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals