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Of the five human senses, sight undoubtedly has the most powerful effect on consumer perceptions. The famous Greek philosopher Aristotle indicated that all perceptions are triggered by witness. The research of Linstorm (2005) also revealed that 83% of human beings use sight as the receiver to obtain messages among the five senses. Gobe (2001) considered sight the most noticeable sensing tool in humans. Human beings have a direct reaction to color and shape; hence, designers utilize color traits to enhance the sight memory of brands and improve the ability to identify brands (Perry and Wisonm, 2003). Colors are embedded with messages and can trigger special reactions between the central nervous system and the cerebral cortex. The seven-second color theory in marketing, proposed in the 1980s in Europe, indicates that consumers experience their first impression of sight memory for products within 0.67 seconds. The first impression dominates 67% of the purchasing process which comes from colors. That is, humans memorize and recognize the color and shape of a product within seven seconds. 62% of people associate product brands via colors after watching a three-second advertisement (Junichi, 1994). Igloo Products Corporation used a color consultant to develop colored coolers and increased 15% of sales (Lane, 1991). A research from Loyola University (2007) in the US indicated that using colors to manifest critical messages enhances attention by 82% and brand recognition by 80%. Colors also create a positive image and 83% of businessmen believe that colors on a brand label result in successful business. However, Grossman and Wisenblit (1999) indicated that research on colors in the marketing field is still in the preliminary stage. This research considers using colors to manifest corporate brand image and charm. Keller and Lehmann (2006) specified potential research questions, such as brand experience and corporate image and reputation. In particular, the sense experiences (involving sensory perception) and visual effect of branding are extremely significant. The wrong use of color traits may deliver wrong messages from an enterprise perspective. This paper utilizes Birren s (1961) color theory to identify color traits and interpret personality and emotion of colors. This study explores the consistency between corporate brand color traits and the vision and goal of corporate identity . Moreover , the present study also uses Aaker s honeycomb model to interpret consumer perception of brand identity based on color traits. Hence, this research investigates three research questions: (1) How traits associated with colors affect consumer perception of brand identity; (2) How corporate identity utilizes traits associated with colors to deliver messages to customers, and (3) Color performance in corporate branding Color theory Colors are formed by light, which is also a type of energy. Scientists have investigated that people experience psychological change when they are in contact with different colors. Colors can stimulate, excite, and form different emotions (Perry and Wisonm, 2003). Each color results in various reactions (Schmitt and Simonson, 1997). Color with a long

wavelength has a stimulus effect; for example, red is a vivid color. A short wavelength of color has a comfort effect; for example, blue can reduce blood pressure and pulse. Orange indicates friendliness, pink represents softness, and grey specifies professionalism (Gobe, 2001). In the research of human media interaction (HMI), Nijdam (2009) utilized certain color area theories to intro-duce color characteristics and emotions. In the first color theory, Goethe (1808) proposed the concept of a color circle that separates colors into positive and negative parts. Positive colors include yellow, orange, and red that represent conspicuous, vivid, and ambitious. Negative colors include blue and purple that represent obedient and admirable. In the research from Claudia Cortes laboratory, the concept of color meanings was proposed and indicates the specific traits of colors. Shirley Willetts color codification of emotions is the major foundation for interpreting the emotions of colors as shown in Figure 1. The outside circle includes positive traits, the second circle represents six emotions, and the inside circle indicates negative traits which presents depression. Colors symbolize abstract concepts and affect psychology and emotion. Each color has its positive and negative traits to influence human emotions. Hence, this research synthesizes certain color theories from Nijdams study and Birren (1961) in Table 1. Perry and Wisonm (2003) considered how personal and cultural experience affects color associations. Gobe (2001) indicated that colors result in cultural and physical reactions. The concepts of the color circle (Goethe), the meaning of colors (Claudia Cortes), color meanings (Color Wheel), color codification (Shirley Willett), and color psychology (Birren) are different in terms of cultural experience and theoretical background. Hence, there are various definitions of color traits and emotions. However, these researches all consider that colors transmit specific traits and cause emotional reactions. This study utilizes Birrens research (color psychology) as its basis because the color psychology explanation is appropriate for interpreting color traits of corporate brands. Brand identityMost consumers treat brand and corporate name as the same concept. Kapferer (1992) specified that brand has specific and individual meaning after a time-period. Aaker (1995) considered that a strong brand needs an abun-dant and clear brand identity. Basically, brand identity represents the external image that the organization intends to present. Upshaw (1995) considered brand identity as the synthesis of text, image, intention, and customer perception of a brand. Brand identity is determined by the perception of a receiver. Good brand identity transmits appropriate brand essentials to form a superior brand image. Perry and Wisnom (2003) specified brand identity as composed of controllable elements of a companys product or service; for instance, position, text, vision, and experience. Schmitt (1997) specified brand identity to include the visual factor (e.g., color, type, line, and form), the hearing factor (e.g., volume), the touching factor, the tasting factor, and the smelling factor, the five senses of the brand. Brand identity provides visible value and creates company advantage. Knapp (2001) considered that the brand needs visual conversion to symbol, color, font, and style, to be efficiently and correctly delivered to consumers. Lindstrom (2005) specified that colors create obvious brand association, which is also concrete to

communicate with consumers. Different colors represent different emotions and affect consumer reactions; that is, brand color relates to brand personality (Moser, 2003). According to Knapps research, Aaker (2004) proposed a honeycomb model to describe the elements of brand identity (Figure 2). Core value, the companys commitment to its customers and employees, should be different from that of its competitors and should create value and trigger desires. Although it is the basis for a brands survival, core value is intangible and not always easy for people to identify. Ideal customer image drives brand traits through perceptions of similar values and beliefs between brands and customers. Emotional benefits mean that the brand causes positive responses from consumers, and functional benefits mean that the brand satisfies customer needs and solves their problems in differentiating products. Personality is a crucial element that makes brands significant and particular. Brand personality appeals to ideal consumers and builds solid relationships between brands and consumers. The base of authority refers to a competitors inability to imitate a firms personality and earn consumer trust through it. Finally, symbols guide people to generate images, establish brand identity, and build relationships with it. This research utilizes Aakers honeycomb model to measure customer perception of a brand identity

Table: Traits and emotions of colors

Importance of Color for Creating an Effective Brand Identity

Color is a Powerful Branding ToolWhat is the color of your brand? Color plays an important role and says a lot about you and your brand. Take as an example the Google logo. We can instantly recognize it from its characteristic colors.

What would the Google logo be without its current colors? What if it was colored gray? While Googles logo gallery features 1002 logos that include all these humorous cartoon modifications that we see on holidays, and major events, we all know that the combination of the blue, yellow, red and green letters is the distinctive symbol of this major search engine.

Color Bolsters Your Branding Attributes.Think of IBM, a company that is synonymous with Big Blue. Blue shows a sense of security and reliability. IBMs blue logo, designed in 1972, makes a distinctive statement about the companys expertise, innovation, service and trust, thereby reinforcing its strength in the industry. It is a great example of a simple, yet attractive and powerful emblem

Color Enables Brand RecognitionHow do you recognize your favorite brands? The color establishes the identity of business in the eyes of the client more than the actual letters within the logo. Think for a moment a few well-known brands, like Hertz, Avis, National Car Rental and Alamo. You instantly recognize their logo from a long distance because of their unique color.

Color makes brand memorable. Aside from being easily known and recognized, you can also easily leave a mark in the minds of the clients. Remember that they will only look at a certain product, website or brand for a few seconds. So, you have to make sure that with a little time, your brand can be retained in the mind of the clients. Colors can greatly help you to be remembered by clients. Color delivers information.

Since every color has a different association to various aspects of business, it can tell your client what particular information you would like to share to them. Like if you use green, what will come to the minds of your readers is the environment and nature. Just one look at it and they will know what your brand is about.

Color Evokes EmotionHow true is that, indeed! A womans heart rate is said to increase when she is holding a Tiffany light blue box. Tiffanys color is so important to the brand, they trademarked it. Tiffanys Blue Book catalogue was first published in 1878. Its unique color is now known worldwide as Tiffany Blue, and has become an international symbol of style and sophistication.

Color draws attention.

People usually find it boring to see things that are merely black and white. They are more attracted to things that are colorful. Even babies are attracted to colorful stuff especially if it uses primary colors. Same is true with adults. Colors attract them and it makes your brand more eyecatching.

Color allows you to shine out.

From your competitors, you will surely shine out if you are able to choose a color that sets you apart from them. So, in choosing your colors look at what your competitors are using. Use the opposite of their color in the color wheel. This way, you will have an edge over them.

A Guide to Choosing Colors for Your Brand One of the key elements of building a strong brand is color selection. Every color has a different feel and various associations. By choosing a color or a combination of colors for your brand identity, you will take on those associations. Colors will evoke certain emotions and feelings towards your brand so it is vital to choose a color that will represent your identity effectively. Research reveals people make a subconscious judgment about a person, environment, or product within 90 seconds of initial viewing and that between 62% and 90% of that assessment is based on color alone. Where to start? There is a great new tool which can help out with color selection called Cymbolism. Its an interactive survey of color and word associations. Every page loads a new word, for which you have to select a color you feel best represents it. The results are then aggregated and you can see most popular associations either by color or by word. To help you select the right color for your brand Ive aggregated the results from Cymbolism, and also provided examples of logos that use each color:

RedAction, Adventure, Aggressive, Blood, Danger, Drive, Energy, Excitement, Love, Passion, Strength and Vigor Red is an intense color. It can summon conflicting emotions from blood and warfare to love and passion. It is often used in logo design to grip the viewers attention and has been known to raise ones blood pressure or make people hungry.

Red Bull: 1987, Red Bull gets a double dose of red in its logo and is a great color choice for a logo that represents an energy drink company. The company markets the drink as, Red Bull vitalizes body and mind and Red Bull gives you wirings!. Both of these phrases reinforce why red was an excellent color choice for the logo. By accenting the red with yellow a loosely analogous color palette is created for the brand.

PinkAppreciation, Delicate, Femininity, Floral, Gentle, Girly, Gratitude, Innocence, Romantic, Soft and Tranquil Pink is a feminine color that conjures feelings of innocence and delicateness. Its a softer version of red that can stir up visions of little girls, bubble-gum and cotton candy. The color pink is also widely associated with breast cancer awareness. It is often used in logos to add a feminine flare.

Barbie: 1959, the color pink is very prominent in Mattels Barbie logo and supporting branding material. It is a fitting color for a toy that is marketed to little girls. The typeface compliments the color choice and helps to reinforce the brands positioning by giving the impression of a young girls handwriting.

OrangeAffordable, Creativity, Enthusiasm, Fun, Jovial, Lighthearted, High-Spirited and YouthfulOrange is made up of red and yellow and can represent attributes from each of those colors. Orange is less intense than red but still packs a lot of punch. It is more playful and youthful than red. You can commonly find it used in logos to create a playfulness or stimulate emotions and even appetites.

Nickelodeon: 1984, Orange is a perfect color choice for Nickelodeon whos target audience is children. Orange is fun, lighthearted and youthful which reflects the TV channels programming. The design of the Nickelodeon logo supports the youthful theme with the paint spattered backdrop and playful typography.

Yellow Caution, Cheerful, Cowardice, Curiosity, Happiness, Joy, Playful, Positivity, Sunshine and Warmth Yellow, much like red, can have conflicting messages. It can represent sunshine and happiness or caution and cowardice. Yellow is bright and highly visible which is why it can often be found on caution and other road signs. Yellow is often used in logo design to get attention, create happiness and warmth.

McDonalds: 1962, we all know the successful McDonalds franchise (aka The Golden Arches) and their slogan Im Loving It. Like Red Bull, McDonalds uses a loosely analogous color palette. The difference is that McDonalds is mainly yellow which fitting for this brand that focuses on children, playfulness and happiness. The red works well as an accent color and has been know to raise ones blood pressure and evoke hunger. Incidentally, this color combination has influenced many other fast food chains.

GreenCrisp, Environmental, Fresh, Harmony, Health, Healing, Inexperience, Money, Nature, Renewal and Tranquility Green represents life and renewal. It is a restful and soothing color but can also represent jealousy and inexperience. You can often find it used in companies that want to portray themselves as eco-friendly.

Animal Planet: 2008, Green is suitable logo color choice for a TV channel whos programming focuses solely on nature and animals. Theres a significant amount of controversy surrounding

this logo. So whether you like the logo or not, I think we can agree that the various tones of green are right on for this channel. The color conjures up imagery of jungles, grasses and nature in general.

BlueAuthority, Calm, Confidence, Dignity, Established, Loyalty, Power, Success, Secure and Trustworthy Blue is calming and can stir up images of authority, success and security. Most people can say they like at least one shade of blue. It is probably the most popular color in logo design and can be seen extensively in government, medical and fortune 500 company logos.

IBM: 1972, The blue in the IBM (aka Big Blue) logo represents a company that is nonthreatening yet stable and established. When Rand redesigned the IBM logo he replaced the solid type with 8 horizontal bars to represent speed and dynamism. While the logo typically isnt used in its original blue today, it is still a very prominent color in the IBM brand.

PurpleCeremony, Expensive, Fantasy, Justice, Mystery, Nobility, Regal, Royalty, Sophistication and Spirituality Purple implies royalty, mystery, spirituality and sophistication. Because purple is the combination of red and blue, it has both warm and cool properties. The color purple can be found in many education related and luxury product logos.

Hallmark: The Hallmark Company uses the slogan When you care enough to send the very best. The use of the color purple in the logo supports the marketing message of the company. It implies royalty, expense and sophistication which is reinforced by the crown icon that hovers over the type.

BrownCalmness, Depth, Earth, Natural, Roughness, Richness, Simplicity, Serious, Subtle, Utility and Woodsy. Brown indicates nature, woodiness, and utility. Brown is used in logos related to construction and legal logos due to it simplicity, warmth and neutrality. What can Brown do for you? is the tagline for UPS which might be one of the most recognized brown logos.

UPS: 1961 and 2003, UPS uses the color brown to differentiate itself from the competition (i.e., the USPS and FedEx). While the color may be received by many as utilitarian, boring or conservative, UPS has taken ownership of the color and used it as a point of distinction. In the 2003 redesign the introduction of yellow brings some warmth, friendliness and a certain richness to the mark.

BlackAuthority, Bold, Classic, Conservative, Distinctive, Formality, Mystery, Secrecy, Serious and Tradition Black is technically, the absence of all color. Its a powerful and conjures authority, boldness, elegance and tradition. Black can be found in many logos for its boldness, simplicity and sophistication.

James Bond 007: 1962, The James Bond 007 logo is solid black. The color choice for the classic spy movies logo works well. The color represents the authority, mystery and sophistication that is a part of 007 movies.

GreyAuthority, Corporate Mentality, Dullness, Humility, Moody, Practicality, Respect, Somberness and Stableness Grey, is somewhere between black and white. From a moral standpoint, it is the area between good and evil. It is also known as neutral and cool. Grey is often used for the type within logos because it is neutral and works well with most other colors.

Swarovski Crystal: The logo for the luxury brand Swarovski, maker of lead crystal glass, is grey. The grey could be viewed to represent the lead that is a part of the product the company makes, but also

represents the respect and authority that comes from the history of a company that has been around for over 100 years.

White Cleanliness, Innocence, Peace, Purity, Refined, Sterile, Simplicity, Surrender and Truthfulness White is the universal color of peace and purity. It can often be found in logos as reversed text or negative space.

Girl Scouts: 1978, While green may be the more prominent color in the Girl Scouts logo it also uses the negative space to create the silhouettes of two faces. The combination of the silhouetted faces and the white create a certain purity and innocence in the logo.How to select your color

Look through the above for a quick overview of what each color stands for. Some questions to ask yourself:

What color represents your brand's personality? What color suits the characteristics of your product/service? What color does your competitor(s) use?