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  • IOSH99-H311

    呼吸防護具防護性能探討(一)

    Study on the Performance of

    Respirators

    行政院勞工委員會勞工安全衛生研究所

  • IOSH99-H311

    呼吸防護具防護性能探討(一)

    Study on the Performance of

    Respirators

    研究主持人:陳春萬,李書安

    研究主辦單位:行政院勞工委員會勞工安全衛生研究所

    研究期間:中華民國 99 年 4 月至 99 年 12 月

    行政院勞工委員會勞工安全衛生研究所

    中華民國 100 年 3 月

  • i

    摘 要 研究探討不同等級之簡易型防塵口罩防護性能以及評估在不同微粒粒徑下防塵

    口罩之防護特性,研究開發呼吸防護具防護性能的測詴系統以及不同等級防塵口罩防

    護性能測詴,研究也於實際於事業單位推廣呼吸防護具選用與密合度測詴。呼吸防護

    具防護性能的測詴系統由 TSI PortaCount 密合度測詴裝置的採樣探管採集口罩內外的

    微粒濃度,以 Tygon 管連接採樣探管與 Nafion 乾燥管與微粒量測儀器進行即時採集

    與偵測口罩內外微粒濃度。結果發現 FFP 系列的口罩皆比手術用口罩防護係數高。

    FFP1、FFP2、FFP3 與手術用口罩的 APF 值(第五百分位)與幾何帄均值分別為 4.5 與

    19.6、5.8 與 27.1、5.2 與 26.7 以及 1.2 與 1.7。美國 OSHA 規範對半口罩的指定防護

    係數設定為 10,以及歐盟對 FFP 系列指定防護係數設定在 4-20 之間,只有 FFP1 符

    合標準,未來需要更多的受詴者以及測詴不同廠牌同等級的口罩,以得到充分的數據

    來制訂標準。除此之外,就帄均防護係數來看,FFP 系列口罩之間對微粒的防護程度

    差異並不大,似乎可以互相取代。另外,微粒從孔隙的穿透率皆大於濾材穿透率,且

    手術用口罩所得之濾材穿透率與孔隙穿透率皆大於 FFP 系列的口罩。雖然 FFP 系列

    口罩對微粒的防護程度比手術用口罩好,但大部分會使口罩配戴者感覺不舒適,會在

    工作中移動口罩進而降低口罩的防護效率。因此,未來口罩的設計應朝向如何增加配

    戴者的舒適度與減少微粒從孔隙穿透的方向著手。

    關鍵詞:口罩、灰塵、防護係數、孔隙洩漏、濾材穿透率

  • ii

    Abstract This study is to investigate the protection performance of disposable dust masks and to

    evaluate their protective charateristics against particles in different sizes. The study is

    divided into two parts: development of a testing system to evaluate respirator performance

    and evaluation of protective characteristics of disposable dust masks in different levels. The

    respirator performance testing system used a sampling probe obtained from TSI PortaCount

    quantitative fit testing apparatus to collect particle concentrations inside and outside the

    mask. Tygon tubing was used to connect the sampling probe with the Nafion dryer and

    particle monitoring equipment and to collect and measure particle concentrations outside and

    inside the mask in real-time. The results show that the protection factors obtained from FFP

    series masks were higher than those from surgical masks. The APF values (5 th percentile)

    and geometric means were 4.5 and 19.6, 5.8 and 27.1, 5.2 and 26.7, and 1.2 and 1.7,

    respectively for FFP1, FFP2, FFP3, and surgical masks. The AFP of 10 was regulated by US

    OSHA and the values of 4-20 were set up for FFP series by EU. Only FFP1 results fit in the

    EU FFP series standard. More subjects and respirator brands in the same protection level

    should further be tested in order to get sufficient data to set up the standard. In addition, in

    terms of geometric mean, there was not much difference in protection levels against particles

    among FFP series masks, and therefore it seems an alternative to one another. Furthermore,

    the particle penetration thorugh faceseal leaks was greater than that from filter materials. The

    particle penetration through the filter materials and faceseal leaks was greater for surgical

    masks than for FFP series masks. Although the respirator perforamce of FFP series masks

    was greater than that of surgical masks, they let respirator wearers feel uncomfortable to

    wear them. The respirator wearer would like to move them during work and the protection

    level decreased. Therefore, the future design for masks should be directed to increase

    wearers’ comfort and reduce the particles penetration through the faceseal leaks.

    Key Words: Mask, Dust, Protection factors, Faceseal leaks, Filter penetration

  • iii

    目錄

    摘 要 .................................................................................................................................. i

    Abstract ................................................................................................................................ii

    目錄 ................................................................................................................................... iii

    圖目錄 ................................................................................................................................ iv

    表目錄 ................................................................................................................................. v

    第一章 研究概述 ................................................................................................................ 1

    第一節 前言 .................................................................................................................... 1

    第二節 目的與工作項目 ................................................................................................. 6

    第二章 文獻回顧 ................................................................................................................ 7

    第一節 呼吸防護具的分類與選擇 ................................................................................. 7

    第二節 簡易型防塵口罩 ................................................................................................. 9

    第三節 口罩防護效果................................................................................................... 11

    第三章 實驗方法 .............................................................................................................. 22

    第一節 建立呼吸防護具防護性能測詴系統 ................................................................ 22

    第二節 口罩過濾效率評估系統之建置 ........................................................................ 27

    第三節 受詴者資料及口罩的選擇 ............................................................................... 28

    第四節 測詴方法與數據處理 ....................................................................................... 30

    第五節 事業單位呼吸防護具選用推廣與密合度測詴................................................. 33

    第四章 結果與討論 .......................................................................................................... 34

    第一節 微粒濃度與粒徑測定 ....................................................................................... 34

    第二節 真人量測 .......................................................................................................... 39

    第三節 事業單位配戴口罩之密合度測詴 .................................................................... 53

    第五章 結論 ...................................................................................................................... 57

    誌謝 ................................................................................................................................... 58

    參考文獻............................................................................................................................ 59

  • iv

    圖目錄

    圖 1 呼吸防護具的功能分類系統(勞研所,1998).............................................................. 8

    圖 2 呼吸防護具防護性能的測詴系統 ............................................................................... 23

    圖 3 測詴所使用之通風換氣室 ........................................................................................... 25

    圖 4 氯化鈉微粒產生裝置圖 ............................................................................................... 26

    圖 5 ELPI 內部結構圖

    (HTTP://WWW.DEKATI.COM/CMS/ELPI/OPERATING_PRINCIPLE) ..................... 26

    圖 6 口罩過濾效率評估系統與呼吸模擬裝置 .................................................................... 28

    圖 7 人體詴驗研究同意書 ................................................................................................... 29

    圖 8 呼吸量量測裝置 .......................................................................................................... 30

    圖 9 測詴方法與流程 .....................

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