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Stephan Floyd MKTG 313-001 Assignment 2 (Celebrity Endorsement Analysis) October 13, 2009

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Page 1: Celebrity Endorsement Analysis

Stephan FloydMKTG 313-001

Assignment 2 (Celebrity Endorsement Analysis)October 13, 2009

Page 2: Celebrity Endorsement Analysis

Advertiser: Movado WatchesSource: GQ Magazine, October 2009Celebrity: Wynton Marsalis, Jazz Trumpeter and Composer

This advertisement for Movado watches is a two-page centerfold featuring the jazz trumpeter

and composer Wynton Marsalis on the left page and a full page photograph of new se extreme

watch by Movado on the right.

(1) The likely target market for this advertisement most likely consists of well-established,

professional males aged thirty and above. This is the likely target market for several reasons.

First, the medium used to deliver the advertisement, GQ magazine, is a men’s magazine

focused on an older, more mature male demographic. This is apparent through the content

featured in a typical issue of GQ. This content includes political commentary, interviews with

novelists and film directors as well as fashion advice for the modern professional man. This is in

stark contrast to many other men’s magazines, such as Maxim, that appeal to a younger, more

immature demographic.

The targeting of this more-professional target market is reinforced through the concurrent

advertising featured in the magazine. Many of the additional advertisements in the magazine

are for more upscale products and feature a higher caliber of advertising. Such advertisers

include high-end men’s wear lines like Ralph Lauren, Burberry and Giorgio Armani, car

manufacturers like Mercedes and pricier cigarette manufacturers like Davidoff. These

advertisements appear more refined and appeal to a more sophisticated and more established

male demographic.


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(2) Wynton Marsalis’ credibility as the spokesperson for Movado is weak in terms of expertise,

however, is much stronger in terms of trustworthiness. As a jazz musician, there is no specific

aspect of Marsalis’ career that directly establishes his expertise as a connoisseur of watches.

However, Marsalis’ lifestyle may be a factor that establishes his expertise on the subject. His

position in the limelight, as well as his success as a jazz musician and composer, affords Marsalis

the opportunity to appreciate and purchase high-end watches, such as the se extreme by

Movado. Therefore, indirectly, Marsalis may be suggesting that this product is one that he

chooses over other high-end luxury watches available to him, such as those from Rolex or


Marsalis’ trustworthiness as a spokesperson is supported through his various achievements as a

musician, establishing him as one of the most successful musicians of modern times. At the age

of 47, Marsalis has already won nine Grammy awards for his work in both jazz and classical

music as well as the Pulitzer Prize for Music, the first jazz musician to ever win such a prize.

Marsalis has also been honored and recognized globally as an outstanding musician by the

governments of the United States, Great Britain and France and has even served as a

Messenger of Peace for the United Nations. Marsalis’ active support and participation in the

rebuilding of New Orleans, his birthplace, after Hurricane Katrina also contributes to Marsalis’

trustworthiness as a spokesperson1

In the context of the medium that this advertisement is placed, Wynton Marsalis is an attractive

celebrity spokesperson as well. Once again, GQ, as well as this advertisement, is geared towards

a more established, older, and professional male demographic. Therefore, Marsalis’ familiarity

1 “Biography”. "Wynton Marsalis Official Website." http://www.wyntonmarsalis.org/biography/ (accessed 10/10/09).


Page 4: Celebrity Endorsement Analysis

and likability have been placed in a context that is conducive to the advertising of the se

extreme Movado watch. In other words, those that most likely read this magazine and are

exposed to this specific advertisement are more likely to not only recognize who Wynton

Marsalis is, but also be familiar with his accomplishments as a jazz musician and find him as a

likeable spokesperson; or at the very least be able to appreciate and respect his success.

Marsalis’ similarity is also very strong with this demographic. As a jazz musician, Marsalis’ does

not lead an extravagant or otherwise glitzy life as an artist. Marsalis does not perform to

stadiums of fans or play guest roles in major Hollywood films or is followed by the paparazzi as

other, more pop music oriented artists may be. Instead, despite his success, Marsalis is seen as

having a somewhat humble lifestyle in comparison to other recording artists. This lifestyle is

identifiable and more congruent to the market that Movado is trying to target.

As a celebrity spokesperson, Wynton Marsalis exerts little power or power of persuasion over

the target consumer. In fact, he may even exert even less power over the consumer than

another celebrity spokesperson may be able to. Generally speaking, it is very hard to exert

power over another individual to a point of compliance in any form of nonpersonal

communication, especially in advertising. With that said, it is only the target consumers’ ability

to identify with Marsalis that would resemble any form of power in the advertisement. That is,

Marsalis is seen as cool, calm and collected, despite his success; yet he does not let himself get

overly influenced by the hype of other products, that’s why he chooses Movado.

(3) Wynton Marsalis brings a deeper cultural meaning to the Movado advertisement than most

other celebrity spokespeople would be able to. As previously stated, Marsalis is a very


Page 5: Celebrity Endorsement Analysis

accomplished musician. However, despite this success, Marsalis is not a very popular or widely

known musician as jazz music is not as popular as it once was and could even be considered a

subculture today. Therefore, those that are able to recognize who Marsalis is are able to

understand the deeper jazz culture that he brings to the Movado brand as its spokesperson.

The fit between this culture and the Movado brand fit very well. In fact, the jazz culture brought

to the advertisement by Marsalis only adds to the culture of the Movado brand. Both the

Movado brand, as well as jazz music, stress the importance of quality performance. Movado

stresses this through its superior watches while jazz stresses quality performance through the

use of improvisational performance, where the performer must play off the top of their head,

without any written music and without any prior practice. In fact, those considered the best jazz

musicians are also considered the best improvisational performers, including Miles Davis, John

Coltrane, Charlie Parker and Wynton Marsalis. Therefore, Marsalis and Movado both share the

appreciation for quality performance and excellence in their respective fields.

(4) Due to his lack of recognition or popularity by the general public, there may be a better

celebrity than Wynton Marsalis for endorsing this product. A more high profile celebrity that

still exemplifies quality performance and success may be a better potential candidate for this

advertisement. Quincy Jones, who is also a jazz musician but is also widely recognized for his

production work with Michael Jackson, would be a more high profile celebrity that would also

work for this advertisement. However, if Movado is still seeking to attract a more refined and

cultured demographic in this advertisement than Marsalis is a very good fit based on his more

modest standing in popular culture, despite his many achievements.


Page 6: Celebrity Endorsement Analysis

Advertiser: Calvin Klein JeansSource: Nylon Magazine, September 2009Celebrity: Eva Mendes (& Jamie Dornan), Actress

This advertisement for Calvin Klein jeans is a two page centerfold featuring actress Eva Mendes

and model Jamie Dornan on the left page and Eva Mendes again on the opposite page. Both

models are wearing the advertised Calvin Klein Jeans Body Collection.

(1) The likely target market for this advertisement is younger (aged 20-29), fashion-conscious,

trend-setting females. This is the obvious target market for several reasons. First addresses the

medium that the advertisement is found in, Nylon magazine. This magazine is a fashion and

culture magazine tailored towards twenty-something females. The magazine features fashion

spreads, book and album reviews, shopping guides and interviews with up and coming actors

and musicians.

Also, the direct targeting of this market is reinforced through other similar, concurrent

advertisements found throughout the magazine. Additional advertisements found in the

magazine are for similar fashion forward brands such as Marc Jacobs, Diesel and APC. These

brands are seen as more fun and lively than other high fashion brands found in magazines such

as Vogue or Elle and, thus, appeal to this younger female demographic.

(2) Eva Mendes’ credibility as the spokesmodel for Calvin Klein Jeans is strong in terms of both

expertise and trustworthiness. As a popular Hollywood actress, Mendes’ is paid several million

dollars per film. Therefore, she is able to afford higher end designer labels, such as Calvin Klein,

and is most likely surrounded by them constantly. This becomes especially apparent during


Page 7: Celebrity Endorsement Analysis

awards season when she is constantly bombarded over “who she is wearing” to these award

shows almost as if it is the only thing that her career as an actress amounts to. Therefore, the

pressure to be aware of and wear these high end designers is important to her career. With

these facts in mind, Mendes’ firsthand experience with high end designer labels throughout her

career provides her the expertise to endorse this product.

Mendes’ trustworthiness as a spokesmodel for Calvin Klein Jeans is also unchallenged. Mendes

seems to have avoided what seems to be the “trap” associated with fame and popularity. That

is, that she has avoided the excessive partying, DUIs and the overall buffoonery that seems to

come standard of most celebrities today (e.g. Lindsay Lohan, Mel Gibson and Paris Hilton).

Through this avoidance, Mendes reputation, both as an actress as well as a person in general,

have remained intact. With this pristine reputation comes an air of trustworthiness and

likability that consumers find appealing. Another factor that adds to Mendes’ trustworthiness is

her lack of endorsement for other products. In the past, Mendes has not been featured as a

spokesmodel or even spokesperson for many products. Also, Mendes seems to avoid another

aspect of “celebrity” that seems all too apparent lately, that is, overexposure. Mendes seems to

avoid placing her name on every project handed to her or taking every role offered to her. As

just stated, she has also avoided overexposure through her lack of endorsement of other


Mendes role as the spokesmodel for Calvin Klein Jeans is also attractive in terms of enticing the

target consumer to purchase the product. First, as a younger celebrity, Mendes is familiar

among the previously mentioned target market of younger, twenty-something females.

Mendes has had roles in several high profile Hollywood blockbusters including, Once Upon a


Page 8: Celebrity Endorsement Analysis

Time in Mexico, 2 Fast 2 Furious and Hitch. Mendes’ likeability is also conducive to her role as

the spokesmodel for this product. Mendes seems to avoid the negative aspects associated with

celebrities and she maintains as fairly low profile in terms of her private life and its exposure to

the general public. Mendes has also avoided making any major career mistakes, such as

choosing a poor role in a movie or starring in a movie that was considered a “flop”. This could

very well be part of her selectivity as an actress that is, choosing roles that she feels

comfortable with as an actress and not simply jumping at every opportunity to pick up a

paycheck (this also speaks to Mendes’ trustworthiness as a spokesmodel). The maintenance of

her reputation as a classy, established, and successful career woman makes her a role model

among the target market that Calvin Klein is obviously pursuing.

Mendes also seems to sustain a level of similarity among herself and the target market. As

previously stated, Mendes appears to maintain a somewhat conventional lifestyle, despite her

high profile and otherwise unconventional career. She has avoided overexposure through her

selectivity in roles that she pursues as an actress. This establishes the image that, despite her

celebrity, Mendes has not reached the level of “actress” that makes her unapproachable or

pretentious. This lack of an “actress” persona allows the desired target market to identify with

Mendes on a more personal level.

Mendes’ power over the targeted consumer is, again, a difficult challenge to take on as a

spokesmodel. This is true in any form of nonpersonal communication, let alone this

advertisement for Calvin Klein Jeans. As a spokesmodel in a print advertisement in a magazine,

it is difficult for Mendes to garner the power to directly distribute punishment or rewards to

members of the target market. In plainer terms, she does not have the same power as a


Page 9: Celebrity Endorsement Analysis

salesperson engaged in one on one communication with a consumer who can more effectively

pursue and actively receive compliance from a consumer. However, Mendes’ attractiveness in

terms of her similarity to the consumer is what grants her the greatest amount of power over

the target market. As previously established, Mendes’ similarity with the target market is much

higher than that of many other actresses or younger celebrities or even models typically used in

fashion advertisements. With this similarity comes the ability of the consumer to identify and

compare themselves with Mendes and with this identification comes the desire to look like or

emulate the attractive actress. Therefore, the target consumer may have a greater desire to

purchase the advertised jeans, recognizing that they may look as good as Eva Mendes does in

them in the given advertisement. This concept is by no means a new tool in advertising and

could even be considered the foundation of celebrity endorsements.

(3) The culture that Eva Mendes brings to this advertisement is that of an old Hollywood

actress. In the past, actors and actresses were merely that. There was no excessive public

concern for an actor’s personal life. There were not twenty plus paparazzi posted outside of a

celebrities doorstep, waiting eagerly to snap a picture of the star eating breakfast in order to

fuel the public’s unquenchable thirst for celebrity gossip. Life was more simple and less

concerned with celebrities than it certainly is today. Mendes seems to avoid the excessive

public concern for her private life, despite her high profile career and this is reminiscent of the

actresses of the past. This may also be attributed to her lack of “publicity stunts” or desire to be

the center of attention all the time.


Page 10: Celebrity Endorsement Analysis

This culture fits very well into the brand image of Calvin Klein, where simplicity is key. The line is

known for its simplicity and clean lines in its design. There are no excessive frills, gaudy jewelry,

excessive styling or outlandish colors featured in the line, just simple, clean, classic American

sportswear. This is apparent in this advertisement as well as in all the advertisements of Calvin

Klein. The advertisements are always simple and the models are never overdone or excessive in

their presentation. Mendes’ clean image and her outstanding reputation as a successful,

demure, classy and popular American actress fit perfectly into the brand image of Calvin Klein.

(4) I believe that Eva Mendes is a very wise selection as the spokesmodel and endorser of Calvin

Klein Jeans. Currently, I do not believe that there would be a more appropriate model for the

fashion label. As previously mentioned, Mendes appears to possess the right amount of

credibility, attractiveness and power that would be compelling to the target market. Also, I

believe that Mendes possess just the right amount of fame and popularity to stand as a

spokesmodel for Calvin Klein. Mendes seems to provide the perfect balance between a high

profile, successful actress (she is recognizable) and an everyday, young female (she is still seen

as relatable).


Page 11: Celebrity Endorsement Analysis

Analysis: Movado v. Calvin Klein Celebrity Endorsements

Based on the source factors (credibility, attractiveness, power) that determine the effectiveness

for celebrity endorsement and persuasion in advertising, I believe that Eva Mendes’

endorsement of Calvin Klein Jeans is a more effective advertisement over Wynton Marsalis’

endorsement of Movado Watches. I base this analysis on two factors: the celebrity’s popularity

among the target market in the advertisement and the “fit” that the celebrity has with the

endorsed product.

Wynton Marsalis, as previously stated, is not as popular among the general public. However, it

is true that he may be more popular among the target market of older, more-established,

professional men. Even so, he simply does not possess the same popularity that Eva Mendes, a

popular actress, has among the general public as well as in the target market for the Calvin

Klein advertisement. The lack of popularity has an effect on Marsalis’ attractiveness as a

spokesperson in terms of familiarity with the target market. If a targeted consumer is unfamiliar

with a celebrity spokesperson, then the desired effectiveness of the endorsement by this

particular celebrity has become worthless.

The expertise held by both Marsalis and Mendes speaks greatly on their endorsement of their

respective products as well as their “fit” as the celebrity endorser. Marsalis, a successful jazz

trumpeter and composer by profession, offers little expertise on the subject of high end

watches, other than the fact that he personally likes the Movado brand and can afford the

brand’s watches. Mendes, however, is exposed to high end labels almost constantly. Therefore,

her selection of Calvin Klein jeans speaks much higher of the label that Marsalis’ endorsement

of Movado watches.