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- Cereals PDST Home Economics
- Wheat Oats Rice Maize (Corn) Rye Barley
- Protei n Fat Carbs . Vits. Mins. Water 7-15% 2-7% 70-77% 0.5% B 1% Calcium , Iron 12%
- Useful amount of protein, HBV, gluten, growth. Small amount of unsaturated fat, energy. Lots of carbohydrate, cellulose, starch, energy. Vitamin B group for nerves and energy. Calcium and Phosphorus for bones and Iron for the blood. Very little water so they are easy to store.
- Nutritious, especially whole grain products. Cheap. Filling. Good sort of protein for vegans. No waste. Easy to store, prepare, cook. Over eating cereals can cause obesity. Insipid.
- Starch grains swell and burst. The starch grains absorb liquids and thicken them. Starch becomes digestible. Cellulose softens. Loss of vitamin B.
- Bran layer: Fibre, Iron, Vit. B Endosperm: Starch and Protein (gluten). Germ: Fat, Vit. B, Iron, Protein
- Protein found in wheat Becomes stretchy when wet Allows dough to stretch when it is rising. At a certain temperature it sets and the dough keeps the risen shape
- Flour can be made from wheat, rye, oats, maize, rice. Most common is wheat flour because of the gluten. To make wholemeal flour, grains are ground (milled). To make white flour the bran and germ are sieved out of the wholemeal flour White flour is fortified with vitamins and minerals
- Types Details Wholemeal Flour Contains all parts of the grain White Flour All the germ and bran removed Self-raising Flour White flour with baking powder added Strong Flour Contains extra gluten for yeast bread. Gluten Free Flour Gluten removed for coeliacs
- Flours Germ Bran Semolina Couscous Breakfast cereals Bread, cakes, biscuits
- Made from the endosperm (semolina) of durum wheat mixed with water, shaped and then dried Sometimes eggs are added. Brown pasta made from wholemeal flour Green pasta has spinach pure added. Red pasta has tomato pure added. Black pasta has squid ink added
- Grown mostly in the Far East White polished rice loses fibre and vitamin B Other rice products: krispies, flour, cakes, paper, wine, ground rice. Type Detalis Long grain rice (Patna) Savoury dishes e.g. curry Medium grain rice (italian) (arborio) Risotto Short grain rice (pearl) (pudding) (Carolina) Sweet dishes e.g. rice pudding Basmati rice Savoury dishes Treated rice Quick to cook e.g. Uncle Bens boil in the bag Brown rice More nutritious, 40 mins. to cook
- Rich in: Omega fatty acids, Fibre, Vitamin E. Sesame, linseed, pumpkin, sunflower