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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    Mobile Robots

    IIC-3684

    Robots History

    Professor : Alvaro Soto

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    The Movies View

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    Robots in the books

    In 1921 Czechoslovakian playwright

    Karel Capek creates the play R.U.R.:Rossum's Universal Robots

    Czech robota, which means tedious

    labor

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    Asimov 3 laws of Robotics (Runaround 1942)

    1. A robot may not injure a human, or, through inaction,

    allow a human being to come to harm.

    2. A robot must obey the orders it by human beingsexcept where such orders would conflict with the FirstLaw.

    3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as suchprotection does not conflict with the First or SecondLaw.

    0. Later he also added the zeroth law

    Robots in the books

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    What are the real robots today ? Are human-like with human capabilities?

    The unconditional servants ?

    Maybe the rebel machines ?

    The highly smart but lack of feeling

    improved humans ? Just trash-can type of machines ?

    Let see the real story

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    Grandfather and father of Robotics George Devol design the first programmable robot,

    Universal Automation (1954)"The present invention makes available for the first time a

    more or less general purpose machine that has universalapplication to a vast diversity of applications where cycliccontrol is desired."

    George Devol and Joseph Engelberger start Unimation,

    the first Robotics company (1956)

    Unimation starts the era of industrial manipulators oruntil now known as Industrial Robots but they are justmechanical arms

    The era of the close loop approach and electricalengineers

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    Hits in the history on Industrial Arms 1961 General motors get first industrial arm

    1967 Japan imports the Versatran robot from AMF

    1968 Kawasaki licenses hydraulic robot design fromUnimation

    Cincinnati Milacron releases the T3

    1974 Victor Scheinman funded Vicarm Inc.

    1978 Using technology from Vicarm, Unimation develops

    the PUMA 1983 Adept Technology is founded

    80s The robot industry starts its rapid growth, with a newrobot or company entering the market every month

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    Industrial Arms Today Japan big player

    Kawasaki Robotics, Hitachi, Mitsubishi

    Europe ABB and Kuka Roboter

    USA Adept Technology and CRS Robotics

    Main applications: welding, painting, assembling and packaging manufactured

    goods, loading and unloading machines, dispensing adhesives,amongst others

    Year 2000, an industry of US$5.6b with 30.000 units sold

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    Example: ASEA IRB L6/2 Description

    Industrial Robot

    Five axis Payload of 13 lbs

    Repeatability +.2mm

    Horizontal reach1229mm

    Used for Part handling

    Tool manipulation

    Assembly

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    Fixed or limited mobility

    Operates in structured environment

    Limited perception

    Relatively simple control program

    A big, mature, and well establishedindustry

    Industrial Arms Lessons

    Are they robots ?

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    Mobile Robots Gray Walters Tortoise (1953

    Even organisms with extremely simple nervoussystems could show complex and unexpectedbehavior

    The turtle Steering motor on front wheel

    and driving on rear wheels Two vacuum tubes for control

    One photocell

    One bump sensor

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    Light-seeking robot

    Behaviors

    Go toward weak light Go away from strong light

    Recharge batteries

    Gray Walters Tortoise

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    Beast (1960, JHU)

    Controlled by dozens of

    transistors Wall following behavior,

    using arm and sonar When battery ran low, it

    search for outlets usingphotocell optics It has a specially designed

    recharging arm

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    Shakey (1967-1970, SRI)

    First AI robot

    Leave in a world of blocks All Processing is off-board Model based Uses Strips

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    Stanford Car

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    Bad News for R2D2

    Mobile robots are just lab curiosities

    Unable to operate in real time even in

    simple block worlds Lack of computer power, lack of

    suitable batteries and sensor, lack of

    mostly everything Sentence: not more mobile robots from

    70s to Mid 80s

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    Good News

    From Robot by Hans Moravec

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    MIT Behavior based control

    Genghis

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    CMU 3D Robotics Institute 1985

    Dirty, Dull, and Dangerous

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    Japanese Humanoids

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    New Domains for Robots

    Today big challenge is to provide robots with good

    perceptual capabilities

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    Home care

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    Security and Surveillance

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    Research Platforms

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    Entertainment

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    Toys

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    Marketing/Hospitality

    C 368 bil b i DCC PUC

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    Exploration

    IIC 3684 M bil R b ti DCC PUC

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    Humanoids

    IIC 3684 Mobile Robotics DCC PUC

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    Elder Assistant

    IIC 3684 Mobile Robotics DCC PUC

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    Military Robotics

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    Market Size

    IIC-3684 Mobile Robotics DCC - PUC

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    Alvaro SotoCh. 2

    IIC 3684 Mobile Robotics DCC PUC

    Alvaro Soto

    What is ahead!

    RobotsAre

    Raising