chapter 1 overview of pineapple production, postharvest
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Handbook of Pineapple Technology: Production, Postharvest Science, Processing and Nutrition, First Edition.
Edited by María Gloria Lobo and Robert E. Paull.
© 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Published 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pineapple, Ananas comosus (L.) Merr., is the only species in the Bromeliaceae family
grown commercially for its greatly appreciated and nutritional fruit. Production
occurs both in the tropics and subtropics. After banana and citrus, it is the third
most important fruit in world production. Asia (Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia,
India and China), South Central America (Costa Rica and Brazil) and Africa
(Nigeria and South Africa) are the main producers. In 2012, Thailand was the
world’s largest producer of pineapple, followed by Costa Rica, Brazil and Philippines.
Cultivated types of pineapple are called ‘clones’, since they are vegetatively
propagated. The many named clones are classed in 4–5 groups that include
‘Cayenne’, ‘Spanish’, ‘Queen’ and ‘Pernambuco’. Pineapples as non‐climacteric
fruits should be harvested when ready to eat. Changes in the skin color from
green to yellow at the base of the fruit, a minimum soluble solids content
of ~12% and a maximum acidity of 1% will assure a baseline flavor that is
acceptable to consumers. This delicious tropical fruit is consumed fresh, dehy-
drated, canned, in juice and jams and contains fiber, bromelain, manganese,
copper, vitamin C, vitamin B complex, calcium, zinc and β‐carotene. The flesh is
free of cholesterol and fat, and low in sodium and calories. Pineapple is the only
source of bromelain, a proteolytic enzyme complex used in the pharmaceutical
market, beer making and as a meat‐tenderizing agent. The consumption of this
fruit offers great benefits as it supports the immune system, aids digestion of
proteins, alleviates symptoms of the common cold, and strengthens bones.
Because of its nutritional properties, texture, and juiciness its use is appropriate
at all stages of life.
Overview of pineapple production, postharvest physiology, processing and nutritionMaría Gloria Lobo1 and Muhammad Siddiq2
1 Postharvest & Food Technology Laboratory, Tropical Fruits Department, Instituto Canario de Investigaciones Agrarias,
Carretera del Boquerón s/n, 38270, Valle de Guerra, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain2 Department of Food Science & Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
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2 Handbook of Pineapple Technology
As with many tropical fruits, pineapples are susceptible to chilling injury and
exposure of pineapples to temperatures below 12°C can cause this physiological dis-
order, depending upon the duration of storage. Therefore, ripe fruit should be stored
at 7–10°C, as they are less susceptible than unripe or partially ripe fruit that should
be stored at 10–13°C for no more than three to four weeks. Symptoms of chilling
injury include dull green wilting and discoloration of leaves (the greening of the
properly ripened), translucent or water‐soaked flesh, darkening of the heart tissue,
increased susceptibility to decay, and wilting and discoloration of the crown leaves.
The stems and leaves of pineapple plants are also a source of fiber which can
be processed into paper and cloth with remarkable qualities of thinness, smooth-
ness and pliability. Parts of the plant are used for silage and hay for cattle feed.
Processing wastes (shell or core material) and centrifuged solids from juice
production are also used as animal feed. Alcoholic beverages can also be made
from the juice or nutrient‐rich fruit core.
1.1.1 History and originPineapples originated from South America, particularly in the region around
Brazil and Paraguay. Laufer (1929) reported that the Native Americans in the
lowland tropics consumed this fruit and it was widely distributed in the Americas
and the Caribbean prior to the arrival of Columbus (Collins 1960). In 1493
Columbus found the fruit on the island now known as Guadaloupe and called it
‘piña’, due to its resemblance to a pinecone, and brought the ‘exotic’ fruit back to
Spain. The antiquity of this fruit, even at that time, is evidenced by the presence
of distinct types, all of which were nearly or completely seedless. Its wide use as
food, wine and medicine at the time of Columbus’ arrival in the Americas and
the absence of recognizable wild progenitors of the cultivated pineapple are fur-
ther evidence of the pineapple’s antiquity (Collins 1960). Pineapple fruit was a
staple of South American Indian feasts and rites related to tribal affirmation. The
fruit was spread around the world on sailing ships that carried it for protection
against scurvy. The Spanish introduced it into the Philippines early in the 16th
century. The pineapple reached England in 1660 and began to be grown in
greenhouses in the early 1700s for its fruit and as an ornamental feature.
Portuguese traders introduced pineapples into India from the Moluccas in 1548,
and also into the east and west coasts of Africa. The plant was growing in China
in 1594 and in South Africa about 1655. In 1819 the ‘Cayenne Lisse’ variety
(‘Smooth Cayenne’) from French Guyana (South America) was introduced into
Europe and spread over the world in the 19th and 20th centuries (Collins 1951)
with other varieties; ‘Queen’ and ‘Singapore Spanish’.
Early commercial trade was limited to relatively short transportation routes
due to the short shelf life of fresh pineapple. Thus, Florida, the Bahamas, Cuba
and Puerto Rico supplied the North American market, and the Azores the
European market. In the early 19th century, fresh pineapples were sent from the
West Indies to Europe attached to the entire plant (Loudon 1822).
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Overview of pineapple production 3
Canning industry started at the beginning of 19th century in South‐East
Asia, Australia, South Africa, the Caribbean and Kenya. The South‐East Asian
industry was devastated during the Second World War, and Hawaii gained
importance at the end of the 1960s superseded by Côte d’Ivoire, the Philippines
and Thailand (Rohrbach et al. 2003). The fresh‐fruit market started expanding
after the Second World War, because refrigerated sea transport developed and
the need for proximity to the market was reduced (Anonymous 2003).
1.1.2 Ecology and regional distributionPineapples are tropical plants that can grow in most warm climates with tem-
peratures between 20°C and 36°C. Frost is not well‐tolerated, but mild cool
weather in winter improves fruit quality and induces flowering. Pineapples can
grow up to 1800 meters above sea level, although at the higher elevation the
fruit is more acidic (Morton 1987).
Pineapples should be watered regularly to ensure quality fruit production,
but they can be harmed if too much water accumulates in the soil due to poor
drainage. Because of their stomata and use of the CAM pathway for photosyn-
thesis, pineapples withstand droughts very well for a tropical plant, although
fruit mass and yields are reduced (Min & Bartholomew 2005). A well distributed
annual rainfall of 839–1742 mm and high relative humidity is important for opti-
mal growth. Pineapple grows well in partial shade. Acidic soil with pH between
4.5 and 5.5 and good internal drainage is ideal, as soil‐borne diseases are reduced
and iron in the soil become more readily available to the roots of plants. In areas
where soil pH is close to neutral, foliar application of FeS2O
4 is necessary to sup-
port normal growth. Inability to obtain iron from an iron‐rich soil under certain
conditions is a peculiarity of the pineapple not shared by other plants.
Pineapple is one of the most cultivated tropical fruits introduced into warm
climates worldwide because of the sweet, desirable fruit. It is believed that the
Guarani Indians were the first growers in Brazil and Paraguay, and introduced
the pineapples into the Caribbean islands. Christopher Columbus introduced the
pineapple to Europe, where it was grown in greenhouses and became a favorite
fruit of kings and the wealthy. Charles the II of England had his picture painted
receiving a pineapple in 1677.
1.2 Production, trade and consumption trends
1.2.1 World production and leading producersThe world production of pineapples in 2012 was 23.33 million metric tons (MT)
and the area planted has similarly increased from 1990 to 2012 (Figure 1.1).
From 1990 to 2012, pineapple production almost doubled (97.04% increase,
compared to 11.84 million MT in 1990). This increase in production has
been consistent over the long‐term, with a 27.87% and 34.61% increase during
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4 Handbook of Pineapple Technology
1990–2000 and 2000–2010, respectively. The area under pineapple cultivation
from 1990 to 2012 increased by only 62%, demonstrating that significant
increases (about 35%) in production resulted from varietal improvement and
adoption of better agricultural practices. Regionally, Asia leads in pineapple pro-
duction with 10.88 million MT, followed by 8.68 million MT in the Americas
(North, Central, and South America), and 3.65 million MT in Africa; these figures
accounted for 46.62%, 37.18%, and 15.65% share of the total world production,
The global demand for pineapple, according to a market survey, is projected
to grow, which will result in further increases in its production (CBI 2008). The
large agro‐multinationals will capture most of the projected growth since they
are the major suppliers to the large supermarkets in the EU and North America,
the main outlets of pineapple marketing (CBI 2008; Perez & Plattner 2013). In
recent years, organic pineapple production has also increased globally due to
increased demand for organically grown fruit. For the EU markets, most organic
pineapples are produced in Ghana, with an increasing share coming from Costa
Rica (CBI 2008). It is to be noted that organic pineapples are still a niche market
and organic pineapples must be produced according to organic standards, i.e.,
without the use of most synthetic chemical pesticides and fertilizers (CBI 2014).
Weed control is a major issue in organic pineapple production.
The top‐ten pineapple producing countries in 2012 were Thailand, Costa
Rica, Brazil, Philippines, Indonesia, India, Nigeria, China, Mexico, and
Colombia (Table 1.1). The leading five countries contributed about 50% of
615 627 620668 683
765 768 775809
Figure 1.1 World pineapple production and area harvested from 1990 to 2012.
Source: FAO (2014).
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6 Handbook of Pineapple Technology
the total pineapple production globally. Costa Rica, ranked 10th in 1990, and
rose to second position in 2012, thereby exhibiting a six‐times increase in
production. The USA, which was the 6th leading producer of pineapples in
1990, was not among the top‐ten producers in 2012. Thailand, the Philippines,
and Brazil are the countries with sustained production among the top‐five
1.2.2 Trade and commerceThe top‐ten pineapple exporting and importing countries for 2011 are listed in
Table 1.2. Costa Rica led the total world pineapple exports with a 55.60% share
or 1,749,360 MT. The predominant position of Costa Rica is supported by the
fact that second leading exporter, the Philippines, exported 263,019 MT or
8.36% share of the total world exports. The United States, though not in the
top‐ten producers, was the fifth largest pineapple exporter. Among pineapple
importers, the United States led with 817,131 MT, followed by the Netherlands,
Belgium, Germany, and the United Kingdom. As reported by the CBI (2008), the
export prices of pineapples are determined mainly by the supply and demand on
the world market, making price fluctuation considerable over time. In addition,
fruit variety, quality and country of origin are some of the other important
factors that affect price.
In the USA, imports are a key component of the domestic market for fresh
pineapples, maintaining about 90% of market share annually in recent years.
USA fresh pineapple imports showed a continued increase from 1996 through
2012, fulfilling the ever growing demand for fresh pineapples aided by the
availability of newer low acid hybrid clones (Perez & Plattner 2013). Costa Rica,
Table 1.2 Leading pineapple exporting and importing countries in 20111.
Exporters Metric tons % Share2 Importers Metric tons % Share2
Costa Rica 1,749,360 55.60% USA. 817,131 28.00%
Philippines 263,019 8.36% Netherlands 232,850 7.98%
Belgium 217,359 6.91% Belgium 232,054 7.95%
Netherlands 184,464 5.86% Germany 191,956 6.58%
USA 103,300 3.28% United Kingdom 167,513 5.74%
Ecuador 88,632 2.82% Japan 152,864 5.24%
Panama 65,613 2.09% Italy 151,300 5.18%
Cote d’Ivoire 64,116 2.04% Spain 135,915 4.66%
Ghana 45,999 1.46% Canada 108,672 3.72%
Honduras 42,578 1.35% France 99,477 3.41%
World total3 3,146,211 World total3 2,918,151
1 Latest data available; 2 for 2011 world total; 3 including all other countries not listed here.
Source: FAO (2014).
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Overview of pineapple production 7
Mexico, and Honduras are the main exporters of pineapples to the USA. Besides
fresh pineapples, USA imports processed pineapple products as well (frozen,
canned, juice, and juice concentrate).
The market for pineapples is growing in all EU countries, with Germany, Italy
and the UK being the largest markets (CBI 2008). Between 2002 and 2008, EU
pineapple imports doubled in volume, though the increase in value was only
about 50%. The fresh fruit quality requirements vary greatly, but are generally
high in most EU markets. The market survey also noted that there is an exten-
sive pineapple trade within the EU, with some countries such as the Netherlands
and Belgium being the leading pineapple importers and distributors in the EU.
Exports through import/retail market channels, as reported by CBI (2014) are
depicted in Figure 1.2.
1.2.3 Consumption trendsTraditionally, pineapples grown in developing countries was mostly consumed
fresh, whereas in developed countries processed pineapple (juice, canned,
dried) products were predominantly marketed and consumed in addition to
fresh fruit. Pineapple was once a favorite fruit for processing (FAO 2009) but it
has been increasingly marketed as fresh with the emergence of the extra sweet
varieties in the mid‐1990s. This trend in the market for fresh pineapple is
closely associated with expansion of ready‐to‐eat fresh‐cut (minimally pro-
In the USA, total per capita consumption of pineapple (fresh and processed)
was 6.16 kg/year in 2012 (Table 1.3). While the total consumption since 1990
has remained fairly flat, a greater portion of this consumption in recent years has
been in the fresh or fresh‐cut form, which showed over three‐fold increase in
2012 as compared to 1990 consumption. Given consumers’ preference for fresh
versus processed products, the fresh‐cut pineapple market is expected to grow
further in coming years. Pineapple juice consumption has decreased significantly
with ~57% decrease as compared to 1990 levels. Similarly, canned pineapple
consumption also decreased from 2.36 kg per capita in 1990 to 1.80 kg in 2012.
In European countries, Germany, Spain, the United Kingdom, and Italy are the
Developing country European market Market segments
Specialized marketsStreet markets
Sorting, washing, packaging
Figure 1.2 Market channels for fresh fruit and vegetables in the European market.
Source: CBI (2014).
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8 Handbook of Pineapple Technology
largest consumer markets for pineapples. Based on FAO’s production and trade
data, CBI (2014) reported that Germany accounted for about 20% of the total
pineapples consumption in the EU countries. The total market volume was esti-
mated about 800,000 metric tons, which equals about 1.5 kg per capita in 2011
1.3 Postharvest handling and storage
Pineapple is a non‐climacteric fruit; therefore, for optimum quality and sweet-
ness, this fruit should not be harvested until at least one‐third or more of the
peel or shell has turned from green to yellow. After harvest the fruit does not
continue to ripen or sweeten significantly.
Full ripe yellow mature fruit are often unsuitable for transporting to distant
markets due to their shorter shelf‐life and high susceptibility to mechanical
damage; therefore slightly less mature fruits are selected (Akamine 1963).
Immature fruit should not be shipped, since they do not develop a good flavor,
have low soluble solids, high acidity and are more prone to chilling injury
(Rohrbach & Paull 1982).
Pineapples are picked by hand and using a conveyor belt, the fruit are trans-
ferred into the truck or field baskets when possible. To reduce fruit temperature
at harvest it is recommended to pick in the morning or evening.
Generally, the physical appearance of the fruit often provides several key
clues as to its readiness for eating. When your pineapple fruit turns almost
entirely yellow and gives off a sweet aroma, it is usually ready to eat. The ripe
pineapple has a yellow to golden yellow pulp, is juicy and has a sweet flavor. The
crowns should not have a withered appearance, which may be due to insuffi-
cient irrigation, mechanical injury, extensive refrigerated storage, storage <7°C,
low relative humidity, delays during marketing and incorrect application of eth-
ephon. Peduncles should have a clean cut and be 5–20 mm long, especially when
fruit have to be transported in a vertical position.
Table 1.3 USA per capita consumption of fresh pineapple and processed
products for selected years since 1990 (kg/year).
Year Fresh Canned Juice Total
1990 0.93 2.36 3.39 6.68
1995 0.87 2.14 2.60 5.61
2000 1.46 2.18 2.07 5.71
2005 2.23 2.16 1.75 6.14
2010 2.59 1.75 1.46 5.80
2012 2.92 1.80 1.45 6.16
Source: Adapted from USDA‐ERS (2015).
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Overview of pineapple production 9
After washing the fruit in chlorinated water, fruit are graded based upon certain
characteristics: degree of skin coloration, size (weight), absence of defects and dis-
eases, and in keeping with other market requirements. Some buyers require green
fruit (color 0) which means soft green color near the peduncle, with 12°Brix, poros-
ity of 1.5 and translucency 0 to 0.5. Other buyers demand ripened or off‐green fruit
with a minimum of 12°Brix, porosity of 1.5 and translucency of 1 to 1.5 (de la Cruz
Medina & García 2005). Crown size relative to the fruit is also another criterion.
After grading, pineapples are often treated with a fungicide to control posthar-
vest fruit rot, known as black rot or water blister, and waxes can also be applied
to reduce postharvest water loss and improve fruit appearance. Frequently, eth-
ephon is applied a few days before harvest to fruit with the desired levels of sugars
and acids, to enhance shell degreening. Postharvest use of ethephon if allowed by
regulations, can result in uniform skin degreening, but this can also lead to a
shortened shelf‐life. The need to degreen is related to the consumer’s perception
that a ripe pineapple must have a full yellow skin. Once the fruit is packed in a
horizontal position, careful transportation has to be done to avoid fruit bruising.
The optimum storage temperature for pineapple fruit is 7–10°C when ripe and
10–13°C when partially ripe, and 90–95% relative humidity (Kader 1992; Paull
1992). Refrigeration is the main tool used to slow undesirable quality changes and
to increase the shelf‐life of freshly harvested pineapples, but the response of differ-
ent varieties varies towards low temperatures. The application of refrigeration for
pineapples is limited due to the development of chilling injury symptoms at tem-
peratures of below 13°C (Brown 1986). At 0–5°C, fruits may store for weeks, but
upon transfer to non‐refrigerated conditions, the fruit would not ripen and severe
chilling injury symptoms would appear (Abdullah & Atan 1983). At 10°C, black-
heart symptoms have been observed in the flesh of ‘Smooth Cayenne’ fruit (Stewart
et al. 2002), whilst almost no blackheart was observed in the flesh of ‘Queen’ fruit
(Abdullah et al. 1985). Susceptible fruits are generally lower in ascorbic acid and
sugars and are opaque. Partial to complete control of chilling injury symptoms has
been achieved by waxing, heat treatment, modified atmosphere packaging, ascor-
bic acid and application of the ethylene inhibitor 1‐methylcyclopropene (1‐MCP).
Liu & Liu (2014) observed that elevated temperatures used in postharvest, triggered
pineapple fruit to mature in the cool season to a more red and yellow color and with
better physicochemical quality and aroma.
1.4 Value‐added processing and products
Pineapples after harvest are transported in large bins or in trucks with the crowns
down to serve as cushions to minimize fruit bruising. At the processing facility, fruit
are graded for size and quality followed by washing or/and sanitizing treatments.
Gentle handling is recommended to avoid tissue impact damage that can accelerate
quality loss, compromising the final quality of processed products. To avoid such
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10 Handbook of Pineapple Technology
quality loss, it is desirable to process the fruit within 24 hours of harvest or sooner.
The details regarding the fruit source, date of harvest, field number and grade need
to be carefully recorded in order to ensure traceability (Paull & Lobo 2012).
The processed pineapple products include: canned (slices, rings, dices,
chunks), frozen (slices, rings), juice and nectar (single strength, concentrate,
blends with other juices), and dried (dices, chunks) (Figure 1.3). Other processed
products include jam, jelly, and candies (Paull & Lobo 2012). Since the 1990s,
the minimally‐processed or fresh‐cut fruit market has seen an exceptional
growth. Fresh‐cut pineapples ranked the highest of all tropical fruit in quantity
and dollars sold in the value‐added category for USA fresh fruit in supermarkets
(Cook 2007). Fresh‐cut pineapple is usually marketed as slices or cubes.
In the pineapple processing industry, Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs)
and food safety systems such as Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points
(HACCP) are used to assure a high quality and the safety of the finished product.
HACCP are designed to prevent, reduce to acceptable levels, or eliminate the
microbial, chemical, and physical hazards associated with food production. The
USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has promulgated GMP regulations
that apply to all food processing facilities, including fresh‐cut operations and
complements FDA’s Current Good Manufacturing Practice regulations ‘21 CFR
110’ (Paull & Lobo 2012). Over the past two decades, food safety has become
and continues to be the number one concern of the fresh produce industry and
regulatory agencies (Fan et al. 2009; Kader & Siddiq 2012). The International
Fresh‐cut Produce Association (IFPA) has developed guidelines, which incorpo-
rates GMPs as well as other food safety standards such as a model HACCP plan,
sanitary facility design, and proper use of antimicrobials (Paull & Lobo 2012).
1.5 Processing waste and by‐products
Processing pineapple generates significant quantities of waste, namely skin,
leaves/crowns, and residual pulp. These wastes can cause disposal and potential
environmental pollution problems if not utilized to produce other products
(Paull & Lobo 2012). Pineapple leaf fibers have a high cellulose content and are
Fresh-cut Canned Frozen Dehydrated Juice Nectar Concentrate
Figure 1.3 A schematic of processing different pineapple products.
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Overview of pineapple production 11
mechanically strong. They can be used as reinforcement in thermoplastic and
thermosetting resins for developing low‐cost and lightweight polymer compos-
ites (Mishra et al. 2004; Mohamed et al. 2009). Tongsumrith and Netpradit (2005)
produced pineapple leaf paper for use as an alternative print paper. Pineapple
leaf fiber is also used to make traditional embroidered formal shirts in the
Pineapple peel is rich in cellulose, hemicellulose and other carbohydrates. It
can be dried for use as an animal feed or ensilaged. Ensilaging of pineapple peels
produces methane which can be used as a biogas. Anaerobic digestion takes
place and the digested slurry may find further application as animal, poultry and
fish feeds (Rani & Nand 2004). The utilization of dehydrated pineapple by‐
products increases the coefficients of apparent digestibility of the nutrients,
resulting in satisfactory weight gains in goats (Costa et al. 2007). Biomass from
pineapple is a renewable energy resource with a high potential fuel source for
the creation of steam and electricity, transportation fuel, medicinal manufactur-
ing industries as well as a solvent in the laboratory (Hossain et al. 2008). Peel and
other pineapple by‐products from processing can be used as raw materials to
prepare natural vinegar by acetic fermentation of alcohol solutions derived from
sugar or starchy materials (fermentable sugar content of 8–20%). Vinegar must
be pasteurized once it is prepared and bottled. It is stable at ambient temperature
(COVECA 2002). Hebbar et al. (2008) reported that bromelain can be extracted
and purified from pineapple wastes (core, peel, crown and extended stem) using
reverse micellar systems.
1.6 Nutritional composition and health benefits
Pineapples are low in calories (2% Daily Values, DV), saturated fat, cholesterol
and sodium. The fruit is a good source of fructose, dietary fiber, vitamin B1,
vitamin B6 and copper and a very good source of manganese (46% DV) and
vitamin C (80% DV) (Paull & Lobo 2012). Pineapples contain antioxidants,
namely flavonoids and pro‐vitamin A. Table 1.4 shows proximate composition
of raw pineapples and its processed products (canned chunks, juice, and frozen
juice concentrate). Pineapple has relatively lower content of minerals and most
vitamins, with the exception of vitamin C. Chapter 12 on Pineapple Composition
and Nutrition provides more detailed information.
During processing, the nutritional quality of pineapple and sensorial attributes
such as color, texture and flavor can be negatively affected. Thus, thermal treat-
ments (blanching, drying, and sterilization) used to produce dried pineapple,
chips, juice, and puree reduces vitamin C, carotenoids, and anthocyanin content
(Sian & Ishak 1991). Also there is solubilization/degradation of pectic polysac-
charides, with a notable decrease in the degree of pectin esterification (Femenia
et al. 2007). Bioactive compounds of fresh‐cut products (vitamin C, phenolics,
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12 Handbook of Pineapple Technology
carotenoids, etc.) also decrease during storage (González‐Aguilar et al. 2005;
Gil et al. 2006).
Pineapple is a dietetic and healthy fruit. Pineapple contains bromelain, a
major cysteine proteinase that has several therapeutic properties as it is effective
in the treatment of albuminuria. Pineapple reduces the appetite and is used for
weight control (Coveca 2002). It also aids in digestion by facilitating protein
breakdown (Roxas 2008). Due to the fiber content of the pulp, pineapple pre-
vents and corrects constipation, regularizes the intestinal flora and is also used in
the control of diarrhea (Báez et al. 2007). There is evidence that bromelain has a
broad spectrum of activity against intestinal helminths (both nematodes and
cestodes), a quality that reinforces its suitability for development as a much
needed novel treatment against gastrointestinal helminths of humans and live-
stock (Stepek et al. 2007).
The pineapple, Ananas comosus (L.) Merr., is a member of the Bromeliaceae fam-
ily, and is the third most important tropical fruit in the world after banana and
citrus. It is a non‐climacteric fruit that is consumed as a fresh product, or canned,
in juice, nectar or concentrate, frozen or dehydrated. Successful marketing
depends on the proper maturity of fruit at harvest, development of uniform
color and shape of the variety, and fruit without injury. Proper wrapping of
individual fruit in transport, and careful handling with no exposure to moist
conditions help in maximizing the profit margin. It is important to extend the
shelf‐life of the fresh product in order to reach long distance markets through
adequate refrigeration that slows the product deterioration in terms of consumer
Table 1.4 Proximate composition of raw pineapples and its processed products.
Unit Raw1 Canned2 Juice3 Juice concentrate4
Water g 86 83.51 86.37 53.1
Energy kcal 50 60 53 179
Protein g 0.54 0.51 0.36 1.3
Total lipid (fat) g 0.12 0.11 0.12 0.1
Carbohydrate, by difference g 13.12 15.56 12.87 44.3
Fiber, total dietary g 1.4 1.3 0.2 0.7
Sugars, total g 9.85 14.26 9.98 43.6
1 Average, all varieties.2 Chunks/dices, juice pack, drained.3 Unsweetened canned juice.4 Frozen, unsweetened.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database (2015).
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Overview of pineapple production 13
perception and nutritional value. Nevertheless, some varieties are more sensitive
to chilling injury than other clones. An awareness program on the importance
of harvest maturity of pineapple, the storage temperature, and postharvest treat-
ments that can alleviate chilling injury must be conducted to improve the overall
quality of pineapple in the market. The demand for value‐added pineapple
products, due to their unique flavor and a wide range of applications, continues
to grow worldwide.
Abdullah, H. & Atan, R.M. (1983) The development of black heart disease in Mauritius pineap-
ple (Ananas comosus cv. Mauritius) during storage at lower temperatures. Mardi Research
Bulletin 11, 309–319.
Abdullah, H., Atan, R.M. & Zain, Z.M. (1985) Effect of modified atmosphere on black heart
development and ascorbic acid contents in ‘Mauritius’ pineapples (Ananas comosus cv.
‘Mauritius’) during storage at low temperature. Asean Food Journal 1, 15–18.
Akamine, E.K. (1963) Fresh pineapple storage. Hawaii Farm Science 12, 1–4.
Anonymous (2003) The Biology and Ecology of Pineapple (Ananas comosus Var. comosus) in Australia.
Canberra: Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, 25 pp.
Báez, R., Lopes, M.T., Salas, C.E. & Hernández, M. (2007) In vivo antitumoral activity of stem
pineapple (Ananas comosus) bromelain. Planta Medica 73, 1377−1383.
Brown, B.I. (1986). Temperature management and chilling injury of tropical and subtropical
fruit. Acta Horticurae 175, 339–342.
CBI (2014) Fresh pineapples in the European market, [Online], Available: http://www.cbi.eu/sites/
CBI Market Survey (2008) The EU market for pineapple, [Online], Available: http://www.cadexco.
bo/actual/boletin‐inteligencia/Pineapple%20Survey.pdf [23 Mar 2015).
Collins, J.L. (1951) Notes on the origin, history, and genetic nature of the Cayenne pineapple.
Pacific Science 5, 3–17.
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