chapter 10 agriculture. quick review primary economic activities: closest to the ground, for...

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Chapter 10 Agriculture

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Post on 03-Jan-2016




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  • Chapter 10Agriculture

  • Quick ReviewPrimary Economic Activities: Closest to the ground, for exampleagriculture, ranching, fishing, mining etc.Secondary Economic Activities: take a primary product and manufacture itchange it into something else such as toys, ships, processed food, buildingsetc.Tertiary Economic Activities: Part of the service industry. Bankers, lawyers, teachers, doctors, salespeople etc.

  • First Agricultural RevolutionThe planned cultivation of seed crops.Sowing, watering, harvestingFertile Crescent

  • Subsistence Agriculture in the Modern World

  • What does subsistence farming mean?In the strictest senseonly grow enough to surviveToday we use it to describe societies where farmers, with small plots sometimes sell a few pounds of grain on the market, but where poverty is a way of life

  • Second Agricultural RevolutionSimilar to the Industrial Revolution in that this was composed of a series of innovations, improvements, and techniques that would generate the kinds of surpluses needed to feed thousands of people who worked the factories instead of the fields.

  • Von Thnen's Model of Land Use Early in the 19th century Johann Heinrich von Thnen (1783-1850) developed a model of land use that showed how market processes could determine how land in different locations would be used. Von Thnen was a skilled farmer who was knowledgeable in economics.

  • Think of a bulls eye!Nearest the town, farmers produced commodities that were perishable and commanded high prices, such as dairy products and strawberries. At this level, Von Thunen believed agriculture would be produced with a high level of intensity.

  • It is simplest to explain von Thnen's model in terms of agricultural land use but it is not limited to that land use. Suppose the land surrounding a city market can be used for: truck farms for growing tomatoes orchards for growing apples wheat farms

  • The costs for transporting the crops from these uses differ. Let bx be the cost for transporting the product of one acre of land use x a distance of one mile. Furthermore, suppose b tomatoes> bapples > bwheat

  • Let us now plot a graph in which the horizontal axis is the distance from the city and the vertical axis is the land rent that a user can pay. Consider first the land rent tomato growers can pay at various distances from the city. Farmers at greater distances can pay only a lower rent because of the higher transportation costs for hauling their product to the city.

  • Intensive or Extensive?TomatoesCornDairy productsWheatStrawberriesPotatoes

  • Pros and Cons of Genetically Modified Foodgenetically-modified foods: food plants that have been genetically altered by the addition of foreign genes to enhance a desired trait.

  • Benefits Crops Enhanced taste and quality Reduced maturation time Increased nutrients, yields, and stress tolerance Improved resistance to disease, pests, and herbicides New products and growing techniques

  • Animals Increased resistance, productivity, hardiness, and feed efficiency Better yields of meat, eggs, and milk Improved animal health and diagnostic methods

  • Environment "Friendly" bioherbicides and bioinsecticides Conservation of soil, water, and energy Bioprocessing for forestry products Better natural waste management More efficient processing

  • Society Increased food security for growing populations

  • ControversiesSafety Potential human health impacts, including allergens, transfer of antibiotic resistance markers, unknown effects Potential environmental impacts, including: unintended transfer of transgenes through cross-pollination, unknown effects on other organisms (e.g., soil microbes), and loss of flora and fauna biodiversity

  • Access and Intellectual Property Domination of world food production by a few companies Increasing dependence on industrialized nations by developing countries Biopiracy, or foreign exploitation of natural resources

  • Ethics Violation of natural organisms' intrinsic values Tampering with nature by mixing genes among species Objections to consuming animal genes in plants and vice versa Stress for animal

  • Labeling Not mandatory in some countries (e.g., United States) Mixing GM crops with non-GM products confounds labeling attempts

  • Society New advances may be skewed to interests of rich countries

  • Agribusiness: a company that exists to make money off of Agriculture

  • The Endor is it?

    Definitely watch the Bill Nye Video, and for fun watch Store Wars and The Meatrix