chapter 23: the reconstruction era to what extent did reconstruction bring african americans closer...

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Chapter 23: The Reconstruction Era To what extent did Reconstruction bring African Americans closer to full citizenship?

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  • Slide 1
  • Chapter 23: The Reconstruction Era To what extent did Reconstruction bring African Americans closer to full citizenship?
  • Slide 2
  • 23.1 Preview Suppose that you are an emancipated slave in the South at the end of the Civil War. What changes do you hope for your new life? On a separate sheet of paper/Moodle, write about three ways you imagine your life will change now that you have your freedom. Emancipated Slaves: N. Carolina, 1863.
  • Slide 3
  • 23.1 Key Terms As you complete the Reading Notes, use these terms in your answers. Reconstruction Black Codes Fifteenth Amendment Thirteenth Amendment Civil Rights Jim Crow laws Freedmen s Bureau Fourteenth Amendment
  • Slide 4
  • 23.1: Introduction: Read 23.1 to yourself and answer these questions on the back page of your packet. 1.In your own words, rewrite Lincolns excerpt from his 2 nd inaugural address in 1865. 2.What date was Lincoln shot? 3.What was the location of the assassination? 4.Who assassinated Lincoln? 5.Why did he assassinate Lincoln? 6.Who became President?
  • Slide 5
  • 23.2: Presidential Reconstruction 1.What were President Johnsons two major aims for Reconstruction? Circle the aim that was achieved by the 13 th Amendment. 1.Southern states had to create new governments that were loyal to the Union. 2.Slavery had to be abolished.
  • Slide 6
  • 23.2 Presidential Reconstruction 2. Who established the Freedmen s Bureau, and what was its purpose? List three activities of the bureau that helped it carry out its purpose. Congress established the Freedmens Bureau to assist former slaves. Possible activities: Provided food, provided medical care, helped freedmen arrange for wages and good working conditions, distributed land, provided public education.
  • Slide 7
  • 23.2: Presidential Reconstruction PurposeExample To limit the rights of freedmen. Blacks could not vote or serve on juries. To help planters find workers to replace their slaves. Freemen were required to work. If they were unemployed they could be arrested and hired out to planters. To keep freedmen at the bottom of the social order in the South. Blacks and whites were segregated in public areas. Black Codes Enacted During Presidential Reconstruction.
  • Slide 8
  • 23.3: Congressional Reconstruction 1.How did the Radical Republicans aim for Reconstruction differ from President Johnsons? What two laws passed by Congress helped them achieve this aim? Answer: Radical Republicans wanted freedmen to be granted the full rights of citizenship. Congress extended the life of the Freedmen s Bureau and enacted the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which gave blacks the same civil rights as whites.
  • Slide 9
  • Military Reconstruction Districts, 1870
  • Slide 10
  • 23.3: Congressional Reconstruction Congress and President Johnson had a/an ________________ relationship. adversarial Johnson opposed the 14 th Amendment and wanted Republican lawmakers thrown out of office. Congress passed the Military Reconstruction Act over Johnson s veto.
  • Slide 11
  • 23.3: Congressional Reconstruction 3. Why did the House of Representatives impeach President Johnson? What was the outcome of the impeachment trial? President Johnson was impeached because he fired an official who was protected under the Tenure of Office Act and because the House felt he had brought the office of president into disgrace. He was spared removal from office by ONE vote.
  • Slide 12
  • 23.3: Congressional Reconstruction 4. Why did many sharecroppers end up in poverty and debt? Sharecroppers had to borrow money from plantation owners to buy the supplies they needed. Few earned enough money to pay back what they owed.
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • 23.4: Southern Reconstruction 1. Who was banned by Congress from voting, and who were the three groups of new voters in the South? Write each answer on top of the appropriate symbol. Confederates White southerners who opposed the war. Freedmen Northerners who had moved South after the war.
  • Slide 15
  • 23.4 Southern Reconstruction Republicans learned that for a political party to keep control of the White House, it needed African American votes. 2. What important lesson did Republicans learn in the 1868 presidential election of Ulysses S. Grant?
  • Slide 16
  • 23.4 Southern Reconstruction Changes Under Southern Reconstruction. 15 th Amendment New State Constitutions New State Governments African Americans in Office This constitutional amendment guaranteed every male citizen the right to vote, regardless of race. New state constitutions were written throughout the South guaranteeing such rights as voting and free public education. New state governments were composed primarily of Republicans, including many African Americans, who ratified the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments and built roads, hospitals, and schools. African Americans served in every Southern state legislature and in both houses of Congress and held high offices in three states.
  • Slide 17
  • Reconstruction Video Link Reconstruction - American Civil War - HISTORY.com
  • Slide 18
  • 23.5: The End of Reconstruction Many southerners hated seeing blacks voting & holding public office. Southern Democrats tried to use legal means to keep blacks from voting or taking office. Whites used violence to drive blacks from political life. Congress passed the Enforcement Acts, making it illegal to prevent someone from voting through bribery, force, or scare tactics. President Grant sent troops to the South to enforce the acts, but people were still afraid to speak out against the violence being directed at blacks.
  • Slide 19
  • 23.5: The End of Reconstruction 2. What was the dispute in the presidential election of 1876? How was it resolved? Republican candidate Hayes received more electoral votes than Democratic candidate Tilden. Twenty electoral votes were in dispute, and Congress awarded these to Hayes, which outraged Democrats.
  • Slide 20
  • 23.5: The End of Reconstruction 2. How was it resolved? The election was resolved by compromise: Hayes was allowed to take office if he promised to withdraw remaining federal troops from the South.
  • Slide 21
  • 23.5: The End of Reconstruction 2. How was it resolved? The compromise was a DISASTER for blacks. Democrats quickly returned the South to white man s rule.
  • Slide 22
  • Compromise of 1877 Video Link
  • Slide 23
  • 23.6: Reconstruction Reversed How did Southern Democrats reverse gains made during Reconstruction in each of these areas? EDUCATION Spending for public schools was cut, many schools closed, and others charged fees.
  • Slide 24
  • 23.6: Reconstruction Reversed How did Southern Democrats reverse gains made during Reconstruction in each of these areas? Voting Rights Many Southern states required citizens to pay a poll tax and pass a literacy test in order to vote. Both requirements excluded many African Americans from voting.
  • Slide 25
  • 23.6: Reconstruction Reversed How did Southern Democrats reverse gains made during Reconstruction in each of these areas? Segregation Democrats reintroduced segregation laws, which kept blacks and whites separate in public.
  • Slide 26
  • 23.6: Reconstruction Reversed 2. Make a sketch to illustrate the results of Plessy vs. Ferguson. Include a caption that explains the Supreme Courts decision in the case and the consequences of that decision. Sketches might show some form of segregation. Possible caption: In Plessy v. Ferguson, the Supreme Court ruled that separate facilities, as long as they were equal, did not violate the Constitution. However, these separate facilities often favored whites over blacks.
  • Slide 27
  • 23.7: Responding to Segregation List two factors that pushed African Americans out of the South after Reconstruction and two factors that pulled them toward the North. Pull Attacks and lynching by white mobs; racism; poverty Push better opportunities; more equal treatment
  • Slide 28
  • 23.7: Responding to Segregation The North: African Americans still faced racism but could find employment. The West: African Americans faced discrimination as they moved west, but found work as cowboys and Indian fighters. The South: African Americans relied on families, churches, and communities to build businesses, provide education, and improve their lives.